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Submitted to: Sir Danish Awan
Submitted by: Shazia Ijaz
M.Phil Applied Linguistics

 The main objective of this presentation is to
investigate the role of memory in language learning.
 Its purpose is also to highlight the functions of
memory in human brain.
 Its aim is to describe the role of memory in language
comprehension and production.
Aims and Objectives


What is memory?
Memory - is the process by
which we encode , store , and
retrieve information.

 In psychology, memory is the process in which
information is encoded, stored, and retrieved.
 Encoding allows information that is from the outside
world to reach our senses in the forms of chemical and
physical stimuli. In this first stage we must change the
information so that we may put the memory into the
encoding process.
 Storage is the second memory stage or process. This
entails that we maintain information over periods of time.
 Finally the third process is the retrieval of information
that we have stored. We must locate it and return it to
our consciousness.
Introduction

 From the information processing perspective there are
three main stages in the formation and retrieval of
memory:
 Encoding or registration: receiving, processing and
combining of received information
 Storage: creation of a permanent record of the encoded
information
 Retrieval, recall or recollection: calling back the stored
information in response to some cue for use in a process
or activity
 The loss of memory is described as forgetfulness, or as a
medical disorder, amnesia.
Continue…

 Sensory memory holds sensory information for less
than one second, after an item is perceived. The
ability to look at an item, and remember what it
looked like with just a split second of observation, or
memorization, is an example of sensory memory.
 It is out of cognitive control and is an automatic
response. With very short presentations, participants
often report that they seem to "see" more than they
can actually report.
Sensory memory

 There are three types of sensory memories.
 Iconic memory is a fast decaying store of visual
information, a type of sensory memory that briefly stores
an image which has been perceived for a small duration.
 Echoic memory is a fast decaying store of auditory
information, another type of sensory memory that briefly
stores sounds that have been perceived for short
durations.
 Haptic memory is a type of sensory memory that
represents a database for touch stimuli.
Types of sensory memory

 Short-term memory allows recall for a period of
several seconds to a minute without rehearsal.
 Short-term memory is believed to rely mostly on an
acoustic code for storing information, and to a lesser
extent a visual code.
 The storage in sensory memory and short-term
memory generally has a strictly limited capacity
and duration, which means that information is not
retained indefinitely.
Short-term memory

 Long-term memory can store much larger quantities
of information for potentially unlimited duration
(sometimes a whole life span).
 Its capacity is immeasurably large. For example,
given a random seven-digit number we may
remember it for only a few seconds before forgetting,
suggesting it was stored in our short-term memory.
 On the other hand, we can remember telephone
numbers for many years through repetition; this
information is said to be stored in long-term
memory.
Long-term memory


 Up until the middle of the 1980s it was assumed that infants
could not encode, retain, and retrieve information.
 A growing body of research now indicates that infants as young
as 6-months can recall information after a 24-hour delay.
 Furthermore, research has revealed that as infants grow older
they can store information for longer periods of time; 6-month-
olds can recall information after a 24-hour period, 9-month-olds
after up to five weeks, and 20-month-olds after as long as
twelve months.
 In addition, studies have shown that with age, infants can store
information faster. Whereas 14-month-olds can recall a three-
step sequence after being exposed to it once, 6-month-olds need
approximately six exposures in order to be able to remember it.
Memory in infancy

 Although people often think that memory operates
like recording equipment, it is not the case. The
molecular mechanisms underlying the induction and
maintenance of memory are very dynamic and
comprise distinct phases covering a time window
from seconds to even a lifetime.
 In fact, research has revealed that our memories are
constructed. People can construct their memories
when they encode them and/or when they recall
them.
Memory construction and
manipulation

 Language is a means of communication, in this case human
uses language as a tool to convey the ideas and decode the
message. Human always uses language to communicate with
one another.
 Basically, there are two kinds of languages that human learned
in their life, the first language (L1) and the second language
(L2). The first language is human’s mother tongue, the
language when they firstly hear and try to acquire after they
were born. While second language is the language that they
learn after they have mastered their first language. Usually they
learn the second language in the formal school.
 The most important thing that we should notice is that we
acquire rather than learn the first language and the other way
around. When we learn the second language, memory plays the
important role.
The role of memory in learning
a language

 Memory is one of factors which can be used to predict the
performance of a student’s learning foreign language.
 There are two kinds of memories in our mind, short term
memory and long term memory.
 Short term memory or better known as working memory
plays three important roles before the messages are being
transferred to the long term memory or permanent
memory. There are three important roles of working
memory in learning language, the language processing,
namely language comprehension, language production,
and vocabulary acquisition.
Continue…

 In language comprehension, working memory provides
the temporary storage space for the information before it
is sent on in a recorded form to the long term memory.
When comprehending the interlocutor’s messages, a
person must do more than retrieve the meanings of the
individual words.
 Moreover a person must determine the relations among
the word meanings, based on the syntactic structure of
the sentence. Regarding of this fact, we need the temporal
storage to store the string of the words and then process it
so that we can comprehend the language that is being
uttered by the interlocutor including foreign language or
utterances.
Language Comprehension

 According to the famous psycholinguist, George Miller, When
people hear someone speaking they can recall five to nine
chunks of information in short period of time. These chunks of
information must be at first reordered into analysis unit before
they are held in working memory.
 In this case, when we learn language we try to remember a
chunk of the words that is being uttered by our teacher or
native speaker. These words are stored in our working
memory.
 Then, we try to not only to retrieve the meaning of the
individual words but also to determine the relations among the
word meanings, based on the syntactic structure of the
sentence. In learning a new language this process may become
long.
Language Comprehension

 In language production, working memory becomes
the place where the pronunciations of the words are
put in linear order on the basis of the syntactic and
semantic relations in the intended utterance before
the construction of a motor program that produces
the utterance.
 When we try to say something or produce the
utterance from the foreign language, certain sound
must be presented in working memory so that we
will not make error in speech.
Language Production

 Lashley (1951) gives us an example that to be able to
pronounce the sentence “Consider Reverend
Spooner'sour queer old dean in place of our dear old
queen” correctly, the /kw/ sound to be inserted in the
intended word dear, must already be presented in
working memory, waiting its turn for phonological
integration.
 This means that speech cannot be produced
by simple chaining of words one to another; rather
some overall planning must be going on in advance.
Continue…

 In acquiring the new vocabulary, working memory has a
limited-capacity that is called “phonological loop” in which
phonological material is stored, maintained in sequence, and
rehearsed.
 Neuropsychological studies have provided strong evidence
suggesting that the phonological loop plays a critical role in
vocabulary acquisition.
 The phonological loop system is specialized in storing verbal
material and is composed of two subsystems: a phonological
store and an articulatory rehearsal process.
Vocabulary Acquisition

 The phonological store receives directly and unavoidably
any information auditorily presented and stores it in
terms of a sound-based code.
 Although material in this store is subject to decay and
interference, it can be maintained and reinforced through
the articulatory rehearsal mechanism.
 The phonological store is also able to receive visually
presented items but these must first be converted into an
articulatory form before gaining access to the store. These
items are conveyed to the store by the articulatory
rehearsal process.
Continue…

 Memory has three important roles in learning a language.
 Working memory is the place where language is being
processed. Working memory provides the temporary
storage that is very useful in language comprehension
process.
 In language production, working memory becomes the
place where the pronunciations of the words are put in
linear order on the basis of the syntactic and semantic
relations in the intended utterance before the construction
of a motor program that produces the utterance.
Conclusion

 Moreover through phonological loop the new
vocabulary is being stored and rehearsed in working
memory before it is transferred to the long term
memory.
 This information is very useful to not only the
teacher who teaches the second language in formal
class but also for the independent learner who tries
to learn language. In this case they can maximize the
function of memory in learning language.
Continue…


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Role of memory in language learning

  • 1. Submitted to: Sir Danish Awan Submitted by: Shazia Ijaz M.Phil Applied Linguistics
  • 2.   The main objective of this presentation is to investigate the role of memory in language learning.  Its purpose is also to highlight the functions of memory in human brain.  Its aim is to describe the role of memory in language comprehension and production. Aims and Objectives
  • 3.
  • 4.  What is memory? Memory - is the process by which we encode , store , and retrieve information.
  • 5.   In psychology, memory is the process in which information is encoded, stored, and retrieved.  Encoding allows information that is from the outside world to reach our senses in the forms of chemical and physical stimuli. In this first stage we must change the information so that we may put the memory into the encoding process.  Storage is the second memory stage or process. This entails that we maintain information over periods of time.  Finally the third process is the retrieval of information that we have stored. We must locate it and return it to our consciousness. Introduction
  • 6.   From the information processing perspective there are three main stages in the formation and retrieval of memory:  Encoding or registration: receiving, processing and combining of received information  Storage: creation of a permanent record of the encoded information  Retrieval, recall or recollection: calling back the stored information in response to some cue for use in a process or activity  The loss of memory is described as forgetfulness, or as a medical disorder, amnesia. Continue…
  • 7.   Sensory memory holds sensory information for less than one second, after an item is perceived. The ability to look at an item, and remember what it looked like with just a split second of observation, or memorization, is an example of sensory memory.  It is out of cognitive control and is an automatic response. With very short presentations, participants often report that they seem to "see" more than they can actually report. Sensory memory
  • 8.   There are three types of sensory memories.  Iconic memory is a fast decaying store of visual information, a type of sensory memory that briefly stores an image which has been perceived for a small duration.  Echoic memory is a fast decaying store of auditory information, another type of sensory memory that briefly stores sounds that have been perceived for short durations.  Haptic memory is a type of sensory memory that represents a database for touch stimuli. Types of sensory memory
  • 9.   Short-term memory allows recall for a period of several seconds to a minute without rehearsal.  Short-term memory is believed to rely mostly on an acoustic code for storing information, and to a lesser extent a visual code.  The storage in sensory memory and short-term memory generally has a strictly limited capacity and duration, which means that information is not retained indefinitely. Short-term memory
  • 10.   Long-term memory can store much larger quantities of information for potentially unlimited duration (sometimes a whole life span).  Its capacity is immeasurably large. For example, given a random seven-digit number we may remember it for only a few seconds before forgetting, suggesting it was stored in our short-term memory.  On the other hand, we can remember telephone numbers for many years through repetition; this information is said to be stored in long-term memory. Long-term memory
  • 11.
  • 12.   Up until the middle of the 1980s it was assumed that infants could not encode, retain, and retrieve information.  A growing body of research now indicates that infants as young as 6-months can recall information after a 24-hour delay.  Furthermore, research has revealed that as infants grow older they can store information for longer periods of time; 6-month- olds can recall information after a 24-hour period, 9-month-olds after up to five weeks, and 20-month-olds after as long as twelve months.  In addition, studies have shown that with age, infants can store information faster. Whereas 14-month-olds can recall a three- step sequence after being exposed to it once, 6-month-olds need approximately six exposures in order to be able to remember it. Memory in infancy
  • 13.   Although people often think that memory operates like recording equipment, it is not the case. The molecular mechanisms underlying the induction and maintenance of memory are very dynamic and comprise distinct phases covering a time window from seconds to even a lifetime.  In fact, research has revealed that our memories are constructed. People can construct their memories when they encode them and/or when they recall them. Memory construction and manipulation
  • 14.   Language is a means of communication, in this case human uses language as a tool to convey the ideas and decode the message. Human always uses language to communicate with one another.  Basically, there are two kinds of languages that human learned in their life, the first language (L1) and the second language (L2). The first language is human’s mother tongue, the language when they firstly hear and try to acquire after they were born. While second language is the language that they learn after they have mastered their first language. Usually they learn the second language in the formal school.  The most important thing that we should notice is that we acquire rather than learn the first language and the other way around. When we learn the second language, memory plays the important role. The role of memory in learning a language
  • 15.   Memory is one of factors which can be used to predict the performance of a student’s learning foreign language.  There are two kinds of memories in our mind, short term memory and long term memory.  Short term memory or better known as working memory plays three important roles before the messages are being transferred to the long term memory or permanent memory. There are three important roles of working memory in learning language, the language processing, namely language comprehension, language production, and vocabulary acquisition. Continue…
  • 16.   In language comprehension, working memory provides the temporary storage space for the information before it is sent on in a recorded form to the long term memory. When comprehending the interlocutor’s messages, a person must do more than retrieve the meanings of the individual words.  Moreover a person must determine the relations among the word meanings, based on the syntactic structure of the sentence. Regarding of this fact, we need the temporal storage to store the string of the words and then process it so that we can comprehend the language that is being uttered by the interlocutor including foreign language or utterances. Language Comprehension
  • 17.   According to the famous psycholinguist, George Miller, When people hear someone speaking they can recall five to nine chunks of information in short period of time. These chunks of information must be at first reordered into analysis unit before they are held in working memory.  In this case, when we learn language we try to remember a chunk of the words that is being uttered by our teacher or native speaker. These words are stored in our working memory.  Then, we try to not only to retrieve the meaning of the individual words but also to determine the relations among the word meanings, based on the syntactic structure of the sentence. In learning a new language this process may become long. Language Comprehension
  • 18.   In language production, working memory becomes the place where the pronunciations of the words are put in linear order on the basis of the syntactic and semantic relations in the intended utterance before the construction of a motor program that produces the utterance.  When we try to say something or produce the utterance from the foreign language, certain sound must be presented in working memory so that we will not make error in speech. Language Production
  • 19.   Lashley (1951) gives us an example that to be able to pronounce the sentence “Consider Reverend Spooner'sour queer old dean in place of our dear old queen” correctly, the /kw/ sound to be inserted in the intended word dear, must already be presented in working memory, waiting its turn for phonological integration.  This means that speech cannot be produced by simple chaining of words one to another; rather some overall planning must be going on in advance. Continue…
  • 20.   In acquiring the new vocabulary, working memory has a limited-capacity that is called “phonological loop” in which phonological material is stored, maintained in sequence, and rehearsed.  Neuropsychological studies have provided strong evidence suggesting that the phonological loop plays a critical role in vocabulary acquisition.  The phonological loop system is specialized in storing verbal material and is composed of two subsystems: a phonological store and an articulatory rehearsal process. Vocabulary Acquisition
  • 21.   The phonological store receives directly and unavoidably any information auditorily presented and stores it in terms of a sound-based code.  Although material in this store is subject to decay and interference, it can be maintained and reinforced through the articulatory rehearsal mechanism.  The phonological store is also able to receive visually presented items but these must first be converted into an articulatory form before gaining access to the store. These items are conveyed to the store by the articulatory rehearsal process. Continue…
  • 22.   Memory has three important roles in learning a language.  Working memory is the place where language is being processed. Working memory provides the temporary storage that is very useful in language comprehension process.  In language production, working memory becomes the place where the pronunciations of the words are put in linear order on the basis of the syntactic and semantic relations in the intended utterance before the construction of a motor program that produces the utterance. Conclusion
  • 23.   Moreover through phonological loop the new vocabulary is being stored and rehearsed in working memory before it is transferred to the long term memory.  This information is very useful to not only the teacher who teaches the second language in formal class but also for the independent learner who tries to learn language. In this case they can maximize the function of memory in learning language. Continue…
  • 24.