Language delays dec 2011

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  • 1. 11/29/2011 Developed by: Angela Searcy, M.S. • Angela Searcy M.S. holds a B.A. degree in English and secondary education with teacher certification though the state of Illinois and a M.S. degree in early childhood development from Erikson Institute, with a specialization in infant studies and a credential in The Foundation for Future developmental therapy. Angela is a Diversifying in Higher Education in Illinois Fellow at Argosy University in the Doctor of Education Program Reading: Early Language • Angela is the owner and founder of Simple Solutions Educational Services, has over 20 years of experience in the field of education, is an approved professional development provider by the Illinois State Board of Education, a national literacy trainer for the Development Multisensory Training Institute (MTI) in Needham, MA, Lakeshore Learning, Carson CA and Center on the Social and Emotional Foundations for Early Learning (CSEFEL) at Vanderbilt University and an adjunct professor at Rasmussen College • A former associate at the Neuropsychology Diagnostic Center in Orland Park, Illinois, By Angela Searcy, M.S. Angela has specialized training as a neuro-developmental specialist and is a nationally recognized speaker with extensive experience working with professionals, young children, and their families as an early childhood teacher, child development specialist, staff developer, mental health consultant, parent educator, language arts teacher, college professor and tutor. Her expertise encompasses developing behavior modification programs from a neuropsychological perspective, and creating professional development grounded in neuroscience research related to adult learning. 708-845-2343 • She has been featured on Chicago Public Radio’s Chicago Matters, Chicago Parent and Chicago Baby Magazines and is a regular speaker for the Learning and the Brain Conference Sponsored by Harvard, Yale and Stanford Universities. Simple Solutions © 2011 Simple Solutions For School Success! 1-866-660-3899 What Are your Challenges? Learning Language… • At around 6 to 8 weeks of age, infants begin producing drawn out vowel sounds • Sometime between 6 and 10 months of age, infants begin to babble by repeating strings of sounds comprising a consonant followed by a vowel • Most infants produce their first words between 10-15 months of age Simple Solutions © 2011 Simple Solutions © 2011 Learning Language Continued… Red flags• On average, American children say their first • Absence of cooing or very muted in play word at around 13 months, experience a • Difficulty imitating tongue vocabulary spurt at around 19 months, and movements(raspberries)Excessive drooling after begin to produce simple sentences at around 12 months 24 months • Difficulty swallowing, chewing• 2 years olds have about 50 words, 3 year olds • Poor attention for stories, songs, directions have about 1,000 • Difficulty with word retrieval, rhyming,• Environment can impact development: articulation exposure, bilingual, parent history • Not answering to one’s own name Simple Solutions © 2011 Simple Solutions © 2011 1
  • 2. 11/29/2011 Children learn through relationships Summary of Educational Impact and sensory experiences! • More than three infections under the age of 12 months is a significant risk factor • Even without a current ear infection children can still suffer the effects of a history of conductive hearing loss • Poor ability to discriminate sounds in words and to hear words in words; difficulty chunking words into individual parts; • Language learning difficult; frequently have restricted content, vocabulary, language and confidence; • Poor foundation for literacy and without help will fall further behind every year • Socialization difficulties and behavior problems are likely Simple Solutions © 2011 Simple Solutions © 2011 Impact on Pragmatics Impact on Phonological Processing Phonological processing relates to the ability to use the sounds of aPragmatics relates to the use and functions of language for language to process oral and written language, which allows us to formcommunication. Pragmatic awareness is the knowledge ofconversational rules and includes both verbal and non-verbal phonological codes and access a word stored in our brain’s lexicon.aspects. Phonological awareness skills (explicit awareness of sound structure and(adapted from Holt & Spitz, 2000 ; Owens 1992) ability to manipulate structure of words) are dependent on phonologicalChildren with a hearing difficulties may have problems with: processing skills. • Need to hear words to learn words – to ‘map’ words to objects• Entering into a group, requesting, responding and taking turns car? ar? bar? tar? … • Absence of second sound in two-letter blend (eg frog, block)• Initiating conversations • Absence of unstressed syllable(s) (banana, dinosaur, balloon)• Understanding subtle social rules • Poor discrimination and identification of sounds• Accepting others points of view and others’ feelings• Monitoring the listener Simple Solutions © 2011 Simple Solutions © 2011 Impact on Socialization Oral Motor PlayChildren with hearing/language difficulties, however, arealso likely to present with social and emotional challengesdue to:• Their own frustration and/or the frustration of their peers • It is critical for language skills!• Avoidance• Just not “getting it” i.e. the subtleties and unwritten rules of social exchanges Simple Solutions © 2011 Simple Solutions © 2011 2
  • 3. 11/29/2011 Phonemes are sounds in words What’s Happening to the Brain? Infants, toddlers and twos haveextra wiring in the brain that helps • Samuel T. Orton “the father of dyslexia” was them process the sounds in the first to offer a neuropsychological language faster than adults explanation for dyslexia. He hypothesized less than normal activation in the left temporal region of the brain. Simple Solutions © 2011 Simple Solutions © 2011 Reading problems are just a*New • A recent study conductedResearch! at Yale University in symptom of a deeper language children with dyslexia problem between the ages 7 to 18 years provides some clues Children who have a hard time producing and is consistent with the sounds in speech often have a hard time notion that the differences in children seem to be producing those same sounds in reading presented in both brain hemispheres (Shaywitz et al., Annals of Neurology, 2007). Simple Solutions © 2011 Simple Solutions © 2011 www.overtherainbowsimplesolutions.comPhonological Awareness –Umbrella term- An understanding of the words, syllables, and FACTS sounds of language • 25-40% • 3rd Grade • 15% 3
  • 4. 11/29/2011 How do I know if a child lacks Objectives phonemic awareness?• 3 discrimination • Discriminate• 3-4 rhyme• 4-5 syllables • Sequence• 5-6 sound substitution• 5-6 blending • Manipulate• 6 segmentation• 7+ manipulation Language vs. Speech Simple Solutions © 2011 Simple Solutions © 2011 What is the difference? Language or Speech?• Language is made up of socially • Speech is the verbal means of shared rules that include the • Tommy is four years • Tanisha is two years old. communicating. Speech consists following: of the following: old, Friends and family She doesn’t make eye• What words mean (e.g., "star" can have a hard time contact when you speak • ArticulationHow speech sounds refer to a bright object in the night sky or a celebrity) are made (e.g., children must understanding what he to her. She can label learn how to produce the "r"• How to make new words (e.g., friend, sound in order to say "rabbit" is saying. He speaks objects and animals friendly, unfriendly)• How to put words together (e.g., instead of "wabbit").VoiceUse of softly, and his sounds well –but doesn’t the vocal folds and breathing to "Peg walked to the new store" rather produce sound (e.g., the voice are not clear. answer simple than "Peg walk store new")• What word combinations are best in can be abused from overuse or questions. what situations ("Would you mind misuse and can lead to moving your foot?" could quickly hoarseness or loss of change to "Get off my foot, please!" voice).FluencyThe rhythm of if the first request did not produce speech (e.g., hesitations or results) stuttering can affect fluency). Simple Solutions © 2011 Simple Solutions © 2011 4
  • 5. 11/29/2011 Strategies •Use visual aids •Use overhead •Have key vocabulary• Vary pitch, tone, and speed when talking and whenever possible accessible visually singing •Provide •Allow for breaks •Educate the class about “hearing/talking partner” language issues and hearing loss• Add movement to stories and songs •Eliminate or reduce •Reduce the distance •Face the student when extraneous noise from you to student speaking• Add sensory to activity –smell, touch, visual, motor •Appropriate use of •Advantageous seating •Repeat questions and equipment for student comments other students make• Add a visual to help children pay attention to your •Do not speak with back •Point out who is •Do not stand or sit in words—pictures or sign language faced to class speaking in class front of a bright window discussions • Use multi-sensory •Always use captioned •Use lights to get• Subgrouping—helps you to work in small groups techniques to teach films/videos classroom attention and hear a child with speech difficulties skills Simple Solutions © 2011 Simple Solutions © 2011 Teacher’s Visual Cue Cards Visual Strategies! Simple Solutions © 2011 Simple Solutions © 2011 Teacher’s Visual Cue Cards Choice Chart Simple Solutions © 2011 Simple Solutions © 2011 5
  • 6. 11/29/2011 Simple Solutions © 2011 Simple Solutions © 2011 www.overtherainbowsimplesolutions.comVisuals Of What Children AND Adults are in the Room and what how theyare this morning Daddy, Papa, This is what I can doRoom 13 Uses a Key Ring at Uptown and this is Logan Sqaure when I feel sad… Simple Solutions © 2011 Simple Solutions © 2011 Before Children come to school Simple Solutions © 2011 Simple Solutions © 2011 6
  • 7. 11/29/2011 Simple Solutions © 2011 Simple Solutions © 2011 Uptown! Uptown! 1.Stand on a square 2.Stand behind a friend 3.Catch a bubble 4. Hold on to the railing Simple Solutions © 2011 Simple Solutions © 2011 HSCI Curriculum Modifications Module JovanJovan is four years old---he is difficult to understand. He has a speech-language therapist that visits his home. You are worried that he has a hard time listening to directions and the other children don’t understand him. How can you give support Stop sign provides a visual reminder that the activity is not currently available Simple Solutions © 2011 7
  • 8. 11/29/2011HSCI Curriculum Modifications Module Simple Solutions © 2011 Simple Solutions © 2011 www.overtherainbowsimplesolutions.comHSCI Curriculum Modifications Module HSCI Curriculum Modifications Module Environmental Support Environmental Support Simple Solutions © 2011 Simple Solutions © 2011 Activity Turn Taking Cue How WE Wait –Mom/ Dad/Ya Ya! Simple Solutions © 2011 Simple Solutions © 2011 8
  • 9. 11/29/2011HSCI Curriculum Modifications Module Environmental Support Simple Solutions © 2011 Simple Solutions © 2011 Telling Isn’t Teaching Steps to Arrival Simple Solutions © 2011 Simple Solutions © 2011 Simple Solutions © 2011 Simple Solutions © 2011 9
  • 10. 11/29/2011Parent book:How I should Hang out my Coat Logan Sqaure Simple Solutions © 2011 Simple Solutions © 2011 Right Way/Wrong Way Simple Solutions © 2011 Simple Solutions © 2011 Circle Time Logan Square! Simplify the Activity Simple Solutions © 2011 From: 2011 Simple Solutions © 10
  • 11. 11/29/2011 Circle Time – Universal Design NAEYC says…Read Story While children Act it Out Environmental Support From: 2011 Simple Solutions © Simple Solutions © 2011 Simple Solutions © 2011 Simple Solutions © 2011 Fun Ideas! Sign Language!• Syllable duck duck goose, syllable “Mother may I”• Cut out animals from “Brown Bear” put them on bubble wrap and let kids jump when they hear the animal• Clap every time you hear “no david”, clap when you hear the “g” sound, or the “sh” sound• Sound rocks! Simple Solutions © 2011 Simple Solutions © 2011 11
  • 12. 11/29/2011 Muscle Memories• Sign Language "So many kids are so visual that words• Hand over hand/hand under hand just wash over them," she said. "A lot of times the more words you use,• Slowing down sequences of steps and making (sometimes) the less effective you are." it multi-sensory Simple Solutions © 2011 Simple Solutions © 2011 www.overtherainbowsimplesolutions.comBrown Bear, Brown Bear What Do You See? Basic Brain Development Simple Solutions © 2011 Simple Solutions © 2011 Fitting Instructors Need For Order to a T (or B or W) What’s this look like?? More Using Sign Language to Manage Class Without Disruption By Emma Brown Washington Post Staff Writer Friday, October 16, 2009• Teach labeling Why?? – This pairs items and actions with their defining word/ sign • "The less I speak, the more we can get done," said• What does this look like? Gwen Ward, a music teacher at William Halley• For items: Touch or point to item; Model sign; Touch or point Elementary in Fairfax Station. A 27-year veteran of to item again; Use hand-over-hand to have child produce sign the classroom, she began using sign language with• For actions: Model sign; engage in action; Use hand-over- students four years ago after teaching herself basic hand procedure to have child produce sign; Repeat action signs. In Wards room, a sideways thumb means stop what youre doing, make a better choice. "No child wants to continually hear their name called," she said. Simple Solutions © 2011 Simple Solutions © 2011 12
  • 13. 11/29/2011 Madison In my classroom, we use simple signs in a variety• Madison is 2 years old. She is very quiet and of ways. only says a three words. She cries often. How Probably my favorite way to incorporate sign can you support her and her language language in the classroom is with music. During development. my calendar time, students will sign and sing the months of the year, the days of the week, etc. I also use sign language with songs and books, such as Brown Bear. One fabulous resource that I was introduced to this summer was the Signing Time videos. These are fantastic! Simple Solutions © 2011 Simple Solutions © 2011 Add Signs to… Targeting Pragmatics• Alphabet song • What’s this look like?? • After giving child something that you know• Calendar they are wanting, take their hand to their chin • Thank you and say “Thank You” as you extend their hand in• Stories an outward motion. • Answer “Your Welcome” as you extend your hand from your chin in an outward motion• Songs Simple Solutions © 2011 Simple Solutions © 2011 Targeting Syntax Targeting Semantics • What does this look like? • Teach child to string • Child makes request; Affirm together the word ‘want’ correct use of sign for • Teach want • What does this look like? want.“Want? Amy wants?” and label of item or • Let child see you look around • Why??– this will show • When aware that child’s action that is desired with eyes. You may touch 1 or 2 that the word/sign cry, gesture, reach, or eye • Why??– this pushes child undesired objects while saying their contact is signifying that label. “want” functionally they want something to level of 2 word phrases and where syntactic skills • Touch desired item, or serves a request( saying specific, use hand over demonstrate desired action, point emerge to desired location, etc. Verbalize “want” means “I desire”) hand procedure to have “Ohh.. Want _____(label of desired child produce sign for • Learned is that the label of the requested item item or action)”. want as you say “want”. • Use hand-over-hand to have • Give child desired item follows the word “want”. child produce ‘want ________”; IMMEDIATELY after • Implement this after child respond “ok” and grant desire IMMEDIATELY. production of “want sign” effectively uses sign for want Simple Solutions © 2011 Simple Solutions © 2011 13
  • 14. 11/29/2011 Opportune moments to implement approach Let’s Practice• Anytime centered around feeding (opportunity for “want” and “thank you”).• When child is “whining” or “crying” for a highly preferred object such as pacifier, bottle, or security blanket/ stuffed animal (opportunity for ‘want’ and “thank you”• When child spontaneously points (labeling opportunity)• When child gives approaches you and gives you object (labeling opportunity) Simple Solutions © 2011 Simple Solutions © 2011 How Can We Help Children Communicate Their Feelings? More Simple Solutions © 2011 Simple Solutions © 2011 www.overtherainbowsimplesolutions.com12 Month Old Baby Signs “Cry” Instead Ticks of the Trade! Using Sign of Crying Language in the Classroom! As Educators are we teaching children multiple • ways of communicating their feelings Simple Solutions © 2011 Simple Solutions © 2011 14
  • 15. 11/29/2011 Simple Solutions © 2011 Simple Solutions © Simple Solutions © 2011 Simple Solutions © Fun ideas Simple Solutions © 2011 Simple Solutions © 15
  • 16. 11/29/2011 USE all the Senses to Teach! Jovan• You must use each of the senses to teach Jovan is four years old---he is difficult to numbers! understand. He has a speech-language• Sight/visuals therapist that visits his home. You are worried• Sounds that he has a hard time listening to directions and the other children don’t understand him.• Touch How can you give support• Smell/taste• Movement Simple Solutions © 2011 Simple Solutions © 2011 What Do You Remember??? American Speech-Language-Hearing Association. (2005). Acoustics in Educational Settings: Position Statement [Position Statement]. Available from Bess F. The minimally hearing-impaired child. Ear and Hearing, 1985; 6:43-47 Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. National Center for Birth Defects and Developmental Disabilities, Early Hearing Detection and Intervention Program. "Interesting Facts about the Deaf." DeafNet. 19 July 2008 <>. website Laughton, Joan. "Educating Children Who are Deaf or Hard of Hearing: Cochlear Implants." ERIC Clearinghouse on Disabilities and Gifted Education Reston, VA. 15 Sep. 2008 <>. “Mainstreaming the Student Who is Deaf or Hard-of-Hearing.” Guidebook. Melanie Doyle, M.Ed., Linda Dye, M.A., CCC-A Director of CCHAT Center, SanDiego. January 2002. Simple Solutions © 2011 Simple Solutions © 2011 16