Stages of children development and the related theories

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Stages of children development and the related theories

  1. 1. STAGES OF CHILDREN DEVELOPMENT AND THE RELATED THEORIES OF DEVELOPMENT : LANGUAGE BY: AMZAR NUR MURNI NOR ILLYANA
  2. 2. WHAT IS LANGUAGE?
  3. 3. DEFINING LANGUAGE • A form of communication, whether spoken, written, or signed, that is based on system of symbols. • Consists of all the words use by community and the rules for varying and combining them. • Infinite generality is the ability to produce an endless number of meaningful sentences using a finite set of words and rules. • Phonology, morphology, syntax, semantics and pragmatics.
  4. 4. HOW LANGUAGE DEVELOPS
  5. 5. INFANCY • Infant language development are crying(birth), cooing (1-2 months), babbling (6 months), making the transition from universal linguist to language-specific listener (6-12 months), using gestures (8-12 months), recognition of their names (as early as 5 months), first word spoken (10-15 months), vocabulary spurt (18 months), rapid expansion of understanding words (18- 24 months), and two-words utterance (18-24 months).
  6. 6. EARLY CHILDHOOD • Advances in phonology, morphology, syntax, semantics, and pragmatics continue in early childhood. • The transition to complex sentences begins at 2-3 years and continue through the elementary school years. • Currently, there is considerable interest in the early literacy of children.
  7. 7. MIDDLE AND LATE CHILDHOOD • Children become more analytical and logical in their approach to words and grammar. • Challs’s Model proposes 5 stages reading, ranging from birth/first grade to high school. • Current debate involving how to teach children to read focuses on the phonics approach versus the whole language approach. • Researches has found strong evidence that the phonic approach should be used in teaching children to read, especially in kindergarten and in the first grade and with struggling readers, but the children also benefits from the whole language approach.
  8. 8. • Children’s writing emerges out of scribbling. • Advances in children’s language and cognitive development provide the underpinning for improve writing. • Strategy instructions is especially effective in improving children’s writing. • Bilingual education aims to teach academic subjects to immigrants children in their native languages, while gradually adding English instruction. • Researchers have found that billingualism does not intefer with performance in either language. • Success in learning a second language is greater in childhood than adolescene.
  9. 9. ADOLESCENCE • Language changes include more effective use of words, improvement in the ability to understand metaphor, satire, and adult literary works, and improvement in writing. • Young adolescence often speaks a dialect with their peers using jargon and slangs.
  10. 10. BIOLOGICAL AND ENVIRONMENTAL INFLUENCES
  11. 11. STAGE: INFANT-TODDLER
  12. 12. “The Behaviourist Perspective” Theory • Children say their first word at 12 month of age with a range of about 8 to 18 months.(Whitehurst,1982) • By the age of 6, children are speaking in elaborate sentences and skilled conversationalist. • The first theory is “The Behaviourist Perspective”(B.F. Skinner,1957). • He proposed that language, just like any other behaviour, is acquired through operant conditioning. • As the baby makes sounds, parents reinforce those that are most like words with smiles, hugs, and speech in return. • For example, baby is babbling words.
  13. 13. • Some behaviourist rely on imitation to explain how children rapidly acquire complex utterances, such as whole sentences and phrases. • Young children do not just copy the speech of others.
  14. 14. “The Nativist Perspective” Theory • Linguist Noam Chomsky, 1957, he believes that grammatical rules are much too complex to be directly taught or independently discovered by a young child. • He argued that all children are born with a Language Acquisition Device (LAD). No matter which language children hear, they speak it in a rule-oriented fashion from the very beginning. • Careful study of children’s first word combination reveals that they do not follow grammatical rules. • Lastly, language acquisition is no longer regarded as accomplished quite as quickly as nativist theory assumes.
  15. 15. “The Interactionist Perspective” Theory • Emphasizing that innate abilities and environmental influences interact to produce children’s extraordinary language achievement. • 2-6 months  infants coo, making pleasurable vowel sounds. Around 2 months, babies begin to make vowel-like noises like cooing because of their pleasant “ooo” quality. • 4 months on  infants and parents established joined attention, and parents often verbally label what is the baby is looking at.
  16. 16. • 6-14 months  infants babble, adding consonants to the sounds of cooing period and repeating syllable.  games such as “peek-a-boo” provide practice in conversational which highlight the meaning and function of spoken words. Around 6 months, there is vowel combination such as “banaanaa”. As adult interact with infants and they listen to spoken language, babbling increases and its range of sound expand. • 7 months  babbling of hearing infant starts to include many sounds of mature spoken languages.
  17. 17. • 8-12 months infants use preverbal gesture such as showing and pointing to influence the behaviours of others. • 12 months  infants say their first recognizable word. • 18-24 months  vocabulary expands from about 15 to 200 hundred words. • 20-26 months  toddlers combine 2 words
  18. 18. STAGE: CHILDREN
  19. 19. VOCABULARY DEVELOPMENT • Researchers had discovered that they can connect a new word with an underlying concept after only a brief and counter, a process called “fast-mapping”. • Pre-schooler figure out the meanings of new words by relying on special rules, called the principle of contrast. • Pre-schooler also extend language meanings through metaphore.
  20. 20. GRAMMATICAL DEVELOPMENT • By the age of 3 ½ years, children have mastered a lot of grammatical rules but somehow committed errors called “over-regulation”. • Even though they make errors, their grasp of grammar is impressive.
  21. 21. BECOMING AN EFFECTIVE CONVERSIONALIST • At the beginning of the early childhood, they are capable of effective conversation. • They know a great deal about culturally accepted ways of adjusting speech to fit the age, sex, and social status of speakers and listeners. • Pre-schoolers communication vary considerably across context supporting language learning in the early childhood. • Adults provide subtle indirect feedback about grammar by using two techniques (expansion and recast). • Adults respond to children’s nature desire to become competence speaker by listening, elaborate, estamulate them to talk further.
  22. 22. STAGE: ADOLESCENT
  23. 23. • A review of research demonstrates that both oral and written language continue to develop through adulthood. • Studies show that such skills as the abilities to interpret metacognitive verbs, to make word associations, and to understand syntax improve with age. • Adolescents use emotive, connotative, and socially coded language
  24. 24. • Their socially coded language of swearing shows how conscious they are of how they are perceived linguistically. • Adolescent language development can be achieved by:  student initiative;  incorporation of prior knowledge;  inclusion of the learner's cultural context  interaction between school and society.
  25. 25. THANK YOU  Q & A SESSION

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