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Language delays new20111(1)


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Language delays new20111(1)

  1. 1. The Foundation for Future Reading: Early Language Development By Angela Searcy, 708-845-2343 Simple Solutions © 2011
  2. 2. Developed by: Angela Searcy, M.S.• Angela Searcy M.S. holds a B.A. degree in English and secondary education with teacher certification though the state of Illinois and a M.S. degree in early childhood development from Erikson Institute, with a specialization in infant studies and a credential in developmental therapy. Angela is a Diversifying in Higher Education in Illinois Fellow at Argosy University in the Doctor of Education Program• Angela is the owner and founder of Simple Solutions Educational Services, has over 20 years of experience in the field of education, is an approved professional development provider by the Illinois State Board of Education, a national literacy trainer for the Multisensory Training Institute (MTI) in Needham, MA, and Center on the Social and Emotional Foundations for Early Learning (CSEFEL) at Vanderbilt University and an adjunct professor at Rasmussen College• A former associate at the Neuropsychology Diagnostic Center in Orland Park, Illinois, Angela has specialized training as a neuro-developmental specialist and is a nationally recognized speaker with extensive experience working with professionals, young children, and their families as an early childhood teacher, child development specialist, staff developer, mental health consultant, parent educator, language arts teacher, college professor and tutor. Her expertise encompasses developing behavior modification programs from a neuropsychological perspective, and creating professional development grounded in neuroscience research related to adult learning.• She has been featured on Chicago Public Radio’s Chicago Matters, Chicago Parent and Chicago Baby Magazines and is a regular speaker for the Learning and the Brain Conference Sponsored by Harvard, Yale and Stanford Universities. Simple Solutions For School Success! 1-866-660-3899
  3. 3. What Are your Challenges? Simple Solutions © 2011
  4. 4. Learning Language…• At around 6 to 8 weeks of age, infants begin producing drawn out vowel sounds• Sometime between 6 and 10 months of age, infants begin to babble by repeating strings of sounds comprising a consonant followed by a vowel• Most infants produce their first words between 10-15 months of age Simple Solutions © 2011
  5. 5. Learning Language Continued…• On average, American children say their first word at around 13 months, experience a vocabulary spurt at around 19 months, and begin to produce simple sentences at around 24 months• 2 years olds have about 50 words, 3 year olds have about 1,000• Environment can impact development: exposure, bilingual, parent history Simple Solutions © 2011
  6. 6. Red flags• Absence of cooing or very muted in play• Difficulty imitating tongue movements(raspberries)Excessive drooling after 12 months• Difficulty swallowing, chewing• Poor attention for stories, songs, directions• Difficulty with word retrieval, rhyming, articulation• Not answering to one’s own name Simple Solutions © 2011
  7. 7. Children learn through relationships and sensory experiences! Simple Solutions © 2011
  8. 8. Summary of Educational Impact• More than three infections under the age of 12 months is a significant risk factor• Even without a current ear infection children can still suffer the effects of a history of conductive hearing loss• Poor ability to discriminate sounds in words and to hear words in words; difficulty chunking words into individual parts;• Language learning difficult; frequently have restricted content, vocabulary, language and confidence;• Poor foundation for literacy and without help will fall further behind every year• Socialization difficulties and behavior problems are likely Simple Solutions © 2011
  9. 9. Impact on PragmaticsPragmatics relates to the use and functions of language forcommunication. Pragmatic awareness is the knowledge ofconversational rules and includes both verbal and non-verbalaspects.(adapted from Holt & Spitz, 2000 ; Owens 1992)Children with a hearing difficulties may have problems with:• Entering into a group, requesting, responding and taking turns• Initiating conversations• Understanding subtle social rules• Accepting others points of view and others’ feelings• Monitoring the listener Simple Solutions © 2011
  10. 10. Impact on Phonological Processing Phonological processing relates to the ability to use the sounds of a language to process oral and written language, which allows us to form phonological codes and access a word stored in our brain’s lexicon. Phonological awareness skills (explicit awareness of sound structure and ability to manipulate structure of words) are dependent on phonological processing skills.• Need to hear words to learn words – to ‘map’ words to objects car? ar? bar? tar? …• Absence of second sound in two-letter blend (eg frog, block)• Absence of unstressed syllable(s) (banana, dinosaur, balloon)• Poor discrimination and identification of sounds Simple Solutions © 2011
  11. 11. Impact on SocializationChildren with hearing/language difficulties, however,are also likely to present with social and emotionalchallenges due to:• Their own frustration and/or the frustration of their peers• Avoidance• Just not “getting it” i.e. the subtleties and unwritten rules of social exchanges Simple Solutions © 2011
  12. 12. Oral Motor Play• It is critical for language skills! Simple Solutions © 2011
  13. 13. Phonemes are sounds in words Infants, toddlers and twos haveextra wiring in the brain that helps them process the sounds in language faster than adults Simple Solutions © 2011
  14. 14. What’s Happening to the Brain? • Samuel T. Orton “the father of dyslexia” was the first to offer a neuropsychological explanation for dyslexia. He hypothesized less than normal activation in the left temporal region of the brain. Simple Solutions © 2011
  15. 15. *New • A recent study conductedResearch! at Yale University in children with dyslexia between the ages 7 to 18 years provides some clues and is consistent with the notion that the differences in children seem to be presented in both brain hemispheres (Shaywitz et al., Annals of Neurology, 2007). Simple Solutions © 2011
  16. 16. Reading problems are just asymptom of a deeper language problemChildren who have a hard time producingsounds in speech often have a hard timeproducing those same sounds in reading Simple Solutions © 2011
  17. 17. FACTS• 25-40%• 3rd Grade• 15%
  18. 18. Phonological Awareness –Umbrella term-An understanding of the words, syllables, and sounds of language
  19. 19. How do I know if a child lacks phonemic awareness?• 3 discrimination• 3-4 rhyme• 4-5 syllables• 5-6 sound substitution• 5-6 blending• 6 segmentation• 7+ manipulation
  20. 20. Objectives• Discriminate• Sequence• Manipulate
  21. 21. Simple Solutions ©
  22. 22. Language vs. Speech Simple Solutions © 2011
  23. 23. What is the difference?• Language is made up of socially • Speech is the verbal means of shared rules that include the communicating. Speech consists following: of the following:• What words mean (e.g., "star" can • ArticulationHow speech sounds refer to a bright object in the night sky or a celebrity) are made (e.g., children must learn how to produce the "r"• How to make new words (e.g., friend, friendly, unfriendly) sound in order to say "rabbit" instead of "wabbit").VoiceUse of• How to put words together (e.g., "Peg walked to the new store" rather the vocal folds and breathing to than "Peg walk store new") produce sound (e.g., the voice• What word combinations are best in can be abused from overuse or what situations ("Would you mind misuse and can lead to moving your foot?" could quickly hoarseness or loss of change to "Get off my foot, please!" voice).FluencyThe rhythm of if the first request did not produce speech (e.g., hesitations or results) stuttering can affect fluency). Simple Solutions © 2011
  24. 24. Language or Speech?• Tommy is four years • Tanisha is two years old. old, Friends and family She doesn’t make eye have a hard time contact when you speak understanding what he to her. She can label is saying. He speaks objects and animals softly, and his sounds well –but doesn’t are not clear. answer simple questions. Simple Solutions © 2011
  25. 25. Strategies• Vary pitch, tone, and speed when talking and singing• Add movement to stories and songs• Add sensory to activity –smell, touch, visual, motor• Add a visual to help children pay attention to your words—pictures or sign language• Subgrouping—helps you to work in small groups and hear a child with speech difficulties Simple Solutions © 2011
  26. 26. •Use visual aids •Use overhead •Have key vocabularywhenever possible accessible visually•Provide •Allow for breaks •Educate the class about“hearing/talking partner” language issues and hearing loss•Eliminate or reduce •Reduce the distance •Face the student whenextraneous noise from you to student speaking•Appropriate use of •Advantageous seating •Repeat questions andequipment for student comments other students make•Do not speak with back •Point out who is •Do not stand or sit infaced to class speaking in class front of a bright window discussions• Use multi-sensory •Always use captioned •Use lights to gettechniques to teach films/videos classroom attentionskills Simple Solutions © 2011
  27. 27. Visual Strategies! Simple Solutions © 2011
  28. 28. Teacher’s Visual Cue Cards Simple Solutions © 2011
  29. 29. Teacher’s Visual Cue Cards Simple Solutions © 2011
  30. 30. Choice Chart Simple Solutions ©
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  33. 33. Visuals Of What Children AND Adults are in the Room and what how theyare this morningRoom 13 Uses a Key Ring at Uptown and this is Logan Sqaure Simple Solutions © 2011
  34. 34. Daddy, Papa, This is what I can do when I feel sad… Simple Solutions © 2011
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  36. 36. Before Children come to school Simple Solutions © 2011
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  39. 39. Uptown! Simple Solutions ©
  40. 40. Uptown! 1.Stand on a square2.Stand behind a friend 3.Catch a bubble 4. Hold on to the railing Simple Solutions © 2011
  41. 41. HSCI Curriculum Modifications Module Stop sign provides a visual reminder that the activity is not currently available Simple Solutions © 2011
  42. 42. HSCI Curriculum Modifications Module Simple Solutions © 2011
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  44. 44. HSCI Curriculum Modifications Module Environmental Support Simple Solutions © 2011
  45. 45. HSCI Curriculum Modifications Module Environmental Support Simple Solutions © 2011
  46. 46. Activity Turn Taking Cue Simple Solutions © 2011
  47. 47. How WE Wait –Mom/ Dad/Ya Ya! Simple Solutions © 2011
  48. 48. HSCI Curriculum Modifications Module Environmental Support Simple Solutions © 2011
  49. 49. Simple Solutions ©
  50. 50. Telling Isn’t Teaching Simple Solutions © 2011
  51. 51. Steps to Arrival Simple Solutions © 2011
  52. 52. Simple Solutions ©
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  54. 54. Parent book:How I should Hang out my Coat Simple Solutions © 2011
  55. 55. Logan Sqaure Simple Solutions ©
  56. 56. Right Way/Wrong Way Simple Solutions © 2011
  57. 57. Simple Solutions ©
  58. 58. Logan Square! Simple Solutions © 2011
  59. 59. Circle Time Simplify the ActivityFrom: www.headstartinclusion.org2011 Simple Solutions ©
  60. 60. Circle Time – Universal Design Environmental SupportFrom: www.headstartinclusion.org2011 Simple Solutions ©
  61. 61. NAEYC says…Read Story While children Act it Out Simple Solutions © 2011
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  64. 64. Fun Ideas!• Syllable duck duck goose, syllable “Mother may I”• Cut out animals from “Brown Bear” put them on bubble wrap and let kids jump when they hear the animal• Clap every time you hear “no david”, clap when you hear the “g” sound, or the “sh” sound• Sound rocks! Simple Solutions © 2011
  65. 65. Sign Language! Simple Solutions © 2011
  66. 66. Muscle Memories• Sign Language• Hand over hand/hand under hand• Slowing down sequences of steps and making it multi-sensory Simple Solutions © 2011
  67. 67."So many kids are so visual that wordsjust wash over them," she said. "A lot oftimes the more words you use,(sometimes) the less effective you are." Simple Solutions © 2011
  68. 68. Brown Bear, Brown Bear What Do You See? Simple Solutions © 2011
  69. 69. Basic Brain Development Simple Solutions © 2011
  70. 70. What’s this look like??• Teach labeling Why?? – This pairs items and actions with their defining word/ sign• What does this look like?• For items: Touch or point to item; Model sign; Touch or point to item again; Use hand-over-hand to have child produce sign• For actions: Model sign; engage in action; Use hand-over- hand procedure to have child produce sign; Repeat action Simple Solutions © 2011
  71. 71. Fitting Instructors Need For Order to a T (or B or W) More Using Sign Language to Manage Class Without Disruption By Emma Brown Washington Post Staff Writer Friday, October 16, 2009• "The less I speak, the more we can get done," said Gwen Ward, a music teacher at William Halley Elementary in Fairfax Station. A 27-year veteran of the classroom, she began using sign language with students four years ago after teaching herself basic signs. In Wards room, a sideways thumb means stop what youre doing, make a better choice. "No child wants to continually hear their name called," she said. Simple Solutions © 2011
  72. 72. Madison• Madison is 2 years old. She is very quiet and only says a three words. She cries often. How can you support her and her language development. Simple Solutions © 2011
  73. 73. In my classroom, we use simple signs in a variety of ways. Probably my favorite way to incorporate sign language in the classroom is with music. Duringmy calendar time, students will sign and sing the months of the year, the days of the week, etc. I also use sign language with songs and books,such as Brown Bear. One fabulous resource that I was introduced to this summer was the Signing Time videos. These are fantastic! Simple Solutions © 2011
  74. 74. Add Signs to…• Alphabet song• Calendar• Stories• Songs Simple Solutions © 2011
  75. 75. Targeting Pragmatics • What’s this look like?? • After giving child something that you know they are wanting, take• Thank you their hand to their chin and say “Thank You” as you extend their hand in an outward motion. • Answer “Your Welcome” as you extend your hand from your chin in an outward motion Simple Solutions © 2011
  76. 76. Targeting Syntax • What does this look like?• Teach child to string • Child makes request; Affirm correct use of sign for together the word ‘want’ want.“Want? Amy wants?” and label of item or • Let child see you look around action that is desired with eyes. You may touch 1 or 2• Why??– this pushes child undesired objects while saying their label. to level of 2 word phrases • Touch desired item, or and where syntactic skills demonstrate desired action, point emerge to desired location, etc. Verbalize• Learned is that the label “Ohh.. Want _____(label of desired item or action)”. of the requested item • Use hand-over-hand to have follows the word “want”. child produce ‘want ________”;• Implement this after child respond “ok” and grant desire effectively uses sign for IMMEDIATELY. want Simple Solutions © 2011
  77. 77. Targeting Semantics• Teach want • What does this look like?• Why??– this will show • When aware that child’s that the word/sign cry, gesture, reach, or eye contact is signifying that “want” functionally they want something serves a request( saying specific, use hand over “want” means “I desire”) hand procedure to have child produce sign for want as you say “want”. • Give child desired item IMMEDIATELY after production of “want sign” Simple Solutions © 2011
  78. 78. Opportune moments to implement approach• Anytime centered around feeding (opportunity for “want” and “thank you”).• When child is “whining” or “crying” for a highly preferred object such as pacifier, bottle, or security blanket/ stuffed animal (opportunity for ‘want’ and “thank you”• When child spontaneously points (labeling opportunity)• When child gives approaches you and gives you object (labeling opportunity) Simple Solutions © 2011
  79. 79. Let’s Practice Simple Solutions ©
  80. 80. More Simple Solutions ©
  81. 81. How Can We Help ChildrenCommunicate Their Feelings? Simple Solutions © 2011
  82. 82. 12 Month Old Baby Signs “Cry” Instead of CryingAs Educators are we teaching children multiple ways of communicating their feelings Simple Solutions © 2011
  83. 83. Ticks of the Trade! Using Sign Language in the Classroom!• Simple Solutions © 2011
  84. 84. Fun ideas Simple Solutions ©
  85. 85. USE all the Senses to Teach!• You must use each of the senses to teach numbers!• Sight/visuals• Sounds• Touch• Smell/taste• Movement Simple Solutions © 2011
  86. 86. JovanJovan is four years old---he is difficult to understand. He has a speech-language therapist that visits his home. You are worried that he has a hard time listening to directions and the other children don’t understand him. How can you give support Simple Solutions © 2011
  87. 87. What Do You Remember??? Simple Solutions © 2011
  88. 88. American Speech-Language-Hearing Association. (2005). Acoustics in EducationalSettings: Position Statement [Position Statement]. Available from F. The minimally hearing-impaired child. Ear and Hearing, 1985; 6:43-47Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. National Center for Birth Defects andDevelopmental Disabilities, Early Hearing Detection and Intervention Program."Interesting Facts about the Deaf." DeafNet. 19 July 2008 <>. websiteLaughton, Joan. "Educating Children Who are Deaf or Hard of Hearing: Cochlear Implants." ERIC Clearinghouse on Disabilities and Gifted Education Reston, VA. 15 Sep. 2008 <>.“Mainstreaming the Student Who is Deaf or Hard-of-Hearing.” Guidebook. Melanie Doyle, M.Ed., Linda Dye, M.A., CCC-A Director of CCHAT Center, SanDiego. January 2002. Simple Solutions © 2011