Foundations

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Foundations

  1. 1. Infant/Toddler Learning & Development Foundations Introduction to EDUU 326: Infant/Toddler Care and Education
  2. 2. California Infant/Toddler Websites <ul><li>California Infant/Toddler Learning and Development Foundations Website - http://www.cde.ca.gov/sp/cd/re/itfoundations.asp </li></ul><ul><li>California Infant/Toddler Learning and Development Foundations Website Introduction - http://www.cde.ca.gov/sp/cd/re/itf09intro.asp </li></ul><ul><li>California Infant/Toddler Learning and Development Foundations pdf - http://www.cde.ca.gov/sp/cd/re/documents/itfoundations2009.pdf </li></ul><ul><li>Summary - http://www.cde.ca.gov/sp/cd/re/itf09appendix.asp </li></ul>
  3. 3. Foundations: Guiding Principles <ul><li>Family, culture, and language play a central role in early learning and development </li></ul><ul><li>Infancy </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Unique stage of life </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Important in its own right </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Three distinctive age periods </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Birth to 8 months </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>8 months to 18 months </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>18 months to 36 months </li></ul></ul></ul>
  4. 4. More Guiding Principles <ul><li>Competent yet vulnerable at every stage of development </li></ul><ul><li>Emotions drive early learning </li></ul><ul><li>Learn holistically and not by one developmental domain at a time </li></ul><ul><li>Add competencies to similar competencies </li></ul><ul><li>Combine new knowledge and abilities with existing knowledge and abilities </li></ul>
  5. 5. Overview of the Foundations <ul><li>Social-Emotional Development Domain </li></ul><ul><li>Language Development Domain </li></ul><ul><li>Cognitive Development Domain </li></ul><ul><li>Perceptual and Motor Development Domain </li></ul>
  6. 6. Social-Emotional Development <ul><li>Interactions with Adults </li></ul><ul><li>Relationships with Adults </li></ul><ul><li>Interactions with Peers </li></ul><ul><li>Relationship with Peers </li></ul><ul><li>Identity of Self in Relation to Others </li></ul><ul><li>Recognition of Ability </li></ul><ul><li>Expression of Emotion </li></ul><ul><li>Empathy </li></ul><ul><li>Emotion Regulation </li></ul><ul><li>Impulse Control </li></ul><ul><li>Social Understanding </li></ul>
  7. 7. Social Emotional Competencies I <ul><li>Interactions with Adults: The child’s developing ability to respond to social cues from adults and engage in back-and-forth social exchanges with adults </li></ul><ul><li>Relationships with Adults: The child’s development of close relationships with adults who provide consistent nurturance </li></ul><ul><li>Interactions with Peers: The child’s developing ability to respond to social overtures from peers, engage in back-and-forth interaction with other children, and, ultimately, to engage in cooperative play with other children </li></ul><ul><li>Relationships with Peers: The child’s development of relationships with certain peers through interactions over time </li></ul>
  8. 8. Social Emotional Competencies II <ul><li>Identity of Self in Relation to Others: The child’s developing concept of self as an individual who operates within social relationships </li></ul><ul><li>Recognition of Ability: The child’s developing understanding of the ability to take action to influence the immediate social and physical environments </li></ul><ul><li>Expression of Emotion: The child’s developing ability to communicate various emotions through facial expressions, movements, gestures, sounds, or words </li></ul><ul><li>Empathy: The child’s developing ability to share in the emotional experiences of others </li></ul>
  9. 9. Social Emotional Competencies III <ul><li>Emotion Regulation: The child’s developing ability to manage or regulate emotional responses with and without assistance from adults </li></ul><ul><li>Impulse Control: The child’s developing capacity to wait for needs to be met, to inhibit behavior, and to act according to social expectations, including safety rules </li></ul><ul><li>Social Understanding: The child’s developing understanding of the responses, communication, emotional expressions, and actions of other people </li></ul>
  10. 10. Infant Social Emotional Development <ul><li>Need what they need when they need it </li></ul><ul><li>Studies show that when infants needs are met quickly, the infant cries less often </li></ul><ul><li>At 6-8 months, infants begin to have more control over their actions </li></ul><ul><li>Between 10-12 months, infants begin to realize that caregivers don’t approve of some of the things they do </li></ul><ul><li>A caregiver’s tone of voice or firm “no” can help infants learn the limits. </li></ul>From CDA Module
  11. 11. Language Development Domains <ul><li>Receptive Language: The child’s developing ability to understand words and increasingly complex utterances </li></ul><ul><li>Expressive Language: The child’s developing ability to produce the sounds of language, and speak with an increasingly expansive vocabulary and use increasingly complex utterances </li></ul><ul><li>Communication Skills and Knowledge: The child’s developing ability to communicate nonverbally and verbally </li></ul><ul><li>Interest in Print: The child’s developing interest in engaging with print in books and in the environment </li></ul>
  12. 12. Infant Communication <ul><li>Natural drive to communicate begins at birth </li></ul><ul><li>Newborn cries are a reflex. </li></ul><ul><li>Crying lets someone know of their needs. </li></ul><ul><li>Communicate with smiles and cooing when they see a familiar face. </li></ul><ul><li>Learn about the give and take in conversation when caregivers respond to them. </li></ul><ul><li>Begin to make sounds when they point to objects or when they want to be picked up. </li></ul>From CDA Module
  13. 13. Cognitive Development <ul><li>Cause and Effect </li></ul><ul><li>Spatial Relationships </li></ul><ul><li>Problem Solving </li></ul><ul><li>Imitation </li></ul><ul><li>Memory </li></ul><ul><li>Number Sense </li></ul><ul><li>Classification </li></ul><ul><li>Symbolic Play </li></ul><ul><li>Attention Maintenance </li></ul><ul><li>Understanding of Personal Care Routines </li></ul>
  14. 14. Cognitive Competencies I <ul><li>Cause-and-Effect: The child’s developing understanding that one event or action brings about another </li></ul><ul><li>Spatial Relationships: The child’s developing understanding of how things move and fit in space </li></ul><ul><li>Problem Solving: The child’s developing ability to engage in a purposeful effort to reach a goal or to determine how something works </li></ul><ul><li>Imitation: The child’s developing capacity to mirror, repeat, and practice the actions of others, either immediately or at a later time </li></ul>
  15. 15. Cognitive Competencies II <ul><li>Memory: The child’s developing ability to store and later retrieve information </li></ul><ul><li>Number Sense: The child’s developing understanding of number or quantity </li></ul><ul><li>Classification: The child’s developing ability to group, sort, categorize, and form expectations based on the attributes of objects and people </li></ul><ul><li>Symbolic Play: The child’s developing ability to use actions, objects, or ideas to represent other actions, objects, or ideas </li></ul>
  16. 16. Cognitive Competencies III <ul><li>Attention Maintenance: The child’s developing ability to attend to people and things while interacting with others or exploring the environment and play materials </li></ul><ul><li>Understanding of Personal Care Routines: The child’s developing ability to understand personal care routines and participate in them </li></ul>
  17. 17. Infant Learning <ul><li>Learn through everyday experiences </li></ul><ul><li>Think through daily routines </li></ul><ul><li>Explore through mouthing, dropping, banging, squeezing, etc. </li></ul><ul><li>Learn “object permanence” – Object exists even when it’s out of sight </li></ul><ul><li>Begin to understand cause and effect </li></ul><ul><li>Learn how to use one object to get another </li></ul>From CDA Module
  18. 18. Perceptual and Motor Development <ul><li>Perceptual Development: The child’s developing ability to become aware of the immediate social and physical environments through the senses </li></ul><ul><li>Gross Motor: The child’s developing ability to move and coordinate large muscles </li></ul><ul><li>Fine Motor: The child’s developing ability to move and coordinate small muscles </li></ul>
  19. 19. Physical Development for Young Infants <ul><li>Do not have control over how they move </li></ul><ul><li>Some kicking, squirming, wiggling is random, without purpose </li></ul><ul><li>Reflexive movements – automatic </li></ul><ul><li>Begin to gain control over how they move </li></ul><ul><li>Develop at different rates </li></ul><ul><li>Gross motor skills come before fine motor skills </li></ul>From CDA Module
  20. 20. Physical Development <ul><li>Follow head to toe general pattern </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Lift Head </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Sit </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Crawl </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Walk </li></ul></ul>Lift Head Sit Walk Crawl From CDA Module
  21. 21. The Early Months <ul><li>Begin to engage the world and the people in it </li></ul><ul><li>Motivated to explore and communicate </li></ul><ul><li>Active participants in their own development </li></ul><ul><li>Move their bodies </li></ul><ul><li>Focus their attention </li></ul><ul><li>Send and receive signals </li></ul><ul><li>Seek relationships </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Build knowledge </li></ul></ul>
  22. 22. The Newborn <ul><li>Connect internal sensory experiences to movements of their bodies – “explore” </li></ul><ul><li>Make discoveries about their bodies – using their head, eyes, mouth, arms, and legs </li></ul><ul><li>Use their senses to learn about people and things </li></ul><ul><li>Primarily use vision – eye to eye connection with adults </li></ul>From CDA Module
  23. 23. Three to Four Months <ul><li>Pathways of hearing and sight shaping the brain </li></ul><ul><li>Increasingly sensitive to sounds of language </li></ul><ul><li>Begin to use a variety of ways to understand and relate to the world around them </li></ul><ul><li>Create basic categories – things that move, things that don’t, hard/soft </li></ul><ul><li>Show differentiated social-emotional behavior </li></ul><ul><li>More skilled at reading others and altering their responses </li></ul>
  24. 24. Four Month Old Infant <ul><li>Will send clear messages </li></ul><ul><li>Will be become quiet in anticipation as someone comes to care for them </li></ul><ul><li>Seeks adults’ attention with smiles and laughter </li></ul><ul><li>Participates in extended back and forth interactions with others </li></ul><ul><li>Engages in simple social imitation </li></ul>
  25. 25. Needs of Infants <ul><li>Young Infant </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Birth to 8 months </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Needs Security </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Mobile Infant </li></ul><ul><ul><li>6-8 months </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Needs Opportunity for Exploration </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Needs Security </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Older Infant </li></ul><ul><ul><li>16-36 months </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Forming his/her own Identity </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Needs Exploration </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Needs Security </li></ul></ul>From PITC
  26. 26. Universal Design for Learning <ul><li>Make the environment, play materials, activities, and experiences accessible to all children </li></ul><ul><li>Provides multiple approaches to learning to meet the needs of diverse learners </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Multiple means of representation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Multiple means of engagement </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Multiple means of expression </li></ul></ul>
  27. 27. Multiple Approaches <ul><ul><li>Multiple means of representation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Provide information in a variety of ways so the learning needs of all children are met. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Multiple means of engagement </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Provide children with choices within the setting that facilitate learning by building on children’s interests. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Multiple means of expression </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Allow children to use alternative ways to communicate or demonstrate what they know or what they are feeling. </li></ul></ul></ul>

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