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Explicitation SIMPLIFICATION 7.2. Baker’s Features of Translation The idea that translators subconsciously simplify the language or message or both The tendency to spell th ings out in translation, i ncluding in its simplest form, t he practice of adding background information.
The tendency to conform to patterns and practices that are typical of the target language, even the point of exaggerating them. the tendency of translated text to gravitate around the centre of any continuum rather than move towards the fringes Cont’ Normalisation or Conservatism Levelling Out
7.2.1. Are Translation Feature s Universal? Baker (1993)
explains universal features of translation as being “features which typically occur in translated text rather than original utterances and which are not the result of interference from specific linguistics systems”.
The universal features of translation concern simplification, explicitation, normalization and levelling out.
I nvolves adding material in the target text that is implicit in the source text.
It means that the translator expands the target text by inserting additional words to be more explicit on a number of levels than non-translated texts
Explicitation is observed in the way in which cultural information is spelled out for target-language readers who would not be familiar with the cultural references of the source text.
Example of Explicitation:
SL: “ Bodies stripped bare, mutilated and left to rot in the sun”.
TL: “Tubuh mereka ditelanjangi dan dipotong-potong dan
dibiarkan membusuk di terik matahari”
The above sentence demonstrates additional words to
make the meaning clear without altering the
t he word mereka is added to point whose bodies that
are stripped , dipotong-potong as a reduplication word
of Indonesian refers to mutilated , and terik matahari
is to clarify the hotness of the sun where the bodies
left to rot in.
It was done in order to get a better and exact
perceptive dealing with what actually say in the
scene . Therefore, the TL is in an accurate sense in
such a way.
7.2.3. Normalization or Conservatism Baker (1996:176-7) “ T he tendency to conform to patterns and practices w hich are typical of the target language, even to the point of exaggerating them. In this way, translation uses language in a more conventional or normalized way than non- translated texts ”
Normalization or conservatism refers to concepts of ‘domesticating ’ (keeping the form) and ‘ foreignizing ’ (adapting the meaning) translation. L. Venuti (1995:19-20)
Example of Normalization
Concept of Domestication :
SL : “He was killed in the war”
TL : Dia gugur di medan perang
Concept of foreignization :
SL : as white as snow
TL : seputih salju
This phenomenon is reflected in various strategies including the breaking up o f long sentences, omission of redundant or repeated information , shortening of complex collocations, etc.
Source language : “…trees will come back to live here. Young trees, wild trees .”
Target language : “… pohon-pohon muda liar akan hidup disini.”
7.2.5. L EVELLING OUT
The tendency of translated text to
gravitate towards the centre of a
continuum rather than move towards the
fringes (Baker 1996: 184).
Laviosa (1998c) shows low variance in
both translational and non-translational
7.2.6. CO-OCCURRENCE OF FEATURES
Co-occurrence is occurrence of the two terms
from a text corpus along side each other in a
certain order ( www.wikipedia.com )
In their study of the optional reporting that ,
Olohan and Baker (2000) state linguistics
literature on use and omission of that with range
of verbs indicates omission to be more likely in
Olohan and Baker (2000)
Olohan (2003) - in the framework of
both explicitation and normali z ation - contracted forms in translated fiction and biography text (a subset of the TEC) compared with non-translation (a subset of the imaginative writing section of the BNC).
BNC text are more likely to omit that
and use contractions; the TEC text are more likely to include that and not use contractions.
The universal features of translation is viewed as a language activity which is different from original text productions and translation itself presents features explicitation, simplification, normalization and levelling out different from those of original language as well.