BASIL HATIM1. Textual Product -> Discours Context
“Text” seen as “language in use” and “context” as “socio structure”
2. Skopos theory
It provides an insight into the nature of translation as a purposeful activity,
which is directly applicable to every translation project
3 Basic Types of Text
1. Informative text, which convey information
2. Expressive text which communicate thoughts in a creative way
3. Operative text which persuade
Translator Engagement in Interaction Schematic
4. Intercultural meditation
= Linguistic + Sociological
= Cognitive + Social Science
= Quantitative + Qualitative
AMPARO HUTARDO ALBIR + FABIO ALVES
6 Chronological Models
1. Interpretive Theory of Translation (ITT)
2. Bell’s Linguistic & Psycolinguistic Model
3. Kiraly’s socio-logical & Psycological Model
4. Wils’s decision making model
5. Gut on relevance Theory
6. Gile’s Effort Model 3 PHASES OF TRANSLATION/INTERPRETATING
Translator as re-enunciator
1. Machine Translation
2. Corpus Lingustics
3. Translation Memory System
5. Controlled Language
Transformation in the commercial translation section
A. Pseudo Translation
B. Adequacy objective of Practice
C. Adequacy of Theory
DEFINITIONS OF TRANSLATION
1.The Act or an instance of translating --- Process
2.A Written or spoken expression of the meaning of a word, speech, etc.
In another language --- Product
The First of this senses
related to translation as a
encompases very distict
An Incredibly broad notion which can be understood in many different
For exemples, one may talk of translation as a process or a product, and
identify such sub-types as literary translation, technical translation,
and machine translation; moreover, while more typically it just refers to
transfer or written texts, the term sometimes also interpreting.
There are 3 kinds of translation of the verbal sign :
1.Intralingual Translation or Rewording is interpretation of verbal sign
by means of other sign of the same language.
2.Interlingual Translation = Translation Proper is interpretation of
verbal sign by means of other sign of the some other language.
3.Intersemiotic Translation = Transmutation is interpretation of verbal
sign by means of other sign of non verbal system.
James Holmes The difference between : Translation,Adaptation, Version
It talks of Translation as :
A Process : What happens in the act of translating the ST
A Product : Analusis of TT
A Function : How the TT operates in a particular context
Jakonbson categorized translation into three types:
1.Intralingual translation or rewarding is an interpretation of verbal
signs of other signs of the same language.
2.Intralingual translation or translation proper is an interpretation
of verbal signs by means of some other language
3.Intersemiotic translation of transmision is an interpretation of
verbal signs by means of signs of non-verbal signs systems.
Typology of Jakobson (1959/2000)
A danish restaurant receives many international
guests and commissions a translator to translate its
Danish’s menu into English.
Stages of Translation Theory
The linguistic stage
(up to 1950’s)
stage (around 2000)
Munday in Munday
(ed) (2009): p 1-35
•Equivalence at word level
•Equivalence above word level
-Thematic & Information Structures
•The unit of translation
•The analysis of meaning
•Textual pragmatics and equivalence
•Translation and relevance
Baker, M. (2006). In Other Words. A coursebook on translation. New York:
Hatim, B and Munday, J. (2004). Translation. An advanced resource book. New
Munday, J. (2008). Introducing translation studies. Theories and applications. 2nd
ed. New York: Routledge.
Munday, J. (ed.). (2009). The routledge companion to translation studies. New
Newmark, P. (1988). A textbook of translation. New York: Prentice Hall.
Venuti, L. and Baker, M. (Eds.). (2000). The translation studies reader. London:
Routledge & Kegan.