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A presentation on
Code-switching
Prepared by :Mojahid Billah
ID No:UG07-26-12-011
Prepared for: Afroza Aziz Sochuna
Assist...
The emergence of code switching
The history of code switching research in sociocultural linguistics is often
dated from Bl...
Code-switching in itself is perhaps not a
linguistic phenomenon, but rather a psychological one,
and its causes are obviou...
What is Code Switching?
The term code switching (or, as it is sometimes written, code-switching or
code switching)is broad...
Reasons for Code-Switching
In some situations, code-switching is done deliberately to exclude a
person from a conversation...
code switching is seen as the medium to convey both social and
linguistic meanings. According to Gumperz (pg. 144, 1982) l...
code switching can also be listed according to the functions that
they try to accomplish. Among these, the following ten f...
Communication
to ease communication, utilizing the shortest
and the easiest route to communicate more
effectively to estab...
Some example of code switching
While observing the classrooms few queries and statements of the
learners are noted down, s...
0
0.1
0.2
0.3
0.4
0.5
0.6
0.7
0.8
0.9
possitive negetive
Impact of code switching on
people:
Attitude
The term attitude is itself very difficult to
comprehend. There are many definitions of
attitude proposed by diff...
Attitudes about Code Switching
Within the world of languages use, code-switching has often been
perceived as being of lowe...
Myers –Scotton (2006) defines attitude as “ subjective evaluation of both language
varieties and their speakers. “many peo...
Grosjean :experienced that many bilinguals have the feeling that
they change personality ,when they change language (cf.19...
Conclusion
Thus, it can be concluded that there are many
reasons why code switching takes place in
particular social conte...
Code switching-reason
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Code switching-reason

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code-switching .reason and attitude towards cs

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Code switching-reason

  1. 1. A presentation on Code-switching Prepared by :Mojahid Billah ID No:UG07-26-12-011 Prepared for: Afroza Aziz Sochuna Assistant Professor Department of English State university of Bangladesh
  2. 2. The emergence of code switching The history of code switching research in sociocultural linguistics is often dated from Bloom and Gumperz’s (1972) “Social meaning in linguistic structures” . However, by 1972 the term “code switching” was well attested in the literature, and several studies in linguistic anthropology and sociolinguistics prefigured later code switching research in sociocultural linguistics. An important base for code switching research in the field of linguistics is Uriel Weinreich’s (1953) Languages in Contact. One of those inspired by Weinreich’s book was Hans Vogt, whose “Language Contacts” (1954) is cited as the first article to use the term “code-switching” in the field of linguistics (Alvarez-Cáccamo 1998; Benson 2001). .
  3. 3. Code-switching in itself is perhaps not a linguistic phenomenon, but rather a psychological one, and its causes are obviously extra- linguistic. But bilingualism is of great interest to the linguist because it is the condition of what has been called interference between languages. [Hans Vogt 1954:368] Vogt ,assumes that code switching is not only natural, but common. He suggests that all languages – if not all language users – experience language contact, and that contact phenomena, including language alternation, are an important element of language change.
  4. 4. What is Code Switching? The term code switching (or, as it is sometimes written, code-switching or code switching)is broadly discussed and used in linguistics and a variety of related fields. Code-switching is the alternation between two codes (languages and/or dialects), between people who share those particular codes. Choices about how code-switching manifests itself are determined by a number of social and linguistic factors. It is quite typical in multicultural and immigrant populations. Code-switching can take on several forms including alteration of sentences, phrases from both languages, and switching in a long narrative. In normal conversations between two bilinguals, code-switching consists of eighty-four percent single word switches, ten percent phrase switches, and six percent clause switching (Skiba, 1997, para. 2).
  5. 5. Reasons for Code-Switching In some situations, code-switching is done deliberately to exclude a person from a conversation. It is seen as a sign of solidarity within a group, and it is also assumed that all speakers in a conversation must be bilingual in order for code-switching to occur. Bilinguals do not usually translate from the weaker language to the stronger one, and is used most often when a word doesn't "come". Code-switching is not a language interference based on the fact that it supplements speech. It provides continuity in speech rather than presenting an interference when used because of an inability of expression. Code-switching can be used in a variety of degrees, whether it be used at home with family and friends, or used with superiors at the workplace (Lipski, 1985, p. 23).
  6. 6. code switching is seen as the medium to convey both social and linguistic meanings. According to Gumperz (pg. 144, 1982) lists examples of situations created to convey meaning as given below: •to appeal to the literate •to appeal to the illiterate •to convey precise meaning •to ease communication, i.e., utilizing the shortest and the easiest route •to negotiate with greater authority •to capture attention, i.e. stylistic, emphatic, emotional •to emphasize a point •to communicate more effectively •to identify with a particular group •to close the status gap •to establish goodwill and support
  7. 7. code switching can also be listed according to the functions that they try to accomplish. Among these, the following ten functions have been described in the professional literature (Malik, 1994): •Lack of Facility •Lack of Register •Mood of the Speaker •To emphasize a point •Habitual Experience •Semantic significance •To show identity with a group •To address a different audience •Pragmatic reasons •To attract attention.
  8. 8. Communication to ease communication, utilizing the shortest and the easiest route to communicate more effectively to establish goodwill and support one wishes to create a certain communication effect one wishes to exclude another person from the dialogue Conceptual some experiences have only been experienced in one of the languages a misunderstanding has to be clarified habitual experience semantic significance Emphasis to capture attention, stylistic, emphatic, emotional to emphasize a point one wants to make a point to emphasize a point to attract attention Interlocution to appeal to the literate to appeal to the illiterate to close the status gap one wishes to express group solidarity to show identity with a group to address a different audience
  9. 9. Some example of code switching While observing the classrooms few queries and statements of the learners are noted down, such as- i) Mam, exam er jonno kon topicgulo beshi important? (Mam, which topics are most important for exam?) ii) Sir, topic ta clear hossena, abar repeat korben please? (Sir, the topic is not getting clear, could you please repeat it?) iii) Aj rastay onek jam silo, tai late hoye gelo. ( It had severe jam today on road, so it is late)
  10. 10. 0 0.1 0.2 0.3 0.4 0.5 0.6 0.7 0.8 0.9 possitive negetive Impact of code switching on people:
  11. 11. Attitude The term attitude is itself very difficult to comprehend. There are many definitions of attitude proposed by different scholars. Gardner defines attitude as the overall outlook, a person has for a specific thing (Gardner, On the validity of affective variables in second language acquisition: Conceptual and statistical considerations, 1980). Ajzan defines attitude with respect to positive and negative attributes of a person (Ajzan, 1988). Baker says that attitude of a person is his constant way of acting in a same way towards anything (Baker, 1992).
  12. 12. Attitudes about Code Switching Within the world of languages use, code-switching has often been perceived as being of lower status, a strategy used by weak language performers to compensate for language deficiency. This view of code-switching and bilingual talk in general is more normatively- based than research-based as pointed by Lin( 1996) who added that such a view conveys little more than the speaker or writer’s normative claims about what counts as standard or legitimate language.
  13. 13. Myers –Scotton (2006) defines attitude as “ subjective evaluation of both language varieties and their speakers. “many people specially monolinguals thought that bilinguals tend to code-switch because of education and of language skills, that they are not able to speak two languages perfectly without mixing them. Code-switching was regarded as “an illegitimate mode of communication” (wie 2000:21)this is why some bilinguals refuse or try to avoid code-switching. there are also efforts to keep language pure and bilingual parents do not want their children to use the language spoken at home, so it is differentiated between attitude of monolinguals and bilinguals and to various aspect of bilingualism and attitude bilinguals themselves .In recent years however, many linguists are of the opinion that code-switching in bilingual speech is a normal and natural consequence of the interaction of two languages and that is not a grammarless mixture of two language. (Ritchie & Bhatia: 2004:339) states that for bilinguals with a positive attitude towards code-switching it is natural and useful communication strategy and they will therefore not try to avoid code-switching. Moreover, through language and especially through code-switching many bilinguals express their multiple culture identities. Many bilingual speakers often feel that they have more than one identity. Research on linguistic attitude is difficult because speakers are often unaware about their bilingual behavior and especially about their code- switching in many situations.
  14. 14. Grosjean :experienced that many bilinguals have the feeling that they change personality ,when they change language (cf.1982:273). In a word it is the environment and the culture as a whole that cause the bilingual to change language, along with attitude,feeling,and behaviors—and not language as such (1982:283) .
  15. 15. Conclusion Thus, it can be concluded that there are many reasons why code switching takes place in particular social contexts. The ability of the interlocutors who are able to speak more than one language fluently plays an important role during their interaction. The study has shown that the bilinguals have emphasized that habitual expression which is related to psychological aspect of behavior as their main reason for code switching. Besides that, lack of register competence is also another contributing factor for code switching.

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