SlideShare a Scribd company logo

Reformulation

1 of 12
Download to read offline
2.Análisis del Discurso     7/9/05     16:19     Página 89




          DISCOURSE MARKERS OF REFORMULATION FROM THE PERSPECTIVE
                          OF GRAMMATICALIZATION

                                                                     Mª MILAGROS DEL SAZ RUBIO
                                                                    Universidad Politécnica de Valencia
                                                                          BARRY PENNOCK SPECK
                                                                               Universidad de Valencia

               ABSTRACT
               In this article Discourse markers of Reformulation, as proposed in Del Saz & Fraser (2003), are
               analysed from a synchronic and diachronic point of view to ascertain whether their development
               can be explained in terms of the body of studies known as grammaticalization theory. The fact
               that English reformulators constitute a very heterogeneous group with regard to semantic specia-
               lization and phonetic erosion among other characteristics, seems to point to the fact that gram-
               maticalization is better seen as “an epiphenomenal result of independent processes” (Newmeyer
               2001: 188), rather than a distinct process in language change. At most, it can be argued that
               grammaticalization is the change from a lexical unit, to a more grammatical entity.
               RESUMEN
               En este artículo, se han analizado los Marcadores del Discurso de Reformulación (Del Saz &
               Fraser 2003) desde un punto de vista sincrónico y diacrónico para averiguar si su desarrollo
               puede explicarse a través de la teoría de la gramaticalización. El hecho de que los reformulado-
               res en inglés constituyen un grupo muy heterogéneo en cuanto a la especialización semántica y
               la erosión fonética, entre otras características, parece apuntar a que la gramaticalización es “un
               resultado epifenomenal de procesos independientes” (Newmeyer 2001: 188) más que un pro-
               ceso de cambio lingüístico distinto de otros. A lo sumo, se puede argumentar que la gramaticali-
               zación es el cambio de una palabra o frase de una categoría léxica a una categoría gramatical.


         1. Introduction

             Discourse Markers of Reformulation (del Saz 2003), henceforth DMs of RF, cons-
         titute a sub-class of Fraser’s (1999) Elaborative Discourse Markers. They specify the
         type of relationship created between a source discourse segment, S1, or any of its
         constituents and a reformulated segment, S2. The result is a reinterpretation in the
         S2 of the discourse segment, S1, in terms of what was said, meant, or implied (cf.
         del Saz 2003; del Saz & Fraser 2003 unpublished manuscript).

            Ex. 1. (S1) Masochism is congenital; that is to say, (S2) you must have inherited it. (BNC)

             Reformulation is triggered by the speaker’s desire to achieve his/her communica-
         tive goals and to overcome any communicative problems that may be encountered in
         situations where the first formulation may be out of place, incoherent, or might not
         successfully reflect the speaker’s communicative intentions. In all these cases refor-
         mulations prevent, signal, or even solve problems of misunderstanding between spe-




                                                                                                                    89
                                                Perspectivas Interdisciplinares de la Lingüística Aplicada
2.Análisis del Discurso    7/9/05     16:19   Página 90




              akers. Thus, DMs of RF fulfill a key role in achieving interactional goals by explaining,
              clarifying, illustrating, identifying, correcting or rectifying the first formulation or some
              aspect of it, in order to render a reformulation that is more in accordance with the
              speaker’s communicative goals or intentions.
                  It is our purpose in this article to analyze DMs of RF from both a synchronic and
              diachronic point of view to ascertain if their current status as DMs can be explained
              in terms of the body of studies known as grammaticalization theory (cf. Meillet's
              1912/1926; Hopper 1987; Croft 1990; Craig 1991, Hopper and Traugott 1993).


              2. Grammaticalization

                  Broadly speaking, grammaticalization is seen as a process involving the gradual
              change of a word or phrase from a lexical category to a more grammatical one (cf.
              Bybee et al. 1994). Grammaticalization has been subject to harsh criticism from
              several linguists who question its validity as a distinct language change process (cf.
              Janda & Joseph 1988; Campbell 1998: 241-242; Newmeyer 2001). They view it ins-
              tead as “an epiphenomenal result of independent processes” (Newmeyer 2001:
              188). However, we will use Bybee et al’s (1994) core definition as a starting point in
              our analysis of DMs of RF as our initial hypothesis is that certain lexical items do
              become grammaticalized. Furthermore, we will draw on Bybee et al’s (1994: 9-22)
              theory of grammaticalization and Hopper’s (1991) grammaticalization principles, also
              developed in Archakis (2001: 1254-1255).
                  We will start with the concepts that we feel are germane to our analysis of DMs.
              The first, DIVERGENCE, refers to the fact that a lexical form may undergo grammati-
              calization while the original form “may remain as an autonomous lexical element”
              (Hopper 1991: 24). Archakis (2001: 1254) further defines this notion as “the ten-
              dency of the lexical source to change according to predictions based on its beha-
              viour as a lexical item”. Archakis’ point seems reasonable because, apart from
              possible arbitrary developments of words, most examples of semantic change are
              based on some kind of metaphorical, metonymical or otherwise logical relationship
              between the original term and its successors, i.e., one, which developed from the
              indefinite article an.
                  The concept of LAYERING, which refers to the co-existence of new and old
              layers “within a functional domain” (Hopper 1991: 22), for example, apophony and
              the use of alveolar suffixes in the English tense system, is applicable to the class of
              DMs as a whole, in that DMs exist alongside pauses or hesitation markers which can
              also serve the same kind of purpose. However, LAYERING is, in our opinion, such a
              general principal that little more need be said about it here.




        90
              Análisis del Discurso
2.Análisis del Discurso   7/9/05    16:19   Página 91




             Another concept, PERSISTENCE, that is, “the retention of earlier lexical meaning
         in the grammaticalized form” (Archakis 2001: 1254) is also exemplified in the gram-
         maticalized term, one, which derives from an. SPECIALIZATION and PHONETIC
         REDUCTION are also putative markers of grammaticalization and are attested in
         numerous examples. In the case of meaning, what normally occurs is a move from a
         more lexical to more a grammatical meaning. As Newmayer (2001: 198) points out
         “Have in the sense of ‘perfect aspect’ does not convey less information than have in
         the sense of ‘possess’”. Consequently, we are also wary of the term “semantic blea-
         ching” (Sweetser 1998) which, in any case, only occurs in a small number of cases,
         for example, the development of the operator do. All of these terms are closely rela-
         ted. Looking at the development of a term, PERSISTENCE and SPECIALIZATION
         are linked to DIVERGENCE but from the point of view of the end product.
             There are two major concepts we will not be making use of in our analysis. The
         first, DE-CATEGORIALIZATION, refers to “the tendency of the grammaticalized form
         to drift away from the major lexical categories towards secondary categories” (Archa-
         kis 2001: 1254). This seems to us merely a corollary of DIVERGENCE and therefore
         of little practical use. The second, UNIDIRECTIONALITY, which states that the path
         taken by grammaticalization is always from less grammatical to more grammatical,
         seems to have been demoted as a major characteristic of grammaticalization by Hop-
         per and Traugott (1993, 95) who note that there “is nothing deterministic about
         grammaticalization and unidirectionality” and that change may not reach completion.
         In any case it is impossible to verify how far along the path towards grammaticaliza-
         tion a particular item may be. Moreover, many counter-examples have been found,
         that is, grammatical items often become more lexical.


         3. The development of modern DMS of RF

             The DMs of RF we have analyzed are the following: that is to say, that is, in other
         words, for example/instance, namely, to wit, viz/i.e, or rather, (or) more precisely,
         (or) more accurately and (or) better still/ yet. Frequency of occurrence, using the
         British National Corpus (BNC henceforth), has been decisive for selecting some lexi-
         cal units over their synonymous counterparts, as in the case of (or) more precisely,
         rather than to be more precise. The BNC has also been used as a source to illustrate
         current uses of DMs of RF. In order to account for the earliest instances of these lexi-
         cal units, we have resorted to the Oxford English Dictionary (henceforth OED).

            3.1. That is/That is to say
            The DM that is, according to the OED, historically derives from that is to say.




                                                                                                         91
                                            Perspectivas Interdisciplinares de la Lingüística Aplicada
2.Análisis del Discurso    7/9/05     16:19   Página 92




              However, the earliest examples given of both are from the same text and, therefore,
              from the same date: 1175.

                     Ex. 2. c1175. Lamb. Hom. 123 _et is to seggane: Gif _a hefdmen of _issere worlde
                     hefden icnawen crist. (OED)
                     Ex. 3. c1175. Lamb. Hom. 105 _e o_er mihte is Castitas, _et is clenesse on englisc.
                     (OED)


                  This makes it very difficult to say with certainty, as the OED seems to do, that that
              is derives from that is to say. Nevertheless, they clearly serve the same function as
              DMs. Moreover, that is cannot be contracted to that’s in either, which could be cons-
              trued as proof that one derives from the other although it is also clear in these two
              phrases that that and is are stressed because they are found between pauses and
              therefore have to be highlighted phonetically. We believe that this accounts for the
              fact that none of the DMs of RF we have looked at undergo phonetic reduction. The
              DM, that is, contrasts with its deictic and anaphoric counterparts as these can
              always be contracted even when they carry the sentence stress:

                     Ex. 4. Now that's what I call a programme. It lasted only one and a half hours but it
                     satisfied body and soul. (BNC)

                  In any case, if we concede that that is constitutes a shortened form of that is to
              say, what has taken place is phrase truncation, rather than phonetic reduction.
                  As a component of a DM, that has been completely stripped of its anaphoric func-
              tion (DIVERGENCE) which McCarthy (1994: 275) states is to refer “across from the
              current focus to entities or foci that are non-current, non-central, marginalizable or
              other-attributed” although it does retain its function as a connector –pointing to PER-
              SISTANCE. Evidence of the more pragmatic nature of the DM, that is, can be found
              in the fact that it is neither singular nor plural. If not, the following example would not
              be possible as magistrates is plural and that is singular.

                     Ex. 5. The varied world in a courtroom. MAGISTRATES' Courts have been in existence
                     for hundreds of years, presided over by lay Justices of the Peace (magistrates), that is
                     people who have no legal qualification. (BNC)


                 An explanation for this is that DMs (Archakis 2001: 1252) “have gradually lost
              their referential meaning and acquired a more abstract and pragmatic meaning in the
              sense that they refer not so much to situations in the world being talked about but




        92
              Análisis del Discurso
2.Análisis del Discurso   7/9/05     16:19    Página 93




         mainly to the very act of speaking”. This would seem to make this DM of RF a clear
         case of SPECIALIZATION.

            3.2. In other words
            The earliest example in the OED, the meaning of which is identical to modern
         examples, dates back to 1834.

               Ex. 6. 1834. H. MARTINEAU Moral i. 17 To make a greater quantity with the same
               capital; in other words, to abridge the labour. (OED)

            This DM does not seem to have undergone any phonetic changes. Semantically
         nothing seems to distinguish it from the meaning of the lexical phrase (PERSISTEN-
         CE) except that although it is seemingly plural in meaning, it can be used to refer to
         an S2 containing one single word (DIVERGENCE) as illustrated in the following
         example or a series of words.

               Ex. 7. Throughout the period of the Rough Wooing, there existed in Scotland men known
               as the “assured Scots”, those who formally contracted with and were often paid by the
               English-in other words collaborators. (BNC)


            Interestingly in the BNC corpus practically all examples of the sequence in other
         words are DMs of RF although the lexical use of this phrase is also found in a non-
         discourse marker sense as a verb complement:

               Ex. 8. Gina used to snarl “Allo!” down the phone. She was a little uneasy with the letter
               H and put it in other words, which was confusing; “hungry” “angry” were often made to
               sound the same. (BNC)


             3.3. For example/instance
             Both these phrases, unlike the original lexical elements, function exclusively as
         DMs of RF (DIVERGENCE). The first attested DM use of for example in the OED is
         1557 and 1707 in the case of for instance, as illustrated below, although they also
         occur in their variant forms as for example/instance. The first instances of for instan-
         ce and for example without as are first found in the OED in 1657 and 1641 respecti-
         vely.

               Ex. 9. 1557. RECORDE Whetst. A iij b, Euen nombers euenly, are such nombers as
               maie bee parted continually into euen halfes, till you come to an vnitie. As for example,
               32. 1676 tr. (OED)




                                                                                                           93
                                             Perspectivas Interdisciplinares de la Lingüística Aplicada
2.Análisis del Discurso    7/9/05     16:19    Página 94




                     Ex. 10. 1707. J. STEVENS tr. Quevedo’s Com. Wks._ (1709) 350 Such Sayings are a
                     Discredit to your self. As for instance the Devil and his Dam. (OED)
                     Ex. 11. 1657. R. LIGON Barbadoes (1673) 19 The proof of this I found by looking on
                     the Stars.., for instance, there is a little Star call’d Auriga [etc.]. (OED)
                     Ex. 12. 1641. W. HAKEWILL Libertie of Subject 123 For example, Wharfage, Cranage,
                     Scavage, and such like. (OED)


                  PERSISTENCE of original meanings is clearly traceable if we consider the fact
              that both example/instance had been used as nouns before they took on a more spe-
              cialized pragmatic function as reformulators.

                 The primary sense of example, according to the OED (cf 1447) is “something
              taken out, a sample or specimen” and also “a typical instance, a fact that illustrates”:

                     Ex. 13. 1447. O BOKENHAM Seyntys Introd. (Roxb.) 3 And to thys manifold of nature
                     Exaimplys, acordyth weel scripture. (OED)
                     Ex. 14. 1398. TREVISA Barth. De P.R. ii. Xvi. (1495) C ij a/1 The angels take by yefte
                     and yeue forth by example. (OED)


                  In the case of instance, its development from noun to DM is less transparent than
              in the case of for example and it seems to have evolved from one of the original mea-
              nings of “eagerness, solicitation, a judicial process”, to that of “fact or example
              brought forward in support of a general assertion or an argument, or in illustration of
              a general truth” (OED):

                     Ex. 15. c1374 CHAUCER Boeth. V. pr. Vi. 135 (Camb. MS.) _ou ne shalt nat demyn it
                     as prescience of things to comyn, but _ou shal demyn it moore ryhtfully, _at it is science
                     of presence, or of Instaunce. (OED)
                     Ex. 16. 1597 SHAKES. 2 Hen. IV. IV.i. 83 The examples Of euery Minutes instance
                     (present now) Hath put vs in these ill-beseeming Armes. (OED)
                     Ex. 17. 1573 G. HARVEY Letter-bk. (Camden) 115 A marvelous instance Against all
                     dalliance. (OED)


                 It is from the original meanings of these nouns that these lexical units have taken
              on a pragmatic function as reformulators and have thus gone from meaning
              example/instance, to pointing to an illustration of the S1 or some aspect of it. This
              process of SPECIALIZATION from noun to DM has brought with it some syntactic
              restrictions. As DMs of RF, these two lexical units are restricted to the singular form,
              even if more than one example is offered to illustrate a claim in S1 –proof of its prag-




        94
              Análisis del Discurso
Ad

Recommended

Chapter 5
Chapter 5Chapter 5
Chapter 5Anh Le
 
Cohesion In English Wasee
Cohesion In English  WaseeCohesion In English  Wasee
Cohesion In English WaseeDr. Cupid Lucid
 
Acronyms & word fomation pdf
Acronyms & word fomation pdfAcronyms & word fomation pdf
Acronyms & word fomation pdfDr. Shadia Banjar
 
Cohesion & coherence
Cohesion & coherenceCohesion & coherence
Cohesion & coherencedanae
 
Cohesion And Coherence Relations
Cohesion And Coherence RelationsCohesion And Coherence Relations
Cohesion And Coherence RelationsDr. Cupid Lucid
 
Syntactic aggregation
Syntactic aggregationSyntactic aggregation
Syntactic aggregationSumit Das
 

More Related Content

What's hot

Conjunctive cohesion (jorgelina, joselvine)
Conjunctive cohesion (jorgelina, joselvine)Conjunctive cohesion (jorgelina, joselvine)
Conjunctive cohesion (jorgelina, joselvine)rominacheme
 
The three level approach to syntax
The three level approach to syntaxThe three level approach to syntax
The three level approach to syntaxKet Mai
 
+Presentation1 widdowson
+Presentation1 widdowson+Presentation1 widdowson
+Presentation1 widdowsonAsmaMohamadi1
 
Coherencia y cohesión textual
Coherencia y cohesión textualCoherencia y cohesión textual
Coherencia y cohesión textualAna Biocca
 
Procedural Pragmatics and the studyof discourse
Procedural Pragmatics and the studyof discourseProcedural Pragmatics and the studyof discourse
Procedural Pragmatics and the studyof discourseLouis de Saussure
 
MELT 104 - Construction Grammar
MELT 104 - Construction GrammarMELT 104 - Construction Grammar
MELT 104 - Construction GrammarGlynn Palecpec
 

What's hot (6)

Conjunctive cohesion (jorgelina, joselvine)
Conjunctive cohesion (jorgelina, joselvine)Conjunctive cohesion (jorgelina, joselvine)
Conjunctive cohesion (jorgelina, joselvine)
 
The three level approach to syntax
The three level approach to syntaxThe three level approach to syntax
The three level approach to syntax
 
+Presentation1 widdowson
+Presentation1 widdowson+Presentation1 widdowson
+Presentation1 widdowson
 
Coherencia y cohesión textual
Coherencia y cohesión textualCoherencia y cohesión textual
Coherencia y cohesión textual
 
Procedural Pragmatics and the studyof discourse
Procedural Pragmatics and the studyof discourseProcedural Pragmatics and the studyof discourse
Procedural Pragmatics and the studyof discourse
 
MELT 104 - Construction Grammar
MELT 104 - Construction GrammarMELT 104 - Construction Grammar
MELT 104 - Construction Grammar
 

Viewers also liked

Ci interpersonnelle
Ci interpersonnelleCi interpersonnelle
Ci interpersonnelleRiadh HAJJI
 
сухарвеа н9аchristmas in
сухарвеа н9аchristmas inсухарвеа н9аchristmas in
сухарвеа н9аchristmas inLilia Ayatskova
 
Urban Tree Forge
Urban Tree ForgeUrban Tree Forge
Urban Tree ForgeJoey Cordes
 
T5 vocab la comida
T5 vocab la comidaT5 vocab la comida
T5 vocab la comidaas434128mhs
 
I18n share
I18n   shareI18n   share
I18n sharekai Jan
 
Analysing Students’ Communicative Strategies in Synchronous Telecollaboration...
Analysing Students’ Communicative Strategies in Synchronous Telecollaboration...Analysing Students’ Communicative Strategies in Synchronous Telecollaboration...
Analysing Students’ Communicative Strategies in Synchronous Telecollaboration...University of Valencia
 
Quantitative learning
Quantitative learningQuantitative learning
Quantitative learningdrmccreedy
 
P2BK 6 presentation vol. 2.0
P2BK 6 presentation vol. 2.0P2BK 6 presentation vol. 2.0
P2BK 6 presentation vol. 2.0Yousef Aldaour
 
Photo engagement in journalism
Photo engagement in journalismPhoto engagement in journalism
Photo engagement in journalismIvan Lajara
 
презентация Microsoft office power point (2)
презентация Microsoft office power point (2)презентация Microsoft office power point (2)
презентация Microsoft office power point (2)Lilia Ayatskova
 
Training Meta Maurizio Morini - laboratori di formazione aziendale
Training Meta   Maurizio Morini - laboratori di formazione aziendaleTraining Meta   Maurizio Morini - laboratori di formazione aziendale
Training Meta Maurizio Morini - laboratori di formazione aziendaleTrainingmeta
 
Kingston mayoral debate questions 2011
Kingston mayoral debate questions 2011Kingston mayoral debate questions 2011
Kingston mayoral debate questions 2011Ivan Lajara
 
資策會未來領袖卓越成長營
資策會未來領袖卓越成長營資策會未來領袖卓越成長營
資策會未來領袖卓越成長營Shih Wu
 
Presentazione Training Meta
Presentazione Training MetaPresentazione Training Meta
Presentazione Training MetaTrainingmeta
 
Storify and rebelmouse as curation tools in journalism
Storify and rebelmouse as curation tools in journalismStorify and rebelmouse as curation tools in journalism
Storify and rebelmouse as curation tools in journalismIvan Lajara
 

Viewers also liked (20)

Ci interpersonnelle
Ci interpersonnelleCi interpersonnelle
Ci interpersonnelle
 
сухарвеа н9аchristmas in
сухарвеа н9аchristmas inсухарвеа н9аchristmas in
сухарвеа н9аchristmas in
 
Urban Tree Forge
Urban Tree ForgeUrban Tree Forge
Urban Tree Forge
 
Our favourites(1)
Our favourites(1)Our favourites(1)
Our favourites(1)
 
T5 vocab la comida
T5 vocab la comidaT5 vocab la comida
T5 vocab la comida
 
Samantha y paula
Samantha y paulaSamantha y paula
Samantha y paula
 
I18n share
I18n   shareI18n   share
I18n share
 
Squirrels
SquirrelsSquirrels
Squirrels
 
Analysing Students’ Communicative Strategies in Synchronous Telecollaboration...
Analysing Students’ Communicative Strategies in Synchronous Telecollaboration...Analysing Students’ Communicative Strategies in Synchronous Telecollaboration...
Analysing Students’ Communicative Strategies in Synchronous Telecollaboration...
 
Quantitative learning
Quantitative learningQuantitative learning
Quantitative learning
 
P2BK 6 presentation vol. 2.0
P2BK 6 presentation vol. 2.0P2BK 6 presentation vol. 2.0
P2BK 6 presentation vol. 2.0
 
Photo engagement in journalism
Photo engagement in journalismPhoto engagement in journalism
Photo engagement in journalism
 
презентация Microsoft office power point (2)
презентация Microsoft office power point (2)презентация Microsoft office power point (2)
презентация Microsoft office power point (2)
 
Arendonk
ArendonkArendonk
Arendonk
 
Training Meta Maurizio Morini - laboratori di formazione aziendale
Training Meta   Maurizio Morini - laboratori di formazione aziendaleTraining Meta   Maurizio Morini - laboratori di formazione aziendale
Training Meta Maurizio Morini - laboratori di formazione aziendale
 
Kingston mayoral debate questions 2011
Kingston mayoral debate questions 2011Kingston mayoral debate questions 2011
Kingston mayoral debate questions 2011
 
Cherbourg
CherbourgCherbourg
Cherbourg
 
資策會未來領袖卓越成長營
資策會未來領袖卓越成長營資策會未來領袖卓越成長營
資策會未來領袖卓越成長營
 
Presentazione Training Meta
Presentazione Training MetaPresentazione Training Meta
Presentazione Training Meta
 
Storify and rebelmouse as curation tools in journalism
Storify and rebelmouse as curation tools in journalismStorify and rebelmouse as curation tools in journalism
Storify and rebelmouse as curation tools in journalism
 

Similar to Reformulation

article writing mmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmm 5.pdf
article writing mmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmm 5.pdfarticle writing mmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmm 5.pdf
article writing mmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmm 5.pdf191110080
 
What can a corpus tell us about grammar
What can a corpus tell us about grammarWhat can a corpus tell us about grammar
What can a corpus tell us about grammarSami Khalil
 
Word meaning, sentence meaning, and syntactic meaning
Word meaning, sentence meaning, and syntactic  meaningWord meaning, sentence meaning, and syntactic  meaning
Word meaning, sentence meaning, and syntactic meaningNick Izquierdo
 
Adjectives - An Introduction
Adjectives - An IntroductionAdjectives - An Introduction
Adjectives - An IntroductionAndrew Molina
 
Pragmatic Functions of Interpreters? Own Discourse Markers in Simultaneous In...
Pragmatic Functions of Interpreters? Own Discourse Markers in Simultaneous In...Pragmatic Functions of Interpreters? Own Discourse Markers in Simultaneous In...
Pragmatic Functions of Interpreters? Own Discourse Markers in Simultaneous In...English Literature and Language Review ELLR
 
Large-scale norming and statistical analysis of 870 American English idioms.pdf
Large-scale norming and statistical analysis of 870 American English idioms.pdfLarge-scale norming and statistical analysis of 870 American English idioms.pdf
Large-scale norming and statistical analysis of 870 American English idioms.pdfFaishaMaeTangog
 
Syntactic Features in Mother Tongue.pptx
Syntactic Features in Mother Tongue.pptxSyntactic Features in Mother Tongue.pptx
Syntactic Features in Mother Tongue.pptxJamelMirafuentes
 
Transformational-Generative Grammar
Transformational-Generative GrammarTransformational-Generative Grammar
Transformational-Generative GrammarRuth Ann Llego
 
Dialnet words aslexicalunitsinlearningteachingvocabulary-2579878
Dialnet words aslexicalunitsinlearningteachingvocabulary-2579878Dialnet words aslexicalunitsinlearningteachingvocabulary-2579878
Dialnet words aslexicalunitsinlearningteachingvocabulary-2579878Ine Purwanti
 
Features of translation 2 (1)
Features of translation 2 (1)Features of translation 2 (1)
Features of translation 2 (1)Arie Listiani
 
Morphology pp
Morphology ppMorphology pp
Morphology ppMissHindA
 
A New Approach For Paraphrasing And Rewording A Challenging Text
A New Approach For Paraphrasing And Rewording A Challenging TextA New Approach For Paraphrasing And Rewording A Challenging Text
A New Approach For Paraphrasing And Rewording A Challenging TextKate Campbell
 
05 linguistic theory meets lexicography
05 linguistic theory meets lexicography05 linguistic theory meets lexicography
05 linguistic theory meets lexicographyDuygu Aşıklar
 
A Text Analysis Of A Newspaper Article About Konglish Taken From The Korea H...
A Text Analysis Of A Newspaper Article About Konglish Taken From  The Korea H...A Text Analysis Of A Newspaper Article About Konglish Taken From  The Korea H...
A Text Analysis Of A Newspaper Article About Konglish Taken From The Korea H...Lori Moore
 

Similar to Reformulation (20)

article writing mmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmm 5.pdf
article writing mmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmm 5.pdfarticle writing mmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmm 5.pdf
article writing mmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmm 5.pdf
 
What can a corpus tell us about grammar
What can a corpus tell us about grammarWhat can a corpus tell us about grammar
What can a corpus tell us about grammar
 
Word meaning, sentence meaning, and syntactic meaning
Word meaning, sentence meaning, and syntactic  meaningWord meaning, sentence meaning, and syntactic  meaning
Word meaning, sentence meaning, and syntactic meaning
 
Adjectives - An Introduction
Adjectives - An IntroductionAdjectives - An Introduction
Adjectives - An Introduction
 
Chapter I Introduction
Chapter I IntroductionChapter I Introduction
Chapter I Introduction
 
Grammar 2
Grammar 2Grammar 2
Grammar 2
 
Pragmatic Functions of Interpreters? Own Discourse Markers in Simultaneous In...
Pragmatic Functions of Interpreters? Own Discourse Markers in Simultaneous In...Pragmatic Functions of Interpreters? Own Discourse Markers in Simultaneous In...
Pragmatic Functions of Interpreters? Own Discourse Markers in Simultaneous In...
 
Large-scale norming and statistical analysis of 870 American English idioms.pdf
Large-scale norming and statistical analysis of 870 American English idioms.pdfLarge-scale norming and statistical analysis of 870 American English idioms.pdf
Large-scale norming and statistical analysis of 870 American English idioms.pdf
 
Syntactic Features in Mother Tongue.pptx
Syntactic Features in Mother Tongue.pptxSyntactic Features in Mother Tongue.pptx
Syntactic Features in Mother Tongue.pptx
 
Grammar
GrammarGrammar
Grammar
 
Fillmore case grammar
Fillmore case grammarFillmore case grammar
Fillmore case grammar
 
Transformational-Generative Grammar
Transformational-Generative GrammarTransformational-Generative Grammar
Transformational-Generative Grammar
 
CONTEXT RETENTION
CONTEXT RETENTIONCONTEXT RETENTION
CONTEXT RETENTION
 
Dialnet words aslexicalunitsinlearningteachingvocabulary-2579878
Dialnet words aslexicalunitsinlearningteachingvocabulary-2579878Dialnet words aslexicalunitsinlearningteachingvocabulary-2579878
Dialnet words aslexicalunitsinlearningteachingvocabulary-2579878
 
Features of translation 2 (1)
Features of translation 2 (1)Features of translation 2 (1)
Features of translation 2 (1)
 
Morphology pp
Morphology ppMorphology pp
Morphology pp
 
Semantics
SemanticsSemantics
Semantics
 
A New Approach For Paraphrasing And Rewording A Challenging Text
A New Approach For Paraphrasing And Rewording A Challenging TextA New Approach For Paraphrasing And Rewording A Challenging Text
A New Approach For Paraphrasing And Rewording A Challenging Text
 
05 linguistic theory meets lexicography
05 linguistic theory meets lexicography05 linguistic theory meets lexicography
05 linguistic theory meets lexicography
 
A Text Analysis Of A Newspaper Article About Konglish Taken From The Korea H...
A Text Analysis Of A Newspaper Article About Konglish Taken From  The Korea H...A Text Analysis Of A Newspaper Article About Konglish Taken From  The Korea H...
A Text Analysis Of A Newspaper Article About Konglish Taken From The Korea H...
 

More from University of Valencia

More from University of Valencia (8)

Poster ipra 2011
Poster ipra 2011Poster ipra 2011
Poster ipra 2011
 
Genre approach to_goals_tv
Genre approach to_goals_tvGenre approach to_goals_tv
Genre approach to_goals_tv
 
Voice overs english_spanish
Voice overs english_spanishVoice overs english_spanish
Voice overs english_spanish
 
Spoken core of british english
Spoken core of british englishSpoken core of british english
Spoken core of british english
 
Styling the voice-selling_the_product
Styling the voice-selling_the_productStyling the voice-selling_the_product
Styling the voice-selling_the_product
 
Coherence in english
Coherence in englishCoherence in english
Coherence in english
 
Translation in the_teaching_of_foreign_languages
Translation in the_teaching_of_foreign_languagesTranslation in the_teaching_of_foreign_languages
Translation in the_teaching_of_foreign_languages
 
The changing voice_of_women
The changing voice_of_womenThe changing voice_of_women
The changing voice_of_women
 

Recently uploaded

Practical Research 1: Nature of Inquiry and Research.pptx
Practical Research 1: Nature of Inquiry and Research.pptxPractical Research 1: Nature of Inquiry and Research.pptx
Practical Research 1: Nature of Inquiry and Research.pptxKatherine Villaluna
 
UniSC Sunshine Coast library self-guided tour
UniSC Sunshine Coast library self-guided tourUniSC Sunshine Coast library self-guided tour
UniSC Sunshine Coast library self-guided tourUSC_Library
 
Routes of Drug Administrations PPT..pptx
Routes of Drug Administrations PPT..pptxRoutes of Drug Administrations PPT..pptx
Routes of Drug Administrations PPT..pptxRenuka N Sunagad
 
2.22.24 Black Nationalism and the Nation of Islam.pptx
2.22.24 Black Nationalism and the Nation of Islam.pptx2.22.24 Black Nationalism and the Nation of Islam.pptx
2.22.24 Black Nationalism and the Nation of Islam.pptxMaryPotorti1
 
Creative, Technical, and Academic Writing
Creative, Technical, and Academic WritingCreative, Technical, and Academic Writing
Creative, Technical, and Academic WritingMYDA ANGELICA SUAN
 
GIÁO ÁN TIẾNG ANH GLOBAL SUCCESS LỚP 11 (CẢ NĂM) THEO CÔNG VĂN 5512 (2 CỘT) N...
GIÁO ÁN TIẾNG ANH GLOBAL SUCCESS LỚP 11 (CẢ NĂM) THEO CÔNG VĂN 5512 (2 CỘT) N...GIÁO ÁN TIẾNG ANH GLOBAL SUCCESS LỚP 11 (CẢ NĂM) THEO CÔNG VĂN 5512 (2 CỘT) N...
GIÁO ÁN TIẾNG ANH GLOBAL SUCCESS LỚP 11 (CẢ NĂM) THEO CÔNG VĂN 5512 (2 CỘT) N...Nguyen Thanh Tu Collection
 
The Ministry of Utmost Happiness by Arundhati Roy
The Ministry of Utmost Happiness by Arundhati RoyThe Ministry of Utmost Happiness by Arundhati Roy
The Ministry of Utmost Happiness by Arundhati RoyTrushali Dodiya
 
Plant Genetic Resources, Germplasm, gene pool - Copy.pptx
Plant Genetic Resources, Germplasm, gene pool - Copy.pptxPlant Genetic Resources, Germplasm, gene pool - Copy.pptx
Plant Genetic Resources, Germplasm, gene pool - Copy.pptxAKSHAYMAGAR17
 
Diploma 2nd yr PHARMACOLOGY chapter 5 part 1.pdf
Diploma 2nd yr PHARMACOLOGY chapter 5 part 1.pdfDiploma 2nd yr PHARMACOLOGY chapter 5 part 1.pdf
Diploma 2nd yr PHARMACOLOGY chapter 5 part 1.pdfSUMIT TIWARI
 
Bayesian Analysis Fundamentals with Examples
Bayesian Analysis Fundamentals with ExamplesBayesian Analysis Fundamentals with Examples
Bayesian Analysis Fundamentals with ExamplesTushar Tank
 
IR introduction Introduction, Principle & Theory
IR introduction Introduction, Principle & TheoryIR introduction Introduction, Principle & Theory
IR introduction Introduction, Principle & Theorynivedithag131
 
Food Web SlideShare for Ecology Notes Quiz in Canvas
Food Web SlideShare for Ecology Notes Quiz in CanvasFood Web SlideShare for Ecology Notes Quiz in Canvas
Food Web SlideShare for Ecology Notes Quiz in CanvasAlexandraSwartzwelde
 
Chromatography-Gas chromatography-Principle
Chromatography-Gas chromatography-PrincipleChromatography-Gas chromatography-Principle
Chromatography-Gas chromatography-Principleblessipriyanka
 
EDL 290F Week 1 - Meet Me at the Start Line.pdf
EDL 290F Week 1 - Meet Me at the Start Line.pdfEDL 290F Week 1 - Meet Me at the Start Line.pdf
EDL 290F Week 1 - Meet Me at the Start Line.pdfElizabeth Walsh
 
ICSE English Literature Class X Handwritten Notes
ICSE English Literature Class X Handwritten NotesICSE English Literature Class X Handwritten Notes
ICSE English Literature Class X Handwritten NotesGauri S
 
UniSC Moreton Bay Library self-guided tour
UniSC Moreton Bay Library self-guided tourUniSC Moreton Bay Library self-guided tour
UniSC Moreton Bay Library self-guided tourUSC_Library
 
New Features in the Odoo 17 Sales Module
New Features in  the Odoo 17 Sales ModuleNew Features in  the Odoo 17 Sales Module
New Features in the Odoo 17 Sales ModuleCeline George
 
catch-up-friday-ARALING PNLIPUNAN SOCIAL JUSTICE AND HUMAN RIGHTS
catch-up-friday-ARALING PNLIPUNAN SOCIAL JUSTICE AND HUMAN RIGHTScatch-up-friday-ARALING PNLIPUNAN SOCIAL JUSTICE AND HUMAN RIGHTS
catch-up-friday-ARALING PNLIPUNAN SOCIAL JUSTICE AND HUMAN RIGHTSCarlaNicolas7
 
11 CI SINIF SINAQLARI - 5-2023-Aynura-Hamidova.pdf
11 CI SINIF SINAQLARI - 5-2023-Aynura-Hamidova.pdf11 CI SINIF SINAQLARI - 5-2023-Aynura-Hamidova.pdf
11 CI SINIF SINAQLARI - 5-2023-Aynura-Hamidova.pdfAynouraHamidova
 

Recently uploaded (20)

Practical Research 1: Nature of Inquiry and Research.pptx
Practical Research 1: Nature of Inquiry and Research.pptxPractical Research 1: Nature of Inquiry and Research.pptx
Practical Research 1: Nature of Inquiry and Research.pptx
 
Lipids as Biopolymer
Lipids as Biopolymer Lipids as Biopolymer
Lipids as Biopolymer
 
UniSC Sunshine Coast library self-guided tour
UniSC Sunshine Coast library self-guided tourUniSC Sunshine Coast library self-guided tour
UniSC Sunshine Coast library self-guided tour
 
Routes of Drug Administrations PPT..pptx
Routes of Drug Administrations PPT..pptxRoutes of Drug Administrations PPT..pptx
Routes of Drug Administrations PPT..pptx
 
2.22.24 Black Nationalism and the Nation of Islam.pptx
2.22.24 Black Nationalism and the Nation of Islam.pptx2.22.24 Black Nationalism and the Nation of Islam.pptx
2.22.24 Black Nationalism and the Nation of Islam.pptx
 
Creative, Technical, and Academic Writing
Creative, Technical, and Academic WritingCreative, Technical, and Academic Writing
Creative, Technical, and Academic Writing
 
GIÁO ÁN TIẾNG ANH GLOBAL SUCCESS LỚP 11 (CẢ NĂM) THEO CÔNG VĂN 5512 (2 CỘT) N...
GIÁO ÁN TIẾNG ANH GLOBAL SUCCESS LỚP 11 (CẢ NĂM) THEO CÔNG VĂN 5512 (2 CỘT) N...GIÁO ÁN TIẾNG ANH GLOBAL SUCCESS LỚP 11 (CẢ NĂM) THEO CÔNG VĂN 5512 (2 CỘT) N...
GIÁO ÁN TIẾNG ANH GLOBAL SUCCESS LỚP 11 (CẢ NĂM) THEO CÔNG VĂN 5512 (2 CỘT) N...
 
The Ministry of Utmost Happiness by Arundhati Roy
The Ministry of Utmost Happiness by Arundhati RoyThe Ministry of Utmost Happiness by Arundhati Roy
The Ministry of Utmost Happiness by Arundhati Roy
 
Plant Genetic Resources, Germplasm, gene pool - Copy.pptx
Plant Genetic Resources, Germplasm, gene pool - Copy.pptxPlant Genetic Resources, Germplasm, gene pool - Copy.pptx
Plant Genetic Resources, Germplasm, gene pool - Copy.pptx
 
Diploma 2nd yr PHARMACOLOGY chapter 5 part 1.pdf
Diploma 2nd yr PHARMACOLOGY chapter 5 part 1.pdfDiploma 2nd yr PHARMACOLOGY chapter 5 part 1.pdf
Diploma 2nd yr PHARMACOLOGY chapter 5 part 1.pdf
 
Bayesian Analysis Fundamentals with Examples
Bayesian Analysis Fundamentals with ExamplesBayesian Analysis Fundamentals with Examples
Bayesian Analysis Fundamentals with Examples
 
IR introduction Introduction, Principle & Theory
IR introduction Introduction, Principle & TheoryIR introduction Introduction, Principle & Theory
IR introduction Introduction, Principle & Theory
 
Food Web SlideShare for Ecology Notes Quiz in Canvas
Food Web SlideShare for Ecology Notes Quiz in CanvasFood Web SlideShare for Ecology Notes Quiz in Canvas
Food Web SlideShare for Ecology Notes Quiz in Canvas
 
Chromatography-Gas chromatography-Principle
Chromatography-Gas chromatography-PrincipleChromatography-Gas chromatography-Principle
Chromatography-Gas chromatography-Principle
 
EDL 290F Week 1 - Meet Me at the Start Line.pdf
EDL 290F Week 1 - Meet Me at the Start Line.pdfEDL 290F Week 1 - Meet Me at the Start Line.pdf
EDL 290F Week 1 - Meet Me at the Start Line.pdf
 
ICSE English Literature Class X Handwritten Notes
ICSE English Literature Class X Handwritten NotesICSE English Literature Class X Handwritten Notes
ICSE English Literature Class X Handwritten Notes
 
UniSC Moreton Bay Library self-guided tour
UniSC Moreton Bay Library self-guided tourUniSC Moreton Bay Library self-guided tour
UniSC Moreton Bay Library self-guided tour
 
New Features in the Odoo 17 Sales Module
New Features in  the Odoo 17 Sales ModuleNew Features in  the Odoo 17 Sales Module
New Features in the Odoo 17 Sales Module
 
catch-up-friday-ARALING PNLIPUNAN SOCIAL JUSTICE AND HUMAN RIGHTS
catch-up-friday-ARALING PNLIPUNAN SOCIAL JUSTICE AND HUMAN RIGHTScatch-up-friday-ARALING PNLIPUNAN SOCIAL JUSTICE AND HUMAN RIGHTS
catch-up-friday-ARALING PNLIPUNAN SOCIAL JUSTICE AND HUMAN RIGHTS
 
11 CI SINIF SINAQLARI - 5-2023-Aynura-Hamidova.pdf
11 CI SINIF SINAQLARI - 5-2023-Aynura-Hamidova.pdf11 CI SINIF SINAQLARI - 5-2023-Aynura-Hamidova.pdf
11 CI SINIF SINAQLARI - 5-2023-Aynura-Hamidova.pdf
 

Reformulation

  • 1. 2.Análisis del Discurso 7/9/05 16:19 Página 89 DISCOURSE MARKERS OF REFORMULATION FROM THE PERSPECTIVE OF GRAMMATICALIZATION Mª MILAGROS DEL SAZ RUBIO Universidad Politécnica de Valencia BARRY PENNOCK SPECK Universidad de Valencia ABSTRACT In this article Discourse markers of Reformulation, as proposed in Del Saz & Fraser (2003), are analysed from a synchronic and diachronic point of view to ascertain whether their development can be explained in terms of the body of studies known as grammaticalization theory. The fact that English reformulators constitute a very heterogeneous group with regard to semantic specia- lization and phonetic erosion among other characteristics, seems to point to the fact that gram- maticalization is better seen as “an epiphenomenal result of independent processes” (Newmeyer 2001: 188), rather than a distinct process in language change. At most, it can be argued that grammaticalization is the change from a lexical unit, to a more grammatical entity. RESUMEN En este artículo, se han analizado los Marcadores del Discurso de Reformulación (Del Saz & Fraser 2003) desde un punto de vista sincrónico y diacrónico para averiguar si su desarrollo puede explicarse a través de la teoría de la gramaticalización. El hecho de que los reformulado- res en inglés constituyen un grupo muy heterogéneo en cuanto a la especialización semántica y la erosión fonética, entre otras características, parece apuntar a que la gramaticalización es “un resultado epifenomenal de procesos independientes” (Newmeyer 2001: 188) más que un pro- ceso de cambio lingüístico distinto de otros. A lo sumo, se puede argumentar que la gramaticali- zación es el cambio de una palabra o frase de una categoría léxica a una categoría gramatical. 1. Introduction Discourse Markers of Reformulation (del Saz 2003), henceforth DMs of RF, cons- titute a sub-class of Fraser’s (1999) Elaborative Discourse Markers. They specify the type of relationship created between a source discourse segment, S1, or any of its constituents and a reformulated segment, S2. The result is a reinterpretation in the S2 of the discourse segment, S1, in terms of what was said, meant, or implied (cf. del Saz 2003; del Saz & Fraser 2003 unpublished manuscript). Ex. 1. (S1) Masochism is congenital; that is to say, (S2) you must have inherited it. (BNC) Reformulation is triggered by the speaker’s desire to achieve his/her communica- tive goals and to overcome any communicative problems that may be encountered in situations where the first formulation may be out of place, incoherent, or might not successfully reflect the speaker’s communicative intentions. In all these cases refor- mulations prevent, signal, or even solve problems of misunderstanding between spe- 89 Perspectivas Interdisciplinares de la Lingüística Aplicada
  • 2. 2.Análisis del Discurso 7/9/05 16:19 Página 90 akers. Thus, DMs of RF fulfill a key role in achieving interactional goals by explaining, clarifying, illustrating, identifying, correcting or rectifying the first formulation or some aspect of it, in order to render a reformulation that is more in accordance with the speaker’s communicative goals or intentions. It is our purpose in this article to analyze DMs of RF from both a synchronic and diachronic point of view to ascertain if their current status as DMs can be explained in terms of the body of studies known as grammaticalization theory (cf. Meillet's 1912/1926; Hopper 1987; Croft 1990; Craig 1991, Hopper and Traugott 1993). 2. Grammaticalization Broadly speaking, grammaticalization is seen as a process involving the gradual change of a word or phrase from a lexical category to a more grammatical one (cf. Bybee et al. 1994). Grammaticalization has been subject to harsh criticism from several linguists who question its validity as a distinct language change process (cf. Janda & Joseph 1988; Campbell 1998: 241-242; Newmeyer 2001). They view it ins- tead as “an epiphenomenal result of independent processes” (Newmeyer 2001: 188). However, we will use Bybee et al’s (1994) core definition as a starting point in our analysis of DMs of RF as our initial hypothesis is that certain lexical items do become grammaticalized. Furthermore, we will draw on Bybee et al’s (1994: 9-22) theory of grammaticalization and Hopper’s (1991) grammaticalization principles, also developed in Archakis (2001: 1254-1255). We will start with the concepts that we feel are germane to our analysis of DMs. The first, DIVERGENCE, refers to the fact that a lexical form may undergo grammati- calization while the original form “may remain as an autonomous lexical element” (Hopper 1991: 24). Archakis (2001: 1254) further defines this notion as “the ten- dency of the lexical source to change according to predictions based on its beha- viour as a lexical item”. Archakis’ point seems reasonable because, apart from possible arbitrary developments of words, most examples of semantic change are based on some kind of metaphorical, metonymical or otherwise logical relationship between the original term and its successors, i.e., one, which developed from the indefinite article an. The concept of LAYERING, which refers to the co-existence of new and old layers “within a functional domain” (Hopper 1991: 22), for example, apophony and the use of alveolar suffixes in the English tense system, is applicable to the class of DMs as a whole, in that DMs exist alongside pauses or hesitation markers which can also serve the same kind of purpose. However, LAYERING is, in our opinion, such a general principal that little more need be said about it here. 90 Análisis del Discurso
  • 3. 2.Análisis del Discurso 7/9/05 16:19 Página 91 Another concept, PERSISTENCE, that is, “the retention of earlier lexical meaning in the grammaticalized form” (Archakis 2001: 1254) is also exemplified in the gram- maticalized term, one, which derives from an. SPECIALIZATION and PHONETIC REDUCTION are also putative markers of grammaticalization and are attested in numerous examples. In the case of meaning, what normally occurs is a move from a more lexical to more a grammatical meaning. As Newmayer (2001: 198) points out “Have in the sense of ‘perfect aspect’ does not convey less information than have in the sense of ‘possess’”. Consequently, we are also wary of the term “semantic blea- ching” (Sweetser 1998) which, in any case, only occurs in a small number of cases, for example, the development of the operator do. All of these terms are closely rela- ted. Looking at the development of a term, PERSISTENCE and SPECIALIZATION are linked to DIVERGENCE but from the point of view of the end product. There are two major concepts we will not be making use of in our analysis. The first, DE-CATEGORIALIZATION, refers to “the tendency of the grammaticalized form to drift away from the major lexical categories towards secondary categories” (Archa- kis 2001: 1254). This seems to us merely a corollary of DIVERGENCE and therefore of little practical use. The second, UNIDIRECTIONALITY, which states that the path taken by grammaticalization is always from less grammatical to more grammatical, seems to have been demoted as a major characteristic of grammaticalization by Hop- per and Traugott (1993, 95) who note that there “is nothing deterministic about grammaticalization and unidirectionality” and that change may not reach completion. In any case it is impossible to verify how far along the path towards grammaticaliza- tion a particular item may be. Moreover, many counter-examples have been found, that is, grammatical items often become more lexical. 3. The development of modern DMS of RF The DMs of RF we have analyzed are the following: that is to say, that is, in other words, for example/instance, namely, to wit, viz/i.e, or rather, (or) more precisely, (or) more accurately and (or) better still/ yet. Frequency of occurrence, using the British National Corpus (BNC henceforth), has been decisive for selecting some lexi- cal units over their synonymous counterparts, as in the case of (or) more precisely, rather than to be more precise. The BNC has also been used as a source to illustrate current uses of DMs of RF. In order to account for the earliest instances of these lexi- cal units, we have resorted to the Oxford English Dictionary (henceforth OED). 3.1. That is/That is to say The DM that is, according to the OED, historically derives from that is to say. 91 Perspectivas Interdisciplinares de la Lingüística Aplicada
  • 4. 2.Análisis del Discurso 7/9/05 16:19 Página 92 However, the earliest examples given of both are from the same text and, therefore, from the same date: 1175. Ex. 2. c1175. Lamb. Hom. 123 _et is to seggane: Gif _a hefdmen of _issere worlde hefden icnawen crist. (OED) Ex. 3. c1175. Lamb. Hom. 105 _e o_er mihte is Castitas, _et is clenesse on englisc. (OED) This makes it very difficult to say with certainty, as the OED seems to do, that that is derives from that is to say. Nevertheless, they clearly serve the same function as DMs. Moreover, that is cannot be contracted to that’s in either, which could be cons- trued as proof that one derives from the other although it is also clear in these two phrases that that and is are stressed because they are found between pauses and therefore have to be highlighted phonetically. We believe that this accounts for the fact that none of the DMs of RF we have looked at undergo phonetic reduction. The DM, that is, contrasts with its deictic and anaphoric counterparts as these can always be contracted even when they carry the sentence stress: Ex. 4. Now that's what I call a programme. It lasted only one and a half hours but it satisfied body and soul. (BNC) In any case, if we concede that that is constitutes a shortened form of that is to say, what has taken place is phrase truncation, rather than phonetic reduction. As a component of a DM, that has been completely stripped of its anaphoric func- tion (DIVERGENCE) which McCarthy (1994: 275) states is to refer “across from the current focus to entities or foci that are non-current, non-central, marginalizable or other-attributed” although it does retain its function as a connector –pointing to PER- SISTANCE. Evidence of the more pragmatic nature of the DM, that is, can be found in the fact that it is neither singular nor plural. If not, the following example would not be possible as magistrates is plural and that is singular. Ex. 5. The varied world in a courtroom. MAGISTRATES' Courts have been in existence for hundreds of years, presided over by lay Justices of the Peace (magistrates), that is people who have no legal qualification. (BNC) An explanation for this is that DMs (Archakis 2001: 1252) “have gradually lost their referential meaning and acquired a more abstract and pragmatic meaning in the sense that they refer not so much to situations in the world being talked about but 92 Análisis del Discurso
  • 5. 2.Análisis del Discurso 7/9/05 16:19 Página 93 mainly to the very act of speaking”. This would seem to make this DM of RF a clear case of SPECIALIZATION. 3.2. In other words The earliest example in the OED, the meaning of which is identical to modern examples, dates back to 1834. Ex. 6. 1834. H. MARTINEAU Moral i. 17 To make a greater quantity with the same capital; in other words, to abridge the labour. (OED) This DM does not seem to have undergone any phonetic changes. Semantically nothing seems to distinguish it from the meaning of the lexical phrase (PERSISTEN- CE) except that although it is seemingly plural in meaning, it can be used to refer to an S2 containing one single word (DIVERGENCE) as illustrated in the following example or a series of words. Ex. 7. Throughout the period of the Rough Wooing, there existed in Scotland men known as the “assured Scots”, those who formally contracted with and were often paid by the English-in other words collaborators. (BNC) Interestingly in the BNC corpus practically all examples of the sequence in other words are DMs of RF although the lexical use of this phrase is also found in a non- discourse marker sense as a verb complement: Ex. 8. Gina used to snarl “Allo!” down the phone. She was a little uneasy with the letter H and put it in other words, which was confusing; “hungry” “angry” were often made to sound the same. (BNC) 3.3. For example/instance Both these phrases, unlike the original lexical elements, function exclusively as DMs of RF (DIVERGENCE). The first attested DM use of for example in the OED is 1557 and 1707 in the case of for instance, as illustrated below, although they also occur in their variant forms as for example/instance. The first instances of for instan- ce and for example without as are first found in the OED in 1657 and 1641 respecti- vely. Ex. 9. 1557. RECORDE Whetst. A iij b, Euen nombers euenly, are such nombers as maie bee parted continually into euen halfes, till you come to an vnitie. As for example, 32. 1676 tr. (OED) 93 Perspectivas Interdisciplinares de la Lingüística Aplicada
  • 6. 2.Análisis del Discurso 7/9/05 16:19 Página 94 Ex. 10. 1707. J. STEVENS tr. Quevedo’s Com. Wks._ (1709) 350 Such Sayings are a Discredit to your self. As for instance the Devil and his Dam. (OED) Ex. 11. 1657. R. LIGON Barbadoes (1673) 19 The proof of this I found by looking on the Stars.., for instance, there is a little Star call’d Auriga [etc.]. (OED) Ex. 12. 1641. W. HAKEWILL Libertie of Subject 123 For example, Wharfage, Cranage, Scavage, and such like. (OED) PERSISTENCE of original meanings is clearly traceable if we consider the fact that both example/instance had been used as nouns before they took on a more spe- cialized pragmatic function as reformulators. The primary sense of example, according to the OED (cf 1447) is “something taken out, a sample or specimen” and also “a typical instance, a fact that illustrates”: Ex. 13. 1447. O BOKENHAM Seyntys Introd. (Roxb.) 3 And to thys manifold of nature Exaimplys, acordyth weel scripture. (OED) Ex. 14. 1398. TREVISA Barth. De P.R. ii. Xvi. (1495) C ij a/1 The angels take by yefte and yeue forth by example. (OED) In the case of instance, its development from noun to DM is less transparent than in the case of for example and it seems to have evolved from one of the original mea- nings of “eagerness, solicitation, a judicial process”, to that of “fact or example brought forward in support of a general assertion or an argument, or in illustration of a general truth” (OED): Ex. 15. c1374 CHAUCER Boeth. V. pr. Vi. 135 (Camb. MS.) _ou ne shalt nat demyn it as prescience of things to comyn, but _ou shal demyn it moore ryhtfully, _at it is science of presence, or of Instaunce. (OED) Ex. 16. 1597 SHAKES. 2 Hen. IV. IV.i. 83 The examples Of euery Minutes instance (present now) Hath put vs in these ill-beseeming Armes. (OED) Ex. 17. 1573 G. HARVEY Letter-bk. (Camden) 115 A marvelous instance Against all dalliance. (OED) It is from the original meanings of these nouns that these lexical units have taken on a pragmatic function as reformulators and have thus gone from meaning example/instance, to pointing to an illustration of the S1 or some aspect of it. This process of SPECIALIZATION from noun to DM has brought with it some syntactic restrictions. As DMs of RF, these two lexical units are restricted to the singular form, even if more than one example is offered to illustrate a claim in S1 –proof of its prag- 94 Análisis del Discurso
  • 7. 2.Análisis del Discurso 7/9/05 16:19 Página 95 matic status. Thus they contrast with the full lexical nouns which are found both in the singular and plural (one, two, three…examples/instances): Ex. 18. The lack of accounting harmonisation, particularly between the US and the UK, is seen by many bankers as the key issue in the development of the Euro-equity market, where new issues of shares are offered in more than one country simultaneously. Two examples highlight the problems. When British Telecom was privatised, shares were issued both in the US and the UK (and other jurisdictions). (BNC) Ex. 19. 1964 M CRITCHLEY Developmental Dyslexia i. 2 Another kind of dichotomy also came about, which looked upon cases of alexia without agraphia as instances of ‘agnosic alexia’. (OED) 3.4. Namely This reformulator functions exclusively as a DM of RF. Its original and no longer extant meanings, particularly, especially, above all, found from around 1175, are quite distinct from the modern meaning, pointing to a semantic and syntactic change –from an adjunct to a conjunct. DIVERGENCE thus, is not present but PERSISTEN- CE, vis-à-vis the noun that this DM derives from, is evident. Ex. 20. 1175 Lamb. Hom. 139 Sunnedei ah efri cristenne Mon nomeliche to chirche cume. (OED) Ex. 21. c1450 Merlin 8 In that the feende repaireth moste, bothe in man and woman, namly, when they be in grete ire. (OED) 3.5. To wit Derived from the OE verb witan, it is first attested in the DM sense in the long form that is to wit in 1340: Ex. 22. 1340. Ayenb. I Tuaye lettres of _e abece, _et is to wytene A. and b. (OED) Unlike that is to say which was reduced to that is, it is the verb phrase, to wit, which has survived in this case with a consequent reduction in form. The first attes- ted example of the short form to wit is found in 1577. Ex. 23. 1577 WOLTON Cast. Christians B viij b, That common saying.., that the beginning of virtue is of Nature, to wyt of Perfect Nature. (OED) 95 Perspectivas Interdisciplinares de la Lingüística Aplicada
  • 8. 2.Análisis del Discurso 7/9/05 16:19 Página 96 We think it is safe to say that to wit is semantically opaque to the vast majority of today’s speakers of English and it survives almost exclusively in written texts of a for- mal nature: Ex. 24. Whether for statutory or voluntary appointments and bodies, the abandonment of another gross inequity-to wit, ageism- requires a more sophisticated set of judgments. (BNC) To wit is somewhat of a fossil as the original verb and its derivatives have disap- peared. PERSISTENCE is only evident to those who are aware of its etymology. 3.6. Viz (Videlicet/i.e. [id est]) These two DMs were borrowed verbatim from Latin and have retained their origi- nal meaning to the present day showing PERSISTENCE but no DIVERGENCE. The earliest examples belong to Latin texts. Videlicet was first attested in an English text in 1464 and its reduced form viz in 1540: Ex. 25. 1646. Mann. & Househ. Exp. (Roxb.) 452 Alle odre percellis that are enteryd and engrosyd in my lordis book videlicet: Ferst etc. (OED) Ex. 26. 1540. J. LONDON in Ellis Orig. Lett. Ser. iii. III. 132 Thyder resortyd suche as hadde any slottiche wydowes lockes, viz. here growen to gether in a tufte. (OED) Nowadays, in the vast majority of cases, the abbreviated form, viz, is used. The original meaning is probably unknown to the vast majority of speakers: videre “to see” + licet “it is permissible” (OED). With regard to i.e./id est, the long form is attested in the OED in a Latin text to provide the equivalent of a Latin term in English as early as 805 while i.e. appears for the first time in 1315. Ex. 27. c1315. SHOREHAM Poems 3 Ac a deythe and he not [i.e. wots not] wanne. (OED) In the BNC, there are no cases of the full form: id est. The abbreviated form, i.e., has almost become a punctuation mark and may sometimes be replaced by a colon. 3.7. Or rather Functioning as a DM, rather is necessarily preceded by the conjunction or thus distinguishing it from other DMs of RF, namely, (or) more precisely, (or) more accura- tely, where the presence/absence of or is optional. Or rather does not seem to be 96 Análisis del Discurso
  • 9. 2.Análisis del Discurso 7/9/05 16:19 Página 97 used in contexts other than those of reformulation, as corroborated by the 784 hits in the BNC. The obligatory presence of or (cf. Fraser 2002) distinguishes the reformu- lator from that of its contrastive counterpart rather. However, we can safely say that, in spite of the presence of or, we are looking at a clear case of both DIVERGENCE and PERSISTENCE. The meaning of or rather is rather opaque if compared to (or) more precisely, (or) more accurately, and is far removed from the earliest meanings of rather such as “earlier”, “more quickly”, “more readily”, “sooner” some dating back to the 9th century (DIVERGENCE). Ex. 28. c850. O.E. Martyrol. 26 Dec., Hie him miclan _e re_ran wæron & _e ra_or hine oftorf od hæfdon. (OED) The seeds of the modern meaning of or rather, found in 1545, seem to derive from rather in the sense of “more readily”, “sooner”, which can also be found in Modern English in phrases like “I’d sooner/rather go out with the devil than with you”. Ex. 29. 1545. UDALL Erasm. Par. Luke (1548) 86 Nere about the summe of twelue or fifteen poundes sterlynge or rather aboue. (OED) The step from the modern meaning of preferring one thing to another embodied in many uses of rather to that of rectification, embodied in or rather, seems to be quite a small one to us. Thus, this DM would seem to be a classical case of grammaticaliza- tion, involving DIVERGENCE and PERSISTENCE; in this case a temporal adverb becoming a DM of RF. 3.8. (Or) more precisely, (or) more accurately The first recorded use of or more accurately is 1834, and 1815 for its counterpart or more precisely: Ex. 30. 1834. Nat. Philos., Astron. i. 13/2 (Useful Knowl. Soc.) Although the solar day is of variable length, we can ascertain its mean or average length; and this quantity is called a mean solar day. Ibid. 14/2 The length of the sidereal day is found to be uniformly 23 hours, 56 minutes, or more accurately 23h 56m 4s. b. all days: always, for ever. (OED) Ex. 31. 1815. P. ROBERTS Cambrian Antiq. 46 The Roundabout, or more precisely the Cheshire-round, is danced by two only. (OED) These reformulators have retained the meaning of their original lexical sources, the adverbs precisely/accurately (PERSISTENCE) and are much more transparent 97 Perspectivas Interdisciplinares de la Lingüística Aplicada
  • 10. 2.Análisis del Discurso 7/9/05 16:19 Página 98 (from a semantic point of view) than other DMs from the same group such as or rather. Unlike or rather, the DMs, more precisely/accurately, without the conjunction, can co-exist alongside their lexical counterparts, which function as adverbials. It is clear that as DMs, these units have gradually taken on a much more pragmatic meaning in the sense that they signal a comparison between something that has been said in the discourse segment S1 and a new version of it that is more precise, accurate or exact, from the speaker’s point of view or more in accordance with the facts stated. They have thus diverged from their original function. 3.9. (Or) better still/ yet These DMs of RF have also retained much of the original meaning of their compo- nents while diverging from a functional point of view. The OED registers the use of (or) better still as a discourse marker in 1873. Co-existence with the adverbial use is also recorded. However, one of the two forms specializes as a DM of RF in order to signal an improvement on the previous utterance or part of it. As a DM it can combi- ne with or unlike its adverbial counterpart. No example has been recorded for (or) better yet in the OED but it is used both as an adverbial and a DM. Ex. 32. 1873. J. H. H. ST. JOHN PAKEHA Rambles through Maori Lands vii. 128 With a blanket, or better still, a possum rug. (OED) Ex. 33. 1886. STEVENSON Dr. Jekyll i, The inhabitants were all doing well and all emulously hoping to do better still. (OED) 4. Conclusions None of the DMs of RF that we have looked at participate of all the characteris- tics of grammaticalization although most participate of one or more of them. Secondly, none of them undergo phonetic reduction, possibly because they are found between pauses in speech. Cases exist, however, where whole words are omitted as is the case of that is and to wit or where words are abbreviated: viz and i.e. Nevertheless, it must be said that phonetic reduction and/or truncation may be due to frequency of use and have nothing to do with grammaticalization (Newmeyer 2001: 199). Thirdly, SPECIALIZATION is found in all the DMs to the same degree but the only clear example we have found involving narrowing of meaning is or rather, and to wit and, to a lesser extent, namely. Viz and i.e, for example are scholarly terms borrowed from Latin and have not changed at all. We agree with Givón (1991) and Nicolle (1998) who challenge Bybee et al’s (1994:106) stance that semantic development occurs in parallel with the formal 98 Análisis del Discurso
  • 11. 2.Análisis del Discurso 7/9/05 16:19 Página 99 aspects of grammaticalization. Although forms may change gradually, semantic chan- ge is probably “instantaneous”; when a speaker makes a conceptual leap from the original meaning to a new meaning (cf. rather). We believe that the locus for semantic change is conversation and that it occurs during the negotiation of meaning. Howe- ver, we also firmly believe that for an item to become a DM, there must be something in the original meaning that suggests the DM function to various speakers in various contexts and at various times. Once more we agree with Archakis (2001, 1254) that the creation of a DM is dependent on its “behaviour as a lexical item”. With regard to PERSISTENCE, all of the DMs we have looked at participate of this characteristic, although it is much clearer in some cases such as in other words, (or)more precisely, and (or) better still. However, in the case of or rather, its original meaning: “earlier/sooner” is only traceable on closer examination. With regard to viz, to wit and i.e., only those who are aware of their etymology know that their original meaning persists. Finally, if we consider DIVERGENCE, certain DMs, (or) more pre- cisely and (or) better still, do co-exist with the earlier adverbial phrases, more preci- sely and better still. However, in the case of i.e. and viz., as they were borrowed from Latin, and their meanings have not changed DIVERGENCE is not a pertinent con- cept. Nor is it in the case of to wit as the original verb has practically disappeared. Or rather co-exists with other meanings of rather but the original meanings have disap- peared. The evidence we have gathered seems to point to the fact that although certain lexical items and phrases may become grammaticalized, grammaticalization cannot be said to constitute a “subset of linguistic changes through which a lexical item in certain uses becomes a grammatical item” (Hopper & Traugott 1993: 2). In this res- pect, we agree with Sweetser (1988: 389 cited in Newmeyer 2001: 197) that gram- maticalization should be described and explained “in terms of the same theoretical constructs necessary to describe and explain lexical semantic change in general”. In the case of DMs of RF, what they have in common is their function but they have developed in very different ways that seem to depend less on regular processes and more on random changes the causes of which are open to conjecture. 5. References Archakis, A. 2001. On discourse markers: Evidence from Modern Greek. Journal of Pragmatics 33: 1235-1261. Bybee, J.L., Perkins, R.D., Pagliuca, W. 1994. The Evolution of Grammar: Tense, Aspect, and Modality in the Languages of the World. University of Chicago Press, Chicago. 99 Perspectivas Interdisciplinares de la Lingüística Aplicada
  • 12. 2.Análisis del Discurso 7/9/05 16:19 Página 100 Campbell, L. 1998. Historical linguistics: An Introduction. MIT Press, Cambridge MA. Craig, C. 1990. Ways to go in Rama: a Case Study in Poligrammaticalization. Vol II. Eds. H. Traugott, H. Benjamins, Amsterdam. 455-492. Croft, W. 1990. Typology and Universals. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge. Del Saz, M. M. 2003. An analysis of English Discourse Markers of Reformulation. Servei de Publicacions de la Universitat de València. Del Saz, M.M. & B. Fraser. 2003. Reformulation in English. (unpublished manuscript). Fraser, B. 1999. What are Discourse Markers. Journal of Pragmatics 31: 931-952. Givón, T. 1971. Historical syntax and synchronic morphology: an archaeologist's filed trip. Chicago Linguistic Society 7: 394-415. Hopper, P.J. 1987. Emergent Grammar. Berkeley Linguistics Society 13: 139-157. Hopper, P.J. 1991 On some principles of grammaticalization. Approaches to Gram- maticalization. Eds. E. C. Traugott and B. Heine. Amsterdam, Benjamins. 18- 35. Joseph B.D & Janda R.D. 1988. The why and how of diachronic morphologization and demorphologization. Theoretical Morphology: Approaches in Modern Lin- guistics. Eds. M. Hammond and M. Noonan. Academic Press, San Diego. 193-210. McCarthy, M. 1994. It this and that. Advances in Written Text Analysis. Ed. M. Coul- thard. London: Routledge. 267-275. Hopper, P.J. & E.C. Traugott. 1993. Grammaticalization. Cambridge University Press. Meillet, A. 1912/1926. L´èvolution des formes grammaticale. Scientia (Rivista di Scienza) 12, 26(6). Newmeyer, F. J. 2001. Deconstructing grammaticalization. Language Sciences 23: 187-229. Nicolle, S. 1998. A relevance theory perspective on grammaticalization. Cognitive Linguistics 9, 1: 1-35. Sweetser, E. 1988. Grammaticalization and semantic bleaching. Berkeley Linguis- tics Society 14: 389-405. The British National Corpus, World Edition. 2000. Humanities Computing Unit of Oxford. The Oxford English Dictionary on Compact Disc. 1995. Oxford: Oxford University Press. 100 Análisis del Discurso