First Aid


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First Aid

  1. 1. FIRST AID
  2. 2. COURSE CONTENTS <ul><li>Introduction to First Aid </li></ul><ul><li>Assessing Casualty </li></ul><ul><li>Managing an Incident </li></ul><ul><li>Unconscious Casualty and Respiratory Problems </li></ul><ul><li>Wounds and Circulation </li></ul><ul><li>Bone, joint and muscle injuries </li></ul><ul><li>Emergency First Aid </li></ul><ul><li>Bandaging </li></ul><ul><li>Removal of Casualty and Transportation </li></ul>
  3. 3. WHAT IS FIRST AID ? First aid is the skilled application of accepted principles of treatment on the occurrence of any injury or in the case of illness, using facilities or materials available at the time. It is the approved method of treating a casualty until he is placed, if necessary, in the care of doctor or other skilled aid or removal to hospital
  4. 4. THE PURPOSE OF FIRST AID <ul><li>First aid is given to a casualty : </li></ul><ul><li>To preserve life </li></ul><ul><li>To prevent his condition deteriorating </li></ul><ul><li>To promote recovery </li></ul>
  5. 5. FIRST AID PRIORITIES <ul><li>Assess an situation quickly and calmly </li></ul><ul><li>Protect yourself and any casualties from danger (never put yourself at risk) </li></ul><ul><li>Prevent cross infection between yourself and the casualty </li></ul><ul><li>Comfort and reassure casualties at all times </li></ul><ul><li>Assess the casualty (identify, as far as you can, the injury or nature of illness affecting a casualty </li></ul><ul><li>Give early treatment and treat the casualties with the most serious (life threatening) conditions first </li></ul><ul><li>Arrange for appropriate help </li></ul><ul><li>Stay with a casualty until care is available </li></ul>
  6. 6. FIRST AIDER <ul><li>When responding to an emergency you should recognise both the emotional and physical needs of all involved, including your own </li></ul><ul><li>The keys steps to being an effective first aider are – </li></ul><ul><li>Be calm in your approach </li></ul><ul><li>Be aware of risks (to yourself and others) </li></ul><ul><li>Build and maintain trust (from the casualty and the bystanders) </li></ul><ul><li>Give early treatment – treating the most serious or life threatening conditions first </li></ul><ul><li>Call appropriate help </li></ul><ul><li>Remember your own needs </li></ul>
  7. 7. PROTECTION FROM INFECTION <ul><li>It is important to protect yourself and the casualty from infection as well as injury. </li></ul><ul><li>Take steps to avoid cross infection </li></ul><ul><li>Minimising the risk of cross infection: </li></ul><ul><li>Wash your hands </li></ul><ul><li>Wear disposable gloves </li></ul><ul><li>Cover cuts and glazes on your hands with waterproof dressings </li></ul><ul><li>Wear a plastic apron if dealing with large quantities of body fluids and wear plastic glasses to protect your eyes </li></ul><ul><li>Dispose of all waste safely </li></ul><ul><li>Do not touch a would with your bare hands and do not touch any part of a dressing that will come into contact with a wound </li></ul><ul><li>Do not breath, cough or sneeze over a wound while you are treating a casualty </li></ul>
  8. 8. DEALING WITH A CASUALTY <ul><li>Building trust </li></ul><ul><li>Establish trust by introducing yourself </li></ul><ul><li>Find out what the person likes to be called </li></ul><ul><li>Crouch or kneel down to the same height as the casualty </li></ul><ul><li>Explain what is happening and why </li></ul><ul><li>Inform the casualty what you are doing before you do it </li></ul><ul><li>Treat casualty with dignity and respect </li></ul>
  9. 9. <ul><li>Listen carefully </li></ul><ul><li>Make eye contact </li></ul><ul><li>Use a calm, confidence voice that is loud enough to be heard but do not shout </li></ul><ul><li>Do not speak too quickly </li></ul><ul><li>Keep instructions simple </li></ul><ul><li>Use affirming nods </li></ul><ul><li>Check that the casualty understands what you mean </li></ul><ul><li>Use simple hand gestures </li></ul><ul><li>Do not interrupt the casualty </li></ul>DEALING WITH A CASUALTY
  10. 10. ASSESSING THE SICK OR INJURED <ul><li>PRIMARY SURVEY </li></ul><ul><li>SECONDARY SURVEY </li></ul>
  11. 11. ASSESSING THE SICK OR INJURED <ul><li>Is an initial rapid assessment of a casualty to establish and treat conditions that are an immediate threat to life </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>DANGER </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>RESPONSE </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>AIRWAY </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>BREATHING </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>CIRCULATION </li></ul></ul></ul>DR ABC PRIMARY SURVEY
  12. 12. THE ABC CHECK AIRWAY Is the casualty’s airway open and clear NO YES CONSCIOUS If the casualty is conscious treat conditions such as choking or suffocation that cause the airway to be blocked. Go to the next stage BREATHING when the airway is open and clear. UNCONSCIOUS If the casualty is unconscious, tilt the head and lift the chin to open the airway. Go to the next stage BREATHING when the airway is open and clear.
  13. 13. Tongue Blocking AIRWAY Opened AIRWAY
  14. 14. THE ABC CHECK BREATHING Is the casualty breathing normally? Look, listen and feel for breaths NO YES CONSCIOUS Treat any difficulty found; for example, asthma. Go to the next stage, CIRCULATION, when the casualty is breathing and the problem is being adequately treated. UNCONSCIOUS If the casualty is uncouscious and not breathing, call for. emergency help. Being CPR. If this happens, you are unlikely to move on to the next stage.
  15. 15. THE ABC CHECK CIRCULATION Are there any signs of severe bleeding YES NO Control the BLEEDING . Call for emergency help. Treat the casualty to minimise the risk of shock. If life threatening conditions are managed, or there are none present, move on to the secondary survey to check for other injury or illness
  16. 16. DR ABC SECONDARY SURVEY HEAD-TO-TOE EXAMINATION <ul><li>Question the casualty and people around him </li></ul><ul><li>Ideally the casualty should remain in the position found, at least until you are satisfied that it is safe to move into a more comfortable position </li></ul>
  17. 17. DR ABC SECONDARY SURVEY <ul><li>Include :- </li></ul><ul><li>Disability – level of response </li></ul><ul><li>Examine the casualty </li></ul>HISTORY – What happened ? SYMPTOMS – Information from casualty SIGNS – finding from examination of casualty
  19. 19. SECONDARY SURVEY EVENT HISTORY <ul><li>To find out what happened or to discover the immediate events leading up to the incident </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Accident </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Snake bite </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Fall </li></ul></ul></ul>
  20. 20. SECONDARY SURVEY PREVIOUS MEDICAL HISTORY <ul><li>To find out any previous medical history or problem that may lead to the incident : </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Medical bracelet </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>medication </li></ul></ul></ul>
  21. 21. SECONDARY SURVEY TAKING HISTORY <ul><li>Ask what happened – establish whether incident due to illness or accident. </li></ul><ul><li>Ask about medication – currently taking </li></ul><ul><li>Ask about medical history – ongoing and previous conditions </li></ul><ul><li>Find out if the casualty has any allergies </li></ul><ul><li>Check when the person last had something to eat or drink </li></ul><ul><li>Note the presence of a medical warning bracelet </li></ul><ul><ul><li>May indicate an ongoing medical condition, such as epilepsy, diabetes or anaphylaxis. </li></ul></ul>
  22. 22. SECONDARY SURVEY SYMPTOMS <ul><li>Sensations that the casualty feels and describes to you. </li></ul><ul><li> - pain </li></ul><ul><li> - nausea </li></ul><ul><li> - giddiness </li></ul><ul><li> - heat </li></ul><ul><li> - cold </li></ul><ul><li> - thirst </li></ul>
  23. 23. SECONDARY SURVEY SIGNS <ul><li>Features or findings from examination of casualty through observing and feeling the casualty </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Swelling </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Bleeding </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Discolouration </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Deformity </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Smells </li></ul></ul>LOOK LISTEN FEEL SMELL
  24. 24. SECONDARY SURVEY Always compare the injured and uninjured sodes pf the body. You may also notice that the person is unable to perform normal functions, such moving his limbs or standing. SIGNS
  25. 25. SECONDARY SURVEY A – Allergy – does the person have any allergies ? M – Medication – is the person on any medication ? P – Previous Medical History L – Last Meal – when did the person last eat ? E – Event History – what happened?
  26. 26. MAKE DECISION What Action to be taken ??