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  1. 1. ISLAM: Submission to the Will of Allah By: Mrs. Agosta, Mrs. Hassett and Ms. Pojer
  2. 2. MUSLIM: One who submits to the Will of Allah
  3. 3. <ul><li>Founder of Islam in the 7th century C.E. in Mecca. </li></ul><ul><li>Considered the seal of the prophets (the last person to reveal the word of God.) </li></ul>I. MOHAMMED
  4. 4. <ul><li>Led the fight against idolatry and polytheism. </li></ul><ul><li>Idolatry- worship of statues and idols </li></ul><ul><li>LET’S REVIEW! </li></ul><ul><li>Polytheism- belief in many gods </li></ul><ul><li>Monotheism- belief in one god </li></ul>
  5. 5. II. The Five Pillars of Faith <ul><li>Major Rules of Islam </li></ul>
  6. 6. 1. Declaration of Faith <ul><li>Shahada </li></ul><ul><li>Also called the Profession of faith </li></ul><ul><li>Shows monotheism </li></ul>There is no god worthy of worship except God, and Muhammad is His Messenger [or Prophet]. DON’T WRITE
  7. 7. 2. Prayer <ul><li>Salat </li></ul><ul><li>A. Must pray 5x a day </li></ul><ul><li>B. Facing Mecca </li></ul><ul><li>C. Recite from the Koran (Qur’an) or sacred text </li></ul><ul><li>D. Muslims worship in a Mosque on Fridays </li></ul>
  8. 8. <ul><li>Prayers performed at: * dawn * noon * late afternoon * sunset * before going to bed </li></ul>DON’T WRITE
  9. 9. <ul><li>A Muezzin calls Muslims to prayer from the Minaret or tower at the corner of the mosque. </li></ul>WRITE
  10. 10. <ul><li>One must wash before praying. </li></ul><ul><li>One must prayer on a prayer rug or a clean space. </li></ul>DON’T WRITE
  11. 11. 3. Almsgiving <ul><li>Zakat means Charity </li></ul><ul><li>Muslims believe that all things belong to God. </li></ul><ul><li>Should donate 2.5% of your income. </li></ul><ul><li>Should be anonymous </li></ul>
  12. 12. 4. Fasting <ul><li>Sawm </li></ul><ul><li>Fasting during the holy month of Ramadan . </li></ul><ul><li>No eating or drinking from sunrise to sunset during R amadan. </li></ul><ul><li>For self-purification and s hows devotion to Allah </li></ul>
  13. 13. Eid Mubarak End of the Ramadan holiday. Ramadan takes place at a different time each year because it is based on the lunar calendar. DON’T WRITE
  14. 14. 5. Pilgrimage <ul><li>Hajj (Hadj) </li></ul><ul><li>Religious journey to Mecca done at least once in a Muslim’s lifetime if you are well and can afford it. </li></ul>
  15. 15. <ul><li>Kaa ba - most revered (honored) shrine in Mecca. </li></ul><ul><li>Cube-like structure Muslims believe was built by Abraham </li></ul><ul><li>Muslims gather and circle around it during hajj </li></ul>
  16. 17. <ul><li>In Mecca all pilgrims wear white robes to symbolize their equality in the eyes of god. </li></ul><ul><li>Only Muslims are welcome in Mecca. </li></ul>DON’T WRITE
  17. 18. <ul><li>Koran (Qur’an) </li></ul><ul><li>Holy book of Islam. </li></ul><ul><li>Considered to be God’s last revelation given to Muhammed. </li></ul><ul><li>The Sharia is the Islamic code of laws contained in the Koran. It shows how to live. </li></ul>III. Important Beliefs
  18. 19. <ul><li>KORAN DO’S AND DON’TS </li></ul><ul><li>FORBIDDEN: REQUIRED: </li></ul><ul><li>Drinking alcohol Honor your parents </li></ul><ul><li>Eating pork Protect women and </li></ul><ul><li>Gambling children </li></ul><ul><li>Worship of idols Fight a holy war (jihad) </li></ul><ul><li>Charging interest against evil </li></ul><ul><li>on loans </li></ul>
  19. 20. <ul><li>O ther holy cities in Islam: </li></ul><ul><li>Medina - Muhammed fled there from Mecca. This is called the hijra, which is the beginning of the Muslim calendar </li></ul>Meccan merchants sought to kill Muhammad for clearing the Kaaba of idols (He was bad for business). In 622 CE, Muhammad and his followers left Mecca for Medina. This was a turning point for Islam; Muslim converts in Medina welcomed Muhammad, and the religion grew. DON’T WRITE
  20. 21. <ul><li>Jerusalem - Dome of the Rock </li></ul>Mount Moriah Rock where Muhammad ascended to heaven.
  21. 22. <ul><li>Sects of Islam </li></ul><ul><li>Sunni - believe any Muslim can be caliph or religious leader. Orthodox (stricter) form of Islam </li></ul><ul><li>Shia or Shi’ite - believe only direct descendants of Muhammed can be caliph. </li></ul>
  22. 24. <ul><li>View of Women </li></ul><ul><li>The Kuran protects women but men’s interpretation of Kuran changed things. </li></ul><ul><li>Must be veiled when they leave the house in Muslim countries. </li></ul>DON’T WRITE
  23. 25. Muslim Women in Burkas
  24. 26. Muslim Women in Head Scarves
  25. 27. What’s the difference between Muslim women in burkas and the way Christian nuns dress?
  26. 28. The Judeo-Christian Foundations of Islam
  27. 29. Islam has Judeo-Christian Foundations <ul><li>Muslims are strict monotheists. </li></ul><ul><li>They believe in the same God as Jews and Christians. </li></ul><ul><li>Muslims believe that the Torah and the Bible , like the Qur’an , is the word of God. </li></ul><ul><li>Muslims call Jews and Christians “People of the Book” </li></ul>
  28. 30. The Prophetic Tradition Adam Noah Abraham Moses Jesus Muhammad
  29. 31. Abraham’s Genealogy ABRAHAM SARAH HAGAR Isaac Esau Jacob 12 Tribes of Israel Ishmael 12 Arabian Tribes
  30. 32. The Origins of the Qur’an <ul><li>Muhammad received his first revelation from the angel Gabriel in the Cave of Hira in 610. </li></ul><ul><li>622  Hijrah  Muhammed flees Mecca for Medina. * The beginning of the Muslim calendar ( 1 A.H. ) </li></ul><ul><li>Muhammad’s revelations were compiled into the Qur’an after his death. </li></ul>
  31. 33. The Qur’an <ul><li>Muslims believe it contains the word of God. </li></ul><ul><li>114 suras (chapters). </li></ul><ul><li>In the name of Allah, the compassionate, the merciful. </li></ul><ul><li>Written in Arabic. </li></ul>
  32. 34. Other Islamic Religious Practices <ul><li>Up to four wives allowed at once. </li></ul><ul><li>No alcohol or pork. </li></ul><ul><li>No gambling. </li></ul><ul><li>Sharia  body of Islamic law to regulate daily living. </li></ul><ul><li>Three holiest cities in Islam: * Mecca, Medina, Jerusalem. </li></ul>
  33. 35. The Spread of Islam <ul><li>Easy to learn and practice. </li></ul><ul><li>No priesthood. </li></ul><ul><li>Teaches equality. </li></ul><ul><li>Non-Muslims, who were “Peoples of the Book,” were allowed religious freedom, but paid additional taxes. </li></ul><ul><li>Easily “portable”  nomads & trade routes. </li></ul><ul><li>Jihad (“Holy War”) against pagans and other non-believers (“infidels”). </li></ul>
  34. 36. The Mosque <ul><li>The Muslim place of worship. </li></ul>
  35. 37. Essential Question: Why was Islam able to spread so quickly and convert so many to the new religion?
  36. 38. Muslims in the World Today
  37. 39. Countries with the Largest Muslim Population * Arabs make up only 20% of the total Muslim population of the world. 29,000,000 Morocco 10. 66,000,000 Turkey 5. 31,000,000 Algeria 9. 114,000,000 Bangladesh 4. 53,000,000 Nigeria 8. 121,000,000 India 3. 59,000,000 Egypt 7. 134,000,000 Pakistan 2. 62,000,000 Iran 6. 183,000,000 Indonesia 1.
  38. 40. Islam in America
  39. 41. Muslims in America
  40. 42. Muslim Culture in NYC The Islamic Center, New York City
  41. 47. Islam in America After September 11?