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Western civilisation begins

Western civilisation begins

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  • a second invention of the Dark Age, the stirrup.
  • 3. an improved collar for draft animals, which pulls against the shoulder blades rather than the neck. 4. the horseshoe
  • 3. an improved collar for draft animals, which pulls against the shoulder blades rather than the neck. 4. the horseshoe
  • Charlemagne couldn’t live year round here because inadequate infrastructure (physical, economic) made it unrealistic to feed his household year round. For all his ambitions, his military successes were not matched by the economic situation of the time.
  • Geopolitically, Lothar got the worst of the three kingdoms. His brothers’ successors gobbled it up and part of it (Alsace-Lorraine) traded hands as recently as 1945. The Netherlands, Belgium, Luxembourg, and Switzerland are known as the Lotharingian Corridor States, or Lotharingia.
  • Why is there no good feudal pyramid diagram? Were lords not knights? Were knights not vassals?
  • Question: to plow under the weeds before they produce seed, thus taking care of the weed problem in this field for a couple of years.
  • . . . but the majority of houses were build with wood frames
  • Here might be a good place to discuss how wheat is harvested and turned into flour.
  • Answer: The seed was broadcast sown rather than in rows (that was not done until Jethro Tull invented the seed drill). THEREFORE, the farmer could not walk into the field to remove weeds. THEREFORE, the fallow field system made weed control by possible by allowing the farmer to plow all the weeds in the fallow field under before they reached reproductive maturity.
  • Note half-timber construction, thatched roofs Note also that the town does not have the more advanced (viz., fire resistant) brick and tile construction Mouse click adds lines dividing the picture into four quarters; subsequent click removes lines UL: drainage in street device for lifting objects to upper floor shop opening out from lower floor blacksmith slop bucket being emptied from upper floor UR: parade of monks sheep, ostensibly between pastures city walls nearby castle public baths LL: gothic church covered market area (traffic accident) (misbehaving kids confronted by priest) LR: man in stocks butcher’s offel being dumped into stream covered litter (accident) city walls half-timber house under construction—wattle and daub being added (picture has not been cropped, and continues slightly on the right) The site from which I got this wonderful picture did not identify it in any way. picture added October 2007
  • Note half-timber construction, thatched roofs Note also that the town does not have the more advanced (viz., fire resistant) brick and tile construction Mouse click adds lines dividing the picture into four quarters; subsequent click removes lines UL: drainage in street device for lifting objects to upper floor shop opening out from lower floor blacksmith slop bucket being emptied from upper floor UR parade of monks sheep, ostensibly between pastures city walls nearby castle public baths LL gothic church covered market area (traffic accident) (misbehaving kids confronted by priest) LR man in stocks butcher’s offel being dumped into stream covered litter (accident) city walls half-timber house under construction—wattle and daub being added (picture has not been cropped, and continues slightly on the right) The site from which I got this wonderful picture did not identify it in any way. picture added October 2007
  • UR parade of monks sheep, ostensibly between pastures city walls nearby castle public baths (uncropped portion on right shown in this view)
  • UR parade of monks sheep, ostensibly between pastures city walls nearby castle public baths (uncropped portion on right shown in this view)
  • Note half-timber construction, thatched roofs Note also that the town does not have the more advanced (viz., fire resistant) brick and tile construction Mouse click adds lines dividing the picture into four quarters; subsequent click removes lines UL: drainage in street device for lifting objects to upper floor shop opening out from lower floor blacksmith slop bucket being emptied from upper floor UR parade of monks sheep, ostensibly between pastures city walls nearby castle public baths LL gothic church covered market area (traffic accident) (misbehaving kids confronted by priest) LR man in stocks butcher’s offel being dumped into stream covered litter (accident) city walls half-timber house under construction—wattle and daub being added (picture has not been cropped, and continues slightly on the right) The site from which I got this wonderful picture did not identify it in any way. picture added October 2007
  • Note half-timber construction, thatched roofs Note also that the town does not have the more advanced (viz., fire resistant) brick and tile construction Mouse click adds lines dividing the picture into four quarters; subsequent click removes lines UL: drainage in street device for lifting objects to upper floor shop opening out from lower floor blacksmith slop bucket being emptied from upper floor UR parade of monks sheep, ostensibly between pastures city walls nearby castle public baths LL gothic church covered market area (traffic accident) (misbehaving kids confronted by priest) LR man in stocks butcher’s offel being dumped into stream covered litter (accident) city walls half-timber house under construction—wattle and daub being added (picture has not been cropped, and continues slightly on the right) The site from which I got this wonderful picture did not identify it in any way. picture added October 2007
  • LR man in stocks butcher’s offel being dumped into stream covered litter (accident) city walls half-timber house under construction—wattle and daub being added (uncropped portion on right shown in this view)
  • Note half-timber construction, thatched roofs Note also that the town does not have the more advanced (viz., fire resistant) brick and tile construction Mouse click adds lines dividing the picture into four quarters; subsequent click removes lines UL: drainage in street device for lifting objects to upper floor shop opening out from lower floor blacksmith slop bucket being emptied from upper floor UR parade of monks sheep, ostensibly between pastures city walls nearby castle public baths LL gothic church covered market area (traffic accident) (misbehaving kids confronted by priest) LR man in stocks butcher’s offel being dumped into stream covered litter (accident) city walls half-timber house under construction—wattle and daub being added (picture has not been cropped, and continues slightly on the right) The site from which I got this wonderful picture did not identify it in any way. picture added October 2007
  • LL gothic church covered market area (traffic accident) (misbehaving kids confronted by priest)
  • Answer: The land they occupied became streets, parks, etc. as the following slides show.
  • Sale of some of the land to private builders in Vienna paid for the roads, parks, and public buildings on the rest of the land. The Ringstrasse and its public parks and buildings are a jewel in modern Vienna.
  • Answer: The castle
  • Answer: probably because conditions were more sanitary on the Bridge and no rats lived there.
  • See Architecture: The Natural and the Manmade , by Vincent Scully, page 172.
  • Question: to hide its old origins, as this construction was no longer in style (it once again is in Germany)
  • Question: Mt. Vernon, George Washington’s house
  • Question: Mt. Vernon, George Washington’s house
  • Old English word for animal and its meat French word for animal and meat becomes limited to the animal only: bec. English word for meat: 1. cow beef 2. pig pork 3. deer venison 4. sheep mutton But: chicken gets no new word because castle dwellers didn’t eat chicken.
  • Thomas Becket, not Thomas a Becket (but, Thomas a Kempis)
  • Throw in Laurence Olivier’s version of the speech (1948), or Kenneth Brannagh’s, and then add the soldier’s recitation of the same speech during the stormy night exercises in Renaissance Man (with Danny DeVito).

Pp8 western civilization_begins Pp8 western civilization_begins Presentation Transcript

  • WesternCivilizationBegins Content of the slide presentationContent of the slide presentation 100 pictures and diagrams100 pictures and diagrams 38 maps38 maps 21 questions21 questions 4 narratives:4 narratives: 1. quick Byzantine geographic summary1. quick Byzantine geographic summary 2. transition from Greco-Roman Civilization2. transition from Greco-Roman Civilization 3. development of Romance languages3. development of Romance languages 4. medieval architecture4. medieval architecture With the exception of the above, the presentation is,With the exception of the above, the presentation is, therefore, meant to accompany another narrative.therefore, meant to accompany another narrative. The visuals follow this outline:The visuals follow this outline: I. OverviewsI. Overviews II. Charlemagne attempts to rebuild the WesternII. Charlemagne attempts to rebuild the Western Roman EmpireRoman Empire III. Life in medieval EuropeIII. Life in medieval Europe IV. The Christian ChurchIV. The Christian Church (V. Language—no visuals)(V. Language—no visuals) VI. Medieval architectureVI. Medieval architecture VII. Medieval EnglandVII. Medieval England Slide 62 has detailed notes about its contents.Slide 62 has detailed notes about its contents.
  • WesternWestern Civilization BeginsCivilization Begins The Western RomanThe Western Roman Empire has CollapsedEmpire has Collapsed The final marker was the fall ofThe final marker was the fall of the city of Rome, 476.the city of Rome, 476. Ronald Wiltse revised November 2007
  • I. OverviewI. OverviewWesternCivilizationBegins The Western Roman Empire collapses. A new civilization arises from its ashes: Western Civilization. The rest of the Roman Empire carries on. Eventually, we will call it the Byzantine Empire (but they always called themselves Romans). View slide
  • I. Overview:I. Overview: quick Byzantine Civilizationquick Byzantine Civilization summarysummaryWesternCivilizationBegins The Roman Empire survives only in its eastern half. Fortunately, two hundred years earlier the Emperor Constantine had moved the capital from Rome to the more easily defended, more thickly populated, and richer eastern half, on the site of the old Greek colonial polis of Byzantium. It is renamed Constantinople, but the people came to call it Stamboul (probably Greek for “into the city”, and source of today’s name Istanbul). AD 476 Note the changing date Note the changing size View slide
  • I. Overview:I. Overview: quick Byzantine Civilizationquick Byzantine Civilization summarysummaryWesternCivilizationBegins Under Emperor Justinian (527-565), the Roman Empire recovers somewhat. Although the citizens call their empire Roman until the end in 1453, historians today call it the Byzantine Empire and consider its civilization no longer Greco-Roman, but: Byzantine Civilization. AD 565
  • I. Overview:I. Overview: quick Byzantine Civilizationquick Byzantine Civilization summarysummaryWesternCivilizationBegins The Byzantine Empire is shrinking under pressure from expanding Islamic kingdoms. AD 814
  • I. Overview:I. Overview: quick Byzantine Civilizationquick Byzantine Civilization summarysummaryWesternCivilizationBegins AD 1180 A shrinking empire forces Constantinople to shrink. Why
  • I. Overview:I. Overview: quick Byzantine Civilizationquick Byzantine Civilization summarysummaryWesternCivilizationBegins AD 1180 A shrinking empire forces Constantinople to shrink. Why ?
  • I. Overview:I. Overview: quick Byzantine Civilizationquick Byzantine Civilization summarysummaryWesternCivilizationBegins AD 1180 A shrinking empire forces Constantinople to shrink. Why . . . because large cities need large areas of land to provide the necessary food.?
  • I. Overview:I. Overview: quick Byzantine Civilizationquick Byzantine Civilization summarysummaryWesternCivilizationBegins AD 1452 The Byzantine Empire has been reduced to little more than Constantinople by the growing Islamic empire of the Ottomans.
  • I. Overview:I. Overview: quick Byzantine Civilizationquick Byzantine Civilization summarysummaryWesternCivilizationBegins AD 1453 Constantinople is captured in 1453 by the expanding Ottoman Empire.
  • I. Overview:I. Overview: quick Byzantine Civilizationquick Byzantine Civilization summarysummaryWesternCivilizationBegins Byzantine Civilization after Constantinople Byzantine culture coexists with Islamic Civilization for centuries to come. . . . And now back to the new Western Civilization.
  • I. OverviewI. OverviewWesternCivilizationBegins Various barbarian groups had immigrated into/invaded the Western Roman Empire before it collapsed. Various barbarian groups had immigrated into/invaded the Western Roman Empire before it collapsed.
  • I. OverviewI. OverviewWesternCivilizationBegins The fall of Greco-Roman Civilization in the West led to a dark age between Greco-Roman and Western civilizations. Similarly, dark ages occurred between Indus and Indian civilizations, and Cretan and Greek civilizations.
  • I. OverviewI. OverviewWesternCivilizationBegins The fall of Greco-Roman Civilization in the West led to a dark age between Greco-Roman and Western civilizations. Similarly, dark ages occurred between Indus and Indian civilizations, and Cretan and Greek civilizations.
  • I. OverviewI. OverviewWesternCivilizationBegins Unlike the other two dark ages, ours saw the survival of writing.
  • I. OverviewI. OverviewWesternCivilizationBegins New land, a new mixture of peoples, and a new way of doing things leads to a new formulation of civilized life, Western Civilization, our own civilization. After about 300 years, the level of the new civilization leads to the end of the dark age, . . . and further challenges.
  • I. OverviewI. OverviewWesternCivilizationBegins New invaders—Vikings, Muslims, and Hungarians (Magyars)— invaded after the new Western Civilization had begun.
  • I. OverviewI. OverviewWesternCivilizationBegins New invaders—Vikings, Muslims, and Hungarians (Magyars)— invaded after the new Western Civilization had begun.
  • I. OverviewI. OverviewWesternCivilizationBegins New invaders—Vikings, Muslims, and Hungarians (Magyars)—invaded after the new Western Civilization had begun.
  • I. OverviewI. OverviewWesternCivilizationBegins New invaders—Vikings, Muslims, and Hungarians (Magyars)—invaded after the new Western Civilization had begun.
  • I. OverviewI. OverviewWesternCivilizationBegins New invaders—Vikings, Muslims, and Hungarians (Magyars)— invaded after the new Western Civilization had begun.
  • I. OverviewI. OverviewWesternCivilizationBegins New invaders—Vikings, Muslims, and Hungarians (Magyars)— invaded after the new Western Civilization had begun.
  • I. OverviewI. OverviewWesternCivilizationBegins New invaders—Vikings, Muslims, and Hungarians (Magyars)— invaded after the new Western Civilization had begun.
  • I. OverviewI. OverviewWesternCivilizationBegins New invaders—Vikings, Muslims, and Hungarians (Magyars)— invaded after the new Western Civilization had begun. Ethnic makeup of Europeans at AD 1000: descendants of Romans & Germans, assimilated Vikings, assimilated Hungarians, Celts Ethnic makeup of Europeans at AD 1000: descendants of Romans & Germans, assimilated Vikings, assimilated Hungarians, Celts
  • I. OverviewI. OverviewWesternCivilizationBegins Greco-Roman Civilization centered on the sandy-soiled, moderate climate Mediterranean. The new Western Civilization is centered on clay-soiled, cooler & wetter France. To function farther north, farmers must adjust to these new conditions.
  • I. OverviewI. OverviewWesternCivilizationBegins The Mediterranean climate is warmer than farther north.
  • I. OverviewI. OverviewWesternCivilizationBegins The absence of mountains in the North European Plain opens the way for westerlies ( ) to carry rain far inland. ?
  • I. OverviewI. OverviewWesternCivilizationBegins The absence of mountains in the North European Plain opens the way for westerlies ( ) to carry rain far inland. ? Storms form over the North Atlantic every few days.
  • I. OverviewI. OverviewWesternCivilizationBegins The absence of mountains in the North European Plain opens the way for westerlies ( ) to carry rain far inland. ?Settlers with a heavy plow that can cut the heavy clay soils of Norther n Europe will settle this area.
  • I. OverviewI. OverviewWesternCivilizationBegins The absence of mountains in the North European Plain opens the way for westerlies ( ) to carry rain far inland. ?Settlers with a heavy plow that can cut the heavy clay soils of Norther n Europe will settle this area. Which civilization, Byzantine or Western, will settle this area Which civilization, Byzantine or Western, will settle this area ? ? ? ?
  • I. OverviewI. OverviewWesternCivilizationBegins The reason Poland is part of Western Civilization and not Russian The moldboard plow An invention of the Dark Age:An invention of the Dark Age:
  • I. OverviewI. OverviewWesternCivilizationBegins The moldboard plow The plow tip The reason Poland is part of Western Civilization and not Russian An invention of the Dark Age:An invention of the Dark Age:
  • I. OverviewI. OverviewWesternCivilizationBegins The moldboard The plow tip The moldboard plow The reason Poland is part of Western Civilization and not Russian An invention of the Dark Age:An invention of the Dark Age:
  • I. OverviewI. OverviewWesternCivilizationBegins The moldboard plow turning the soil upwards and to the right.
  • I. OverviewI. OverviewWesternCivilizationBegins The moldboard plow turning the soil upwards and to the right.
  • I. OverviewI. OverviewWesternCivilizationBegins Flat, clay soil also tends to drain poorly (such as in Northern Europe). The moldboard, when the farmer always plows to the right, makes the center of the field higher, improving the drainage.?How ?
  • I. OverviewI. OverviewWesternCivilizationBegins The only surviving Roman statue of a man on horseback (Marcus Aurelius. Capitoline ) What is missing?
  • I. OverviewI. OverviewWesternCivilizationBegins The stirrup Another invention of the Dark Age:Another invention of the Dark Age:
  • I. OverviewI. OverviewWesternCivilizationBegins An improved collar for draft animals Two other inventions of the Dark Age:Two other inventions of the Dark Age:
  • I. OverviewI. OverviewWesternCivilizationBegins The horseshoe Two other inventions of the Dark Age:Two other inventions of the Dark Age:
  • II. Charlemagne attempts to rebuild the W.II. Charlemagne attempts to rebuild the W. Roman EmpireRoman EmpireWesternCivilizationBegins Charles The Great, commonly known in English as Charlemagne
  • II. Charlemagne attempts to rebuild the W.II. Charlemagne attempts to rebuild the W. Roman EmpireRoman EmpireWesternCivilizationBegins Charles The Great Charles The Great all glassy eyed
  • II. Charlemagne attempts to rebuild the W.II. Charlemagne attempts to rebuild the W. Roman EmpireRoman EmpireWesternCivilizationBegins Charley’s house (but he can’t get enough food locally to live here all year)
  • II. Charlemagne attempts to rebuild the W.II. Charlemagne attempts to rebuild the W. Roman EmpireRoman EmpireWesternCivilizationBegins Charlemag ne built on his Frankish inheritance and created an empire. It failed to function well because land alone is not enough. Charlemag ne built on his Frankish inheritance and created an empire. It failed to function well because land alone is not enough.
  • II. Charlemagne attempts to rebuild the W.II. Charlemagne attempts to rebuild the W. Roman EmpireRoman EmpireWesternCivilizationBegins Charlemag ne built on his Frankish inheritance and created an empire. It failed to function well because land alone is not enough. Charlemag ne built on his Frankish inheritance and created an empire. It failed to function well because land alone is not enough.
  • II. Charlemagne attempts to rebuild the W.II. Charlemagne attempts to rebuild the W. Roman EmpireRoman EmpireWesternCivilizationBegins Charley gets a new hat from Leo III : Emperor of the Romans
  • II. Charlemagne attempts to rebuild the W.II. Charlemagne attempts to rebuild the W. Roman EmpireRoman EmpireWesternCivilizationBegins Remembe r this when we study Napoleo n!
  • II. Charlemagne attempts to rebuild the W.II. Charlemagne attempts to rebuild the W. Roman EmpireRoman EmpireWesternCivilizationBegins Charlemagne’s Empire (green+yellow) and the Roman Empire (which we now call the Byzantine Empire) Charlemagne’s Empire (green+yellow) and the Roman Empire (which we now call the Byzantine Empire) Whoa! There already is a Roman Emperor!
  • II. Charlemagne attempts to rebuild the W.II. Charlemagne attempts to rebuild the W. Roman EmpireRoman EmpireWesternCivilizationBegins This annoys the Roman Emperor in Constantinople. Whoa! There already is a Roman Emperor! Charlemagne’s Empire (green+yellow) and the Roman Empire (which we now call the Byzantine Empire) Charlemagne’s Empire (green+yellow) and the Roman Empire (which we now call the Byzantine Empire)
  • II. Charlemagne attempts to rebuild the W.II. Charlemagne attempts to rebuild the W. Roman EmpireRoman EmpireWesternCivilizationBegins Note that the political boundaries of 843 also marked the language boundaries of French and German which still exist in the twentieth century (Lothair’s Within 30 years, Charlemagne’s empire is divided among his 3 grandsons.
  • Note that the political boundaries of 843 also marked the language boundaries of French and German which still exist in the twentieth century (Lothair’s II. Charlemagne attempts to rebuild the W.II. Charlemagne attempts to rebuild the W. Roman EmpireRoman EmpireWesternCivilizationBegins Within 30 years, Charlemagne’s empire is divided among his 3 grandsons.
  • III. Life in Medieval EuropeIII. Life in Medieval EuropeWesternCivilizationBegins “Fiefs and peasants ”: What are fiefs “Fiefs and peasants ”: What are fiefs ? Feudal pyramid
  • III. Life in Medieval EuropeIII. Life in Medieval EuropeWesternCivilizationBegins “Fiefs and peasants ”: What are fiefs “Fiefs and peasants ”: What are fiefs ? Feudal pyramid All are lords, all are knights, all are vassals, all except the bottom row have vassals All are lords, all are knights, all are vassals, all except the bottom row have vassals
  • III. Life in Medieval EuropeIII. Life in Medieval EuropeWesternCivilizationBegins The Manor: a self-sufficient economic unit
  • III. Life in Medieval EuropeIII. Life in Medieval EuropeWesternCivilizationBegins What does fallo wmean What does fallo wmean? The Manor: a self-sufficient economic unit
  • III. Life in Medieval EuropeIII. Life in Medieval EuropeWesternCivilizationBegins What does fallo wmean What does fallo wmean? The Manor: a self-sufficient economic unit 1 2 3 5 6 4What is…
  • III. Life in Medieval EuropeIII. Life in Medieval EuropeWesternCivilizationBegins What does fallo wmean What does fallo wmean? The Manor: a self-sufficient economic unit 1 2 3 5 6 4 Note that this field has been plowed. Note that this field has been plowed. Why?
  • III. Life in Medieval EuropeIII. Life in Medieval EuropeWesternCivilizationBegins What does fallo wmean What does fallo wmean? The Manor: a self-sufficient economic unit 1 2 3 5 6 4What is missing from this view of a manor? . . . there is no mill or manor house
  • III. Life in Medieval EuropeIII. Life in Medieval EuropeWesternCivilizationBegins A well-off peasant’s hut: after the invention of the firep
  • III. Life in Medieval EuropeIII. Life in Medieval EuropeWesternCivilizationBegins Illustrati on from a hand- made book. Illustrati on from a hand- made book.
  • III. Life in Medieval EuropeIII. Life in Medieval EuropeWesternCivilizationBegins
  • III. Life in Medieval EuropeIII. Life in Medieval EuropeWesternCivilizationBeginsPieter Brueghel. The Wheat Harvest New York, Metropolitan Museum
  • III. Life in Medieval EuropeIII. Life in Medieval EuropeWesternCivilizationBegins ? ? How does this field look different from modern fields ?
  • III. Life in Medieval EuropeIII. Life in Medieval EuropeWesternCivilizationBegins ? There are no rows, making weed control impossible without fallow years. How does this field look different from modern fields ?
  • III. Life in Medieval EuropeIII. Life in Medieval EuropeWesternCivilizationBeginsTown life began to recover
  • What do you see here?
  • We will see this later
  • III. Life in Medieval EuropeIII. Life in Medieval EuropeWesternCivilizationBegins What happened to city walls after they became obsolete and their cities outgrew them ?
  • III. Life in Medieval EuropeIII. Life in Medieval EuropeWesternCivilizationBegins City walls and defensive land outside of them (ramparts) were torn down in 1858 and replaced with the Ringstrasse, parks, and private and public buildings. Vienna today Hofburg Palace Vienna in 1858
  • III. Life in Medieval EuropeIII. Life in Medieval EuropeWesternCivilizationBegins Cracow City walls were replaced with streets and a long park.
  • III. Life in Medieval EuropeIII. Life in Medieval EuropeWesternCivilizationBegins Two sets of Paris city walls were replaced with streets. Walls are superimposed on maps of current Paris. Walls of Lous Phillippe becomes these streets. Walls of Lous XVI becomes these streets. Paris
  • III. Life in Medieval EuropeIII. Life in Medieval EuropeWesternCivilizationBegins Towns need an economic basis. What is the basis for this town ?
  • III. Life in Medieval EuropeIII. Life in Medieval EuropeWesternCivilizationBegins The Black Death reaches the edge of Europe in 1347.
  • III. Life in Medieval EuropeIII. Life in Medieval EuropeWesternCivilizationBegins Using the information given on the map, determine the main way the Black Death spread throughout Europe. ? The Black Death reaches the edge of Europe in 1347.
  • III. Life in Medieval EuropeIII. Life in Medieval EuropeWesternCivilizationBegins The Black Death reaches the edge of Europe in 1347. Point of entry Point of entry Using the information given on the map, determine the main way the Black Death spread throughout Europe. ?
  • III. Life in Medieval EuropeIII. Life in Medieval EuropeWesternCivilizationBegins In a later recurrence of the Plague in London (1665-1666), no cases were reported on the houses on the Bridge.
  • III. Life in Medieval EuropeIII. Life in Medieval EuropeWesternCivilizationBegins In a later recurrence of the Plague in London (1665-1666), no cases were reported on the houses on the Bridge. WhyWhy ?
  • IV. The Christian ChurchIV. The Christian ChurchWesternCivilizationBegins A monastery
  • IV. The Christian ChurchIV. The Christian ChurchWesternCivilizationBegins Peasants also worked for monasteries.
  • IV. The Christian ChurchIV. The Christian ChurchWesternCivilizationBegins The giant monastery of Cluny.
  • IV. The Christian ChurchIV. The Christian ChurchWesternCivilizationBegins The giant monastery of Cluny.Giovanni Bellini. St. Francis in the Desert. New York, Frick Collection
  • IV. The Christian ChurchIV. The Christian ChurchWesternCivilizationBegins Monte Casino Monastary, destroyed by American soldiers in World War II when fighting German soldiers.  
  • IV. The Christian ChurchIV. The Christian ChurchWesternCivilizationBegins The Crusades Christian terrorists followed these routes when attacking Palestine.  
  • IV. The Christian ChurchIV. The Christian ChurchWesternCivilizationBegins Slowly, Christian crusaders re-conquered the Iberian Peninsula
  • V. LanguageV. LanguageWesternCivilizationBegins When the Western Roman Empire fell apart, the speakers of Latin were no longer in touch across Europe. As all languages are always changing, so now Latin in each area changed in a different way. The result: there emerged dozens of new languages based on Latin. Eventually, one language in each new country defeated the other languages, giving us Italian, French, Spanish, Portuguese, and Romanian. One non-national language of stature, Catalan, survived also.
  • V. LanguageV. LanguageWesternCivilizationBegins Thus were born the Roman, or, omance anguages.R L
  • V. LanguageV. LanguageWesternCivilizationBegins omance anguages in green R L
  • VI. Medieval architectureVI. Medieval architectureWesternCivilizationBegins 1. The basilica church
  • VI. Medieval architectureVI. Medieval architectureWesternCivilizationBegins 1. The basilica church The Roman basilica was a political, legal, and cultural center.
  • VI. Medieval architectureVI. Medieval architectureWesternCivilizationBegins 1. The basilica church The Roman basilica is the Greek temple turned inside out. –Arnold Toynbee . . . basilica ceilings are wooden Trajan’s Basilica Ulpia, Rome
  • VI. Medieval architectureVI. Medieval architectureWesternCivilizationBegins 1. The basilica church Trajan’s Basilica Ulpia, Rome . . . basilica ceilings are wooden The Roman basilica is the Greek temple turned inside out. –Arnold Toynbee
  • VI. Medieval architectureVI. Medieval architectureWesternCivilizationBegins 1. The basilica church Basilica of Maxentius & Constantine in the Roman Forum  . . . as it is
  • VI. Medieval architectureVI. Medieval architectureWesternCivilizationBegins 1. The basilica church . . . as it was inside Basilica of Maxentius & Constantine in the Roman Forum 
  • VI. Medieval architectureVI. Medieval architectureWesternCivilizationBegins 1. The basilica church . . . as it was outside Basilica of Maxentius & Constantine in the Roman Forum 
  • VI. Medieval architectureVI. Medieval architectureWesternCivilizationBegins 1. The basilica church Basilica of Maxentius & Constantine in the Roman Forum  . . . as it was outside
  • VI. Medieval architectureVI. Medieval architectureWesternCivilizationBegins 1. The basilica church San Apollinare, near Ravenna The Christian basilica made minimal changes to the Roman basilica.
  • VI. Medieval architectureVI. Medieval architectureWesternCivilizationBegins 1. The basilica church San Apollinare, near Ravenna . . . one of a few surviving basilica churches
  • VI. Medieval architectureVI. Medieval architectureWesternCivilizationBegins 2. Romanesque Romanesque ceilings are stone
  • VI. Medieval architectureVI. Medieval architectureWesternCivilizationBegins 2. Romanesque Romanesque ceilings are stone The Romanesq ue church added a heavy, stone ceiling.
  • VI. Medieval architectureVI. Medieval architectureWesternCivilizationBegins 2. Romanesque Romanesque ceilings are stone Walls must now be very heavy. The Romanesq ue church added a heavy, stone ceiling.
  • VI. Medieval architectureVI. Medieval architectureWesternCivilizationBegins 2. Romanesque Romanesque ceilings are stone The heavy walls of the Romanesque church meant only small windows could be cut into the walls, because large windows would weaken the walls. Thus, Romanesque churches lacked sufficient light. The heavy walls of the Romanesque church meant only small windows could be cut into the walls, because large windows would weaken the walls. Thus, Romanesque churches lacked sufficient light. The Romanesq ue church added a heavy, stone ceiling.
  • VI. Medieval architectureVI. Medieval architectureWesternCivilizationBegins 2. Romanesque Romanesque buttresses Walls were heavy, but still required buttressing.
  • VI. Medieval architectureVI. Medieval architectureWesternCivilizationBegins 2. Romanesque Romanesque buttresses Walls were heavy, but still required buttressing.
  • VI. Medieval architectureVI. Medieval architectureWesternCivilizationBegins 2. Romanesque Pisa Cathedral
  • VI. Medieval architectureVI. Medieval architectureWesternCivilizationBegins 2. Romanesque Pisa Cathedral The bell tower is a separate structure in Italian churches. The bell tower is a separate structure in Italian churches.
  • VI. Medieval architectureVI. Medieval architectureWesternCivilizationBegins 2. Romanesque Pisa Cathedral from the air . . . so is the baptistry! . . . so is the baptistry!
  • VI. Medieval architectureVI. Medieval architectureWesternCivilizationBegins 2. Romanesque Pisa Cathedral from the air It leans because the foundation is uneven. It leans because the foundation is uneven. . . . so is the baptistry! . . . so is the baptistry!
  • VI. Medieval architectureVI. Medieval architectureWesternCivilizationBegins 3. The Gothic revolution old way: new idea:
  • VI. Medieval architectureVI. Medieval architectureWesternCivilizationBegins 3. The Gothic revolution Ribbed vaults transfer the weight of the roof from the walls to piers. The stone walls can be replaced with glass
  • VI. Medieval architectureVI. Medieval architectureWesternCivilizationBegins 3. The Gothic revolution Ribbed vaults transfer the weight of the roof from the walls to piers. The stone walls can be replaced with glass The Romanesque problem: not enough light. new “Gothic” idea: ribbed vaults allow larger windows.
  • VI. Medieval architectureVI. Medieval architectureWesternCivilizationBegins 3. The Gothic revolution Ribbed vaults transfer the weight of the roof from the walls to piers. The stone walls can be replaced with glass The Romanesque problem: not enough light. new “Gothic” idea: ribbed vaults allow larger windows.
  • VI. Medieval architectureVI. Medieval architectureWesternCivilizationBegins 3. The Gothic revolution Buttresses are still needed, but now “fly”, carrying the outward pressure of the roof away from the walls, and allowing
  • VI. Medieval architectureVI. Medieval architectureWesternCivilizationBegins 3. The Gothic revolution Buttresses are still needed, but now “fly”, carrying the outward pressure of the roof away from the walls, and allowing
  • VI. Medieval architectureVI. Medieval architectureWesternCivilizationBegins 3. The Gothic revolution Ribbed vaults transfer the weight of the roof from the walls to piers. The stone walls can be replaced with glass Buttresses are still needed, but now “fly”, carrying the outward pressure of the roof away from the walls, and allowing The Romanesque problem: not enough light. new “Gothic” idea: Ribbed vaults allow larger windows.
  • VI. Medieval architectureVI. Medieval architectureWesternCivilizationBegins 3. The Gothic revolution et there be light! St. Denis choir, whose rebuilding by Abbot Suger started the Gothic Revolution L
  • VI. Medieval architectureVI. Medieval architectureWesternCivilizationBegins 3. The Gothic revolution et there be light! St. Denis choir, whose rebuilding by Abbot Suger started the Gothic Revolution L
  • VI. Medieval architectureVI. Medieval architectureWesternCivilizationBegins 3. The Gothic revolution With St. Denis, Abbey Suger asserts that Louis IX is powerful like Constantine. St. Denis, the first Gothic construction Arch of Constantine
  • VI. Medieval architectureVI. Medieval architectureWesternCivilizationBegins 3. The Gothic revolution With St. Denis, Abbey Suger asserts that Louis IX is powerful like Constantine. Arch of Constantine St. Denis, the first Gothic construction
  • VI. Medieval architectureVI. Medieval architectureWesternCivilizationBegins 3. The Gothic revolution With St. Denis, Abbey Suger asserts that Louis IX is powerful like Constantine. Abbot Suger purposely copies the Arch of Constantine into the front of Louis’ church.Arch of Constantine St. Denis, the first Gothic construction
  • VI. Medieval architectureVI. Medieval architectureWesternCivilizationBegins 3. The Gothic revolution Rose windows on the side entrances and front entrance were common in
  • VI. Medieval architectureVI. Medieval architectureWesternCivilizationBegins 3. The Gothic revolution In St. Chapelle, Paris, the walls are no longer stone.
  • VI. Medieval architectureVI. Medieval architectureWesternCivilizationBegins 3. The gothic revolution In St. Chapelle, Paris, the walls are no longer stone. Walls are no longer needed to support the roof, as the ribbed vaults transfer all the weight to the columns.
  • VI. Medieval architectureVI. Medieval architectureWesternCivilizationBegins 3. The gothic revolution Ribbed vaults, flying buttresses, lots of glass Chartres Vienna Paris
  • VI. Medieval architectureVI. Medieval architectureWesternCivilizationBegins 3. The gothic revolution Gargoyles
  • VI. Medieval architectureVI. Medieval architectureWesternCivilizationBegins 3. The gothic revolution Gargoyles
  • VI. Medieval architectureVI. Medieval architectureWesternCivilizationBegins 3. The gothic revolution Gargoyles
  • VI. Medieval architectureVI. Medieval architectureWesternCivilizationBegins 3. The gothic revolution Gargoyles
  • VI. Medieval architectureVI. Medieval architectureWesternCivilizationBegins 3. The Gothic revolution An easy way to recognize a Gothic Church: look for pointed arches. For reasons not discussed here, all gothic arches are
  • VI. Medieval architectureVI. Medieval architectureWesternCivilizationBegins 3. The Gothic revolution Inhabitants of medieval Europe built hundreds of churches.
  • VI. Medieval architectureVI. Medieval architectureWesternCivilizationBegins 3. The Gothic revolution Flat ceiling: Round arches, stone barrel vaulted cei Pointed arches, bigger windows, flying buttresses: Style identifier What style is that medieval church ? ?
  • VI. Medieval architectureVI. Medieval architectureWesternCivilizationBegins 3. The Gothic revolution Flat ceiling: Round arches, stone barrel vaulted cei Pointed arches, bigger windows, flying buttresses: Style identifier What style is that medieval church ? ? ?
  • VI. Medieval architectureVI. Medieval architectureWesternCivilizationBegins 3. The Gothic revolution Flat ceiling: Round arches, stone barrel vaulted cei Pointed arches, bigger windows, flying buttresses: Style identifier What style is that medieval church ? ? ? ?
  • VI. Medieval architectureVI. Medieval architectureWesternCivilizationBegins 3. The Gothic revolution Flat ceiling: Round arches, stone barrel vaulted cei Pointed arches, bigger windows, flying buttresses: Style identifier What style is that medieval church ? ? ? ? Basilica
  • VI. Medieval architectureVI. Medieval architectureWesternCivilizationBegins 3. The Gothic revolution Flat ceiling: Round arches, stone barrel vaulted cei Pointed arches, bigger windows, flying buttresses: Style identifier What style is that medieval church ? ? ? ? Basilica Romanesq ue
  • VI. Medieval architectureVI. Medieval architectureWesternCivilizationBegins 3. The Gothic revolution Flat ceiling: Round arches, stone barrel vaulted cei Pointed arches, bigger windows, flying buttresses: Style identifier What style is that medieval church ? ? ? ? Basilica Romanesq ue Gothic
  • VI. Medieval architectureVI. Medieval architectureWesternCivilizationBegins another Mott and bailey castle
  • VI. Medieval architectureVI. Medieval architectureWesternCivilizationBegins another Mott and bailey castle
  • VI. Medieval architectureVI. Medieval architectureWesternCivilizationBegins Stone castle
  • VI. Medieval architectureVI. Medieval architectureWesternCivilizationBegins Stone castle
  • VI. Medieval architectureVI. Medieval architectureWesternCivilizationBegins The keep of a developed castle Why is the entrance here Why is the entrance here ?
  • VI. Medieval architectureVI. Medieval architectureWesternCivilizationBegins Half-timber construction
  • VI. Medieval architectureVI. Medieval architectureWesternCivilizationBegins Half-timber construction Framework of a half-timber house
  • VI. Medieval architectureVI. Medieval architectureWesternCivilizationBegins Half-timber construction Wattle and daub fills in the spaces
  • VI. Medieval architectureVI. Medieval architectureWesternCivilizationBegins Half-timber construction Wattle and daub fills in the spaces What else might be used to fill in the spaces ?
  • VI. Medieval architectureVI. Medieval architectureWesternCivilizationBegins Half-timber construction This house was once plastered over to hide its half-timber origins. Why? o hide its old age o hide its old age ! T
  • VI. Medieval architectureVI. Medieval architectureWesternCivilizationBegins Half-timber construction This house also hides its half-timber construction, behind stone-imitating wood plaques. What is this house ? Mt. Vernon, George Washington ’s home Mt. Vernon, George Washington ’s home
  • VI. Medieval architectureVI. Medieval architectureWesternCivilizationBegins Half-timber construction Dining room window and wall, showing wooden plaques imitating stones and covering the half-timber frame Mt. Vernon from the front
  • VI. Medieval architectureVI. Medieval architectureWesternCivilizationBegins Half-timber examples,
  • VI. Medieval architectureVI. Medieval architectureWesternCivilizationBegins Half-timber examples,
  • VI. Medieval architectureVI. Medieval architectureWesternCivilizationBegins
  • VII. Medieval EnglandVII. Medieval EnglandWesternCivilizationBegins THE FIVE INVADERS OF ENGLAND:
  • VII. Medieval EnglandVII. Medieval EnglandWesternCivilizationBegins StonehengeStonehenge
  • VII. Medieval EnglandVII. Medieval EnglandWesternCivilizationBegins StonehengeStonehenge
  • VII. Medieval EnglandVII. Medieval EnglandWesternCivilizationBegins THE FIVE INVADERS OF ENGLAND:
  • VII. Medieval EnglandVII. Medieval EnglandWesternCivilizationBegins THE FIVE INVADERS OF ENGLAND:
  • VII. Medieval EnglandVII. Medieval EnglandWesternCivilizationBegins THE FIVE INVADERS OF ENGLAND: (These first two invaded before the medieval period.)
  • VII. Medieval EnglandVII. Medieval EnglandWesternCivilizationBegins THE FIVE INVADERS OF ENGLAND: Germanic Tribes
  • VII. Medieval EnglandVII. Medieval EnglandWesternCivilizationBegins Germanic Tribes The Celtic defenders of Britain
  • VII. Medieval EnglandVII. Medieval EnglandWesternCivilizationBegins THE FIVE INVADERS OF ENGLAND: Germanic Tribes
  • VII. Medieval EnglandVII. Medieval EnglandWesternCivilizationBegins
  • VII. Medieval EnglandVII. Medieval EnglandWesternCivilizationBegins THE FIVE INVADERS OF ENGLAND: Germanic Tribes . . . and, finally . . .
  • VII. Medieval EnglandVII. Medieval EnglandWesternCivilizationBegins . . .the French Norman invaders Poor Harold, king of England from 1066 to 1066
  • VII. Medieval EnglandVII. Medieval EnglandWesternCivilizationBegins William, Duke of Normandy, defeats Harold at the Battle of Hastings, October 14, 1066. . . .the French Norman invaders
  • VII. Medieval EnglandVII. Medieval EnglandWesternCivilizationBegins . . . scenes from the Bayeux “Tapestry” William and friends on the way from Normandy to Engla
  • VII. Medieval EnglandVII. Medieval EnglandWesternCivilizationBegins The two lands of William, Duke of Normandy and King of England Mine, all mine!
  • VII. Medieval EnglandVII. Medieval EnglandWesternCivilizationBegins English became the language of servants, Norman French the language of government. Je suis William So . . . about 10,000 French words entered the English language, especially the kinds of words employers would say to their servants.
  • VII. Medieval EnglandVII. Medieval EnglandWesternCivilizationBegins King William (now known as the Conqueror) ordered a census of all the English and their property, that they might be taxed. It was completed in 1086 and is called the Domesda y Book.
  • VII. Medieval EnglandVII. Medieval EnglandWesternCivilizationBegins Henry II
  • Romantic LoveRomantic Love
  • VII. Medieval EnglandVII. Medieval EnglandWesternCivilizationBegins Tom Becket bites the dust. om Becket bites the dust.
  • VII. Medieval EnglandVII. Medieval EnglandWesternCivilizationBegins King John is forced to sign the Magna Carta.
  • VII. Medieval EnglandVII. Medieval EnglandWesternCivilizationBegins English kings were concerned with their French possessions.
  • VII. Medieval EnglandVII. Medieval EnglandWesternCivilizationBegins Henry V defeated French knights with his longbow archers at the Battle of Agincourt in 1415. Kenneth Brannagh as Henry V
  • VII. Medieval EnglandVII. Medieval England WesternCivilizationBegins Henry V ‘s new longbows could penetrate the armor of the French knights (the stakes kept their horses from getting past the line). Battle of Agincourt in 1415.
  • VII. Medieval EnglandVII. Medieval EnglandWesternCivilizationBeginslong-bows could pierce armor
  • VII. Medieval EnglandVII. Medieval EnglandWesternCivilizationBegins Henry V ‘s words to his soldiers just before the Battle of Agincourt (from the pen of Shakespeare): “We few, we happy few, we band of brothers (for he today that sheds his blood with me shall be my brother, be he ever so vile).”
  • VII. Medieval EnglandVII. Medieval EnglandWesternCivilizationBegins Before England lost, Joan of Arc encouraged the French to continue fighting. Here, the artist Jean August Ingres depicts Joan witnessing the coronation of Charles VII.
  • VII. Medieval EnglandVII. Medieval EnglandWesternCivilizationBegins The Hundred Years War 13371337 Watch the growth and decline of the light brown area, showing the gains and losses of England’s kings.
  • VII. Medieval EnglandVII. Medieval EnglandWesternCivilizationBegins The Hundred Years War 13461346
  • VII. Medieval EnglandVII. Medieval EnglandWesternCivilizationBegins The Hundred Years War 13561356
  • VII. Medieval EnglandVII. Medieval EnglandWesternCivilizationBegins The Hundred Years War 13601360
  • VII. Medieval EnglandVII. Medieval EnglandWesternCivilizationBegins The Hundred Years War 13701370
  • VII. Medieval EnglandVII. Medieval EnglandWesternCivilizationBegins The Hundred Years War 13901390
  • VII. Medieval EnglandVII. Medieval EnglandWesternCivilizationBegins The Hundred Years War 14101410
  • VII. Medieval EnglandVII. Medieval EnglandWesternCivilizationBegins The Hundred Years War 14151415
  • VII. Medieval EnglandVII. Medieval EnglandWesternCivilizationBegins The Hundred Years War 14171417
  • VII. Medieval EnglandVII. Medieval EnglandWesternCivilizationBegins The Hundred Years War 14201420
  • VII. Medieval EnglandVII. Medieval EnglandWesternCivilizationBegins The Hundred Years War 14251425
  • VII. Medieval EnglandVII. Medieval EnglandWesternCivilizationBegins The Hundred Years War 14291429
  • VII. Medieval EnglandVII. Medieval EnglandWesternCivilizationBegins The Hundred Years War 14351435
  • VII. Medieval EnglandVII. Medieval EnglandWesternCivilizationBegins The Hundred Years War 14501450
  • VII. Medieval EnglandVII. Medieval EnglandWesternCivilizationBegins The kings of England start by claiming more land in France (wanting to be kings of France) and end by losing all but the town of Calais. The kings of England start by claiming more land in France (wanting to be kings of France) and end by losing all but the town of Calais. The Hundred Years War in summary:
  • Starting with theStarting with the Age of ExplorationAge of Exploration , countries, countries of Western Civilization will begin to spread itsof Western Civilization will begin to spread its influence outward to the rest of the world.influence outward to the rest of the world. WesternCivilizationBegins
  • Starting with theStarting with the Age of ExplorationAge of Exploration , countries, countries of Western Civilization will begin to spread itsof Western Civilization will begin to spread its influence outward to the rest of the world.influence outward to the rest of the world. WesternCivilizationBegins
  • Starting with theStarting with the Age of ExplorationAge of Exploration , countries, countries of Western Civilization will begin to spread itsof Western Civilization will begin to spread its influence outward to the rest of the world.influence outward to the rest of the world. WesternCivilizationBegins
  • Starting with theStarting with the Age of ExplorationAge of Exploration , countries, countries of Western Civilization will begin to spread itsof Western Civilization will begin to spread its influence outward to the rest of the world.influence outward to the rest of the world. WesternCivilizationBegins
  • Starting with theStarting with the Age of ExplorationAge of Exploration , countries, countries of Western Civilization will begin to spread itsof Western Civilization will begin to spread its influence outward to the rest of the world.influence outward to the rest of the world. WesternCivilizationBegins
  • Starting with theStarting with the Age of ExplorationAge of Exploration , countries, countries of Western Civilization will begin to spread itsof Western Civilization will begin to spread its influence outward to the rest of the world.influence outward to the rest of the world. WesternCivilizationBegins
  • Starting with theStarting with the Age of ExplorationAge of Exploration , countries, countries of Western Civilization will begin to spread itsof Western Civilization will begin to spread its influence outward to the rest of the world.influence outward to the rest of the world. WesternCivilizationBegins
  • Fini* *culi, cula