The Crusades


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The Crusades

  1. 1. p. 378 – 386 in your book
  2. 3. Church Reform <ul><li>Europe years 500-1000 called the “Dark Ages” </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Continuous invaders from south (Magyars) and west (Vikings) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Destroyed centers of learning </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Lead to a spiritual revival </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Church began restructuring / massive building projects (Cathedrals) </li></ul></ul>
  3. 4. Why Reform? <ul><li>Reformers concerned with 3 Main Issues </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Priests marrying </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Selling Church positions or simony </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Lay investiture </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Church’s Problems </li></ul><ul><li>Illiterate priests </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Morally corrupt Popes </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Greedy bishops and Abbots </li></ul></ul>
  4. 5. Reform & Church Organization <ul><li>1100s and 1200s - Church restructured to resemble a Kingdom with Pope at head </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Developed canon law (the law of the church) for marriage, divorce, inheritance </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Pope’s established their authority throughout the Empire </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Enforced laws against simony and priests marrying </li></ul></ul>
  5. 6. New Religious Orders <ul><li>Dominicans </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Emphasized importance of study </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Many Dominicans were scholars </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Franciscans </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Treated all creatures as spiritual brothers and sisters </li></ul></ul>Women could join the order too, but were not allowed to travel and preach .
  6. 7. Cathedrals – Cities of God
  7. 8. Gothic Cathedrals <ul><li>From the Goths, Germanic tribe </li></ul><ul><li>Thrust upward / reaching for God </li></ul><ul><li>Large stained glass windows, sculptures, wood-carvings </li></ul><ul><li>Meant to inspire the worshiper </li></ul><ul><li>Nearly 500 built between 1170 - 1270 </li></ul>
  8. 9. Review from Yesterday <ul><li>Characteristics of Cathedrals </li></ul><ul><li>What caused the “dark ages”? </li></ul><ul><li>How did the Church react to the dark ages? </li></ul>
  9. 10. The Crusades What are they? <ul><li>Muslim Turks threatening to conquer Constantinople (capital of Byzantine Empire) </li></ul><ul><li>Byzantine Emperor pleads for help </li></ul><ul><li>Pope Urban II – issued a call for a “holy war” to gain control of the Holy Land </li></ul><ul><li>Next 300 years littered with Crusades against the Muslims. </li></ul>
  10. 11. The Crusades <ul><li>Here’s a video giving you an introduction to the conflict </li></ul><ul><li> </li></ul>
  11. 12. Goals of the Crusades <ul><li>Economic </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Merchants profited by giving loans to fund the journey </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Leased ships to transport armies across Mediterranean </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Take trade routes from Muslim traders </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Social </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Younger sons, who would not inherit property saw it as a chance to claim land </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Political </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Get rid of fighting knights who threatened peace and church property </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Religious </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Reclaim Palestine and reunite Christians (was split East & West) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Stop Muslim attacks </li></ul></ul>
  12. 13. 1 st and 2 nd Crusades <ul><li>All classes gathered in Constantinople </li></ul><ul><li>ill-prepared for war – didn’t know climate, geography, culture </li></ul><ul><li>No strategy and no leader </li></ul><ul><li>All were promised a spot in heaven </li></ul><ul><li>Most were French – Bohemians, Germans, Englishmen, Scots, Italians and Spaniards joined as well </li></ul>The First Crusade was launched in 1097
  13. 14. 1 st Crusade <ul><li>An army of 12k approached Jerusalem, and besieged the city for a month </li></ul><ul><li>Capture the city in 1099 </li></ul><ul><li>Victory was a narrow strip of land </li></ul>
  14. 16. 2 nd Crusade <ul><li>These newly formed Christian states were vulnerable to Muslim counterattack </li></ul><ul><li>1144 – Edessa reconquered by Turks </li></ul><ul><li>2 nd Crusade organized to recapture the city – it failed in 1187 </li></ul><ul><li>Jerusalem had been captured by Saladin a Muslim leader </li></ul>
  15. 17. 3 rd Crusade to Recapture Jerusalem <ul><li>Video </li></ul><ul><li>Led by 3 of Europe’s most powerful monarchs </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Phillip II of France </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Frederick I of Germany </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Richard the Lion Hearted of England </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>What eventually happened in 1192? </li></ul></ul>
  16. 18. The Effects of the Crusades <ul><li>Watch this video: </li></ul><ul><li>What were some of the effects of the Crusades? </li></ul>