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These are notes that we took in class on the Crusades. Please focus on how the Crusades effected society and government in the Middle East and Europe


  1. 1. East Meets West The Crusades
  2. 2. R.E.M.A.P Changing the World R – Religious Piety E – European Expansion M – Muslim Expansion A – Adventure P – Papal Authority
  3. 3. Causes: Adventure After Christianization of the Vikings, Slavs, and Magyars there was an entire class of warriors who now had very little to do but fight amongst themselves and terrorize the peasant population. A plea for help from the Byzantine Emperor Alexius I in opposing Muslim attacks thus appealed to their sense of adventure.
  4. 4. Causes: Religious PietyIntense Religious Piety Due in part to the Investiture Controversy (a significant conflict between secular and religious powers over the issue of who would control appointments of church officials). People became personally engaged in the dramatic religious controversy The Results:  Intense Christian piety Emperor Henry IV at the  Public interest in religious affairs Feet of Pope Gregory VII  Popular support for the First Crusade  The religious vitality of the 12th century
  5. 5. Causes: Papal PoliticsRoman-Byzantine Rivalry Cluniac (Benedictine) reform caused the church in the West to be more attentive to business and provided impetus to attempt to reassert control The Great Schism, 1064, was a division of Christianity into Eastern Orthodox and Roman Catholic. The primary cause was a dispute over papal authority.
  6. 6. Causes: European Expansionism In the Battle of Hastings in 1066, William the Conqueror (from Normandy) defeated England and brought unity and strength to that country. After the capture of Toledo from the Muslims in 1087, it became the residence of the kings of Castile and the ecclesiastical center of the whole of Spain The Normans captured Sicily from the Muslims in 1091 and paved the way for the unification of that country.
  7. 7. Causes: Muslim AdvancesEvents in MuslimWorld The Battle of Manzikert, 1071, resulted in the defeat of the Byzantine Empire and the capture of the Emperor by the Seljuk Turks (Muslims). The Byzantines also lost Anatolia to the Turks. The Turks disrupted pilgrim traffic.
  8. 8. Europe 1000-1100 Religious Piety Expansionism Battle of Hastings Christianization of Adventure the Vikings, Slavs, 1066 and Magyars Papal Politics c. 1000 Investiture Controversy Cluniac 1075+ Reform c. 1024 Rome Constantinople Capture of PilgrimagesToledo from Muslims 1087 Battle of Great Schism Manzikert Capture of 1064 1071 Sicily from Muslims 1099
  9. 9. Call for a Crusade Pope Urban II called for a Crusade in 1095 Objectives  Drive Turks from Anatolia  Obligate the Byzantines  Provide occasion for healing Great Schism on Romes terms  Capture Holy Land
  10. 10. Major Events of Crusades First Crusade 1097-1098  Achieved all major objectives in Holy Land  Turkish threat blunted, though not eliminated  Area not strategic to Muslims, could have been held indefinitely with a little skill.  Initial gains lost through diplomatic bungling.  Crusaders attempted to destabilize neighbors
  11. 11. Major Events of Crusades Second Crusade, 1147-1148  Military failure, discredits Crusaders as military threat Third Crusade, 1189-1191  Well-known in literature (Robin Hood)  Involved Richard I of England, Phillip II of France, Frederick I of Holy Roman Empire  Saladin on Muslim side.
  12. 12. Major Events of Crusades Fourth Crusade, 1199-1204  Western-Greek relations always strained, mutual contempt.  To finance crusade, Crusaders worked for Venetians  Crusaders sacked Constantinople, 1204  Chance to heal Great Schism utterly lost.  In 1453, when attacked by Turks, Byzantines preferred surrender to asking Rome for aid.
  13. 13. Major Events of Crusades Fifth Crusade, 1218-1219  Captured Damietta, swapped for Jerusalem  Muslims agreed  Crusaders tried to conquer Egypt, were routed Sixth Crusade, 1229  Frederick II of Germany did little fighting and a lot of negotiation  Treaty gave the Crusaders Jerusalem and all the other holy cities and a truce of ten years  He was widely condemned for conducting the Crusade by negotiating rather than fighting.
  14. 14. Major Events of Crusades Seventh Crusade, 1248-1254  Led by Louis IX of France  Nearly an exact repeat of the Fifth Crusade Eighth Crusade, 1270  Led by Louis IX of France  Louis’ brother, Charles of Anjou, king of Sicily, had strategic plans of his own and diverted the expedition to Tunisia, where Louis died.  The last Crusader cities on the mainland of Palestine fell in 1291  One small island stronghold lasted until 1303.
  15. 15. The Crusades Died Out Lack of interest, rising European prosperity Repeated military defeats Discredited by "crusades" against Christians (e.g., Albigensians)
  16. 16. Effects of Crusades Fatal weakening of Byzantine Empire Vast increase in cultural horizons for many Europeans. Stimulated Mediterranean trade. Need to transfer large sums of money for troops and supplies led to development of banking techniques. Rise of heraldic emblems, coats of arms Romantic and imaginative literature.
  17. 17. Effects of Crusades Knowledge introduced to Europe  Heavy stone masonry, construction of castles and stone churches.  Siege technology, tunneling, sapping.  Muslim minarets adopted as church spires Weakening of nobility, rise of merchant classes Enrichment was primarily from East to West--Europe had little to give in return.
  18. 18. References Dutch, Steven I. 13 Dec. 2001. University of Wisconsin-Green Bay. 22 Sept. 2005 <>. The Crusades." Wikipedia, the Free Encyclopedia. 23 Sept. 2005. Wikipedia, the Free Encyclopedia. 24 Sept. 2005 < >. The Church and the Crusades." Medieval Crusades. 24 Sept. 2005>.
  19. 19. Assignment: Crusades Game or Recruitment Poster Use your notes and the textbook pages 255-260 to create either a recruitment poster or a crusades board game. Your project should include:1. A definition of the crusades.2. The main causes of the crusades.3. Pope Urban II’s call for defeat of the Turks to return the. holy land top the Christians.4. Who answered or needs to answer the call.5. A description the first four crusades.6. The results of the crusades.
  20. 20. Assignment: Game or Poster The Game Requirements and The Recruitment Poster Materials: 50 points Requirements and Materials: 50 points•You will be provided with a sheet of paper, •You will be provided with a sheet of can use your own dice or other materialsto play. •You are trying to entice Christians to join the first crusade, so use language that is•All writing must be on the game. You may persuasive!want to establish rules on the back. •You will need have a place on your•You can design your game however you recruitment poster that gives a history of thewant, but consequences and game first 4 Crusadesadvancement should be based oncircumstances/events that would have •Be creative, your project should be colorfulactually happened.•Be creative, your project should be colorful•For full credit make sure that 1-6 above areincluded in your game