Try to finish up by the time westart… Grab a book. Look at pages 30 and 31 Define the words listed for 1 and 2 Add caesaropapism to your list to define
The ByzantineEmpire and Russia Byzantium and Russia 330-1613
Constantinople Originally Byzantion/Byzantium, market town on Bosporous Strait Constantine named it Constantinople and made it the capital of the E. Roman Empire City kept its name from 340 CE – 1453 CE Crossroads – access to Anatolia, SW Asia, SE Europe, etc.
The Byzantine Court Caesaropapism – emperor rules not only as a secular lord, but also plays prominent role in ecclesiastical (church) affairs Heavily jeweled crowns, silk robes of dark, rich purple (the color reserved for imperial use)
Justinian (527-565 CE) “the sleepless emperor” Theodora Construction project remade the city Hagia Sophia – one of world’s greatest examples of Christian architecture Gold, silver, gems, precious stones, and healing pwrs Justinian Code Systematic review and improvement of Roman law Body of the Civil Law Autocrat
So cool… When Muslims tried to invade Byzantium, the Byzantines use “Greek fire” – (basically ancient napalm) – against the fleets and ground forces Greek fire even burns as it floats on water – very hazardous to wooden ships Mix of quicklime, petroleum, and sulfur
Byzantine empire loses some landholdings, but still maintains Anatolia, Greece, and Balkans “Theme” system – imperial province (theme) under jurisdiction of a general Military defense and civil administration Quick mobilization Byzantine empire expands as each theme’s military can gradually spread outward Basil the Bulgar Slayer – blinded 14,000 The blind leading the blind….ha ha….
Iconoclasm Icons – particularly popular in Byzantine churches People prayed to images of Christ, the Virgin Mary, and the saints Pope Leo believed veneration of religious images was sinful Also disagree over Sacrament of communion Whether priests should be allowed to marry Use of local languages in church
The Great Schism - 1054 Violent battles within the empire West – pope excommunicated emperor Pope wants emperor to recognize the Roman Catholic Church as the head and mother or the churches Great Schism – 1054 Eastern Orthodox – Byzantine Greek and later Russian Roman Catholic Church Rome, Europe, etc.
Trade Crossroads for Eurasia Commercial links between manufacturers and merchants between central Asia, Russia, Scandinavia, northern Europe, and lands of the Black Sea and Mediterranean basin Bezant – Byzantine gold coin Very wealthy from control of trade and levying of custom duties China India Persia Western Europe Russia and Scandinavia – timber, furs, honey, amber, and slaves Banks, business partnerships, loans for business ventures Pool resources and limit risks
Effects of the Crusades During 4th Crusade Constantinople is attacked Plundered and burned Ruled for 50 years Empire never quite recovers, Venetian merchants gain upperhand
Istanbul v. Constantinople 1453 – Ottoman forces http://www.youtube.com/wat ch?v=Mv- take over KcF3Rkv8&feature=related Ancient Christian city is overturned Istanbul becomes capital of Ottoman Empire Hagia Sophia is turned into a mosque and turets are added
Arts Mosaics Icons Greek, Roman, Persian, and other Middle Eastern styles blend together
10.2 The Rise of Russia HUGE Borders both Europe and China, touches the Baltic Sea and the Pacific Ocean Is Russia part of Europe or Asia? Northern forests – poor soil, cold, snowy climate South – band of fertile land, attracted farmers (modern day Ukraine) Southern steppe – open, treeless grassland, nomadic people, herds and horses Dnieper and Volga River – major trade routes
Kiev Slavs expand into southern Russia Varangians (Russian word for Vikings) – trade with Slavs, Kiev becomes a midpoint between Scandinavia and Constantinople Cyril and Methodius Missionaries from Constantinople, adapt Greek alphabet to Slavic language – develops Cyrillic (still used in Ukraine and Russia) Byzantine Christianity Onion domes from Byzantium
Yaroslav the Wise 1019 – 1054 Improved code of law Arranged marriages between his kids and the royal families of Western Europe
Mongol Conquest A young leader united the nomadic Mongols of central Asia Overrun lands from China to Eastern Europe – dubs himself “Genghis Khan” – “world emperor”
The Golden Horde 1236-1241 – Batu, Genghiz’s grandson leads Mongol armies into Russia “Golden Horde” because of the color of their tents Loot and burn Kiev and many other Russian towns “no eye remained to weep for the dead” Rule from a capital on the Volga for the next 240 years ***This is Russia’s dormant/stagnant period***
240 Years of Mongol Rule Women become especially subservient to their husbands. (Husbands can even sell their wives into slavery to pay family debts) Absolute power Mongols have will serve as an inspiration for Russian rulers later on Mongols severed Russian ties to Western Europe at a time when Europeans were making rapid advances in the arts and sciences
Moscow Steadily becomes a political and spiritual center Princes in Moscow slowly gain pwr against Mongols Became the capital of the Russian Orthodox Church
Ivan the Great Ivan III – 1462-1505 Brought much of N. Russia under his rule Built the framework for absolute rule Worked to limit the boyars powers Boyars – Russian, land-owning nobles Adopted the rituals of the fallen empire’s traditions to emphasize Russia’s role as the heir to Byzantine power Double-headed eagle symbol Titles himself Czar (Russian for caesar) “the czar is in nature like all men, but in authority he is like the highest God”
Ivan the IV Grandson of Ivan III Further centralized royal power (more for him) Limited the privileges of the old boyar families Granted land to nobles in exchange for military or other service Introduced more laws to tie serfs to the land
How Ivan the IV earns his title Ivan the Terrible Becomes unstable Trusts no one – became subject to violent fits of rage Killed his own son Organized the ophrichniki – agents of terror who enforced the czar’s rule Slaughter rebellious nobles Sacked towns where disloyalty was suspected Dog’s head and a broom Leaves a land of seething with rebellion – but! He introduces Russia to a tradition of extreme absolute power and oppression