• Crusades - derived from the French term: “For taking up the cross”.• Jerusalem – the city where death and resurrection of Jesus Christ had taken place.• Antioch – the First Christian city.• The term "crusade" is also used to describe religiously motivated campaigns conducted between 1100 and 1600 in territories outside the Levant usually against Pagans,Muslims, Heretics, and peoples under the ban of excommunication for a mixture of religious, economic, and political reasons.
First Crusade• (1095-1099)• Pope Urban II - launched the crusades at the Council of Clermont in 1095. - Pope Urban IIs speech ranks as one of the most influential speeches ever made: it launched the holy wars which occupied the minds and forces of western Europe for two hundred years.
Effects of the First Crusade:Crusader victory against the Saracens• Byzantine Empire regained some of its teritorries in the Anatolian region with the help of the Crusaders.• Creation of the four Crusader States: - Kingdom of Jerusalem - Principality of Antioch - County of Edessa - County of Tripoli in the parts of Palestine and Syria (as well as allies along the Crusaders route, such as the Armenian Kingdom of Cilicia).
Knights Hospitaller• Founded:1023 (Jerusalem) -Hospital 1113 (Principality of Antioch) -Military Order• Patron: St John the Baptist• Nickname: Knights of Malta• Founded by: Gerard Thom (1040 – 1120)
Knights Templar (Poor Fellow-Soldiers of Christ and of The Temple of Solomon)• Nickname: Order of the Temple• Founded: 1119• Patron: St. Bernard of Clairvaux• Headquarters: Temple Mount , Jerusalem• Founded by: Hugues de Payens (1070-1136)• The Templars ‘ secret initiation ceremony caused the people to mistrust so Pope Clement V disbanded the order in 1312.
Hugues de Payens(Founder of The Knights Templar)
St. Bernard of Clairvaux ( Patron of the Knights Templar)
Headquarters of the Templar(Former Al-Aqsa Mosque then became the Temple of Solomon)
Teutonic Order• Nickname: Teutonic Knights , German Order• Patron: The Virgin Mary , St. Elizabeth of Hungary , St. George• Founded: 1190• Founded by:Heinrich Walpot von Bassenheim (11??-1200)
Crusade of 1101• Location of the Crusade: Anatolia• It is also called the Crusade of the Faint- Hearted due to the number of participants who joined this crusade after having turned back from the First Crusade.
Map of the Crusades of 1101(A map of western Anatolia, showing the routes taken by Christian armies)
• Norwegian Crusade 1107–1110 Norwegian Crusade• King Sigurd I of Norway - The First King to Join and fight a Crusade. - Joined the King of Jerusalem to aid them in the Siege of Sidon.• Results of the Norwegian Crusade: - Norwegian and Crusader Victory - Creation of the Lordship of Sidon
Second Crusade• The Second Crusade (1145–1149) was the second major crusade launched from Europe.• The County of Edessa have fallen to the hands of the Saracens.• Second Crusade was announced by Pope Eugene III• The crusade that have been joined by many European Kings.
Map of the Second Crusade(The Fall of Edessa, seen right of the map ,was the primary cause of the Second Crusade)
Results of the Second Crusade:• Decisive Saracen victory in Holy Land• Decisive Crusader victories in Iberia and the Baltic .• Failure to recreate County of Edessa.• Peace treaty between Byzantine Empire and Seljuq Turks.• Beginning of Crusader advances into Egypt.• Collapse of Almoravids, and rise Almohads.
Third Crusade• ( 1189 – 1192 )• Also known as the King’s Crusade• Saladin (Sala-al-din) - Sultan of the Fatimid Eygpt• King Richard I “The Lionheart” - King of England• King Philip II “Augustus” - King of France• Emperor Frederick I Barbarossa - Emperor of the Holy Roman Empire
Results of the Third Crusade:• Treaty of Ramla - Jerusalem remains under Muslim control. - Italians consolidate control of Syrian ports. - Muslims allow trade and unarmed Christian pilgrimages into the Holy Land.
Emperor Frederick I Barbarossa ( Emperor of the Holy Roman Empire)
Saladin ( Sala-al-din) (Sultan of the Fatimid Eygypt)
Map of the Holy Land (At outset of the Third Crusade)
Map of the Holy land ( After the Third Crusade )
Other Crusades: Fourth Crusade(1202 – 1204)• The Crusades was launch to attack Constantinople in instead of Eygpt. Results:• Crusader Victory• Creation of the Latin Empire around the Byzantine Lands they conquered.
Latin Empire of Constantinople ( Empire of Romania) 1204 - 1261
Emperor Baldwin I of Constantinople(Founder and First Emperor of the Latin Empire, also the King of Jerusalem)
Fifth Crusade (1213-1221)• An attempt to reconquer the Jerusalem and the rest of the Holy Land.• Also an attempt to conquer Eygpt.• Pope Innocent III and his successor Pope Honorius III organized crusading armies led by the King Andrew II of Hungary and the Duke Leopold VI of Austria, and a foray against Jerusalem ultimately left the city in Muslim hands. Result of the Fifth Crusade:• Decisive Egyptian victory• Eight year peace treaty between Ayyubid Empire and European kingdoms
Sixth Crusade• The Sixth Crusade started in 1228 as an attempt to regain Jerusalem. It began seven years after the failure of the Fifth Crusade. years.• Led by Holy Roman Emperor : - Frederick II• Kingdom of Jerusalem was restored again for 15 years.
Result of the Sixth Crusade• Crusader Victory against the Saracens• Jerusalem, Nazareth, Sidon, Jaffa, and Bethlehem relinquished to Crusaders. (Emperor Frederick II and al-Kamil)
Emperor Frederick II(Emperor of the Holy Roman Empire during the Sixth Crusade)
Seventh crusade• The Seventh Crusade was a crusade led by Louis IX of France from 1248 to 1254.• Approximately 800,000 bezants were paid in ransom for King Louis who, along with thousands of his troops, was captured and defeated by the Egyptian army led by the Ayyubid Sultan Turanshah supported by the Bahariyya Mamluks led by Faris ad-Din Aktai, Baibars al-Bunduqdari, Qutuz , Aybak and QalawunResults of the Seventh Crusade: - Decisive Saracen Victory against Crusaders
Eighth Crusade• The Eighth Crusade was a crusade launched by Louis IX, King of France, in 1270.• Louis was disturbed by events in Syria, where the Mamluk sultan Baibars had been attacking the remnant of the Crusader states. Results of the Eighth Crusade:• Treaty of Tunis - Death of Louis IX. - Opening of trade with Tunis.
Ninth Crusade• 1271–1272.• The last major crusade in the Holy land• Led by Price Edward of England Results of the Ninth Crusade: - End of all Crusades in the Middle East - Beginning of the End of the remaining crusader states in the Holy Land. - Mamluks/Eygptians took control of the Holy Land.