California Set 2

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California Set 2

  1. 1. California Set 2 (1920-1990) Michael Zin Hist. 141
  2. 2. Chapter 10 • Vast land areas, entrepreneurial spirit, and unembarrassed from money motivation led CA to be a leader in science and technology approach to utopia. • Natural sciences also studied: ▫ Grayson creates pictorial of the birds of the Pacific Coast • California Academy of Sciences founded ▫ Survey animals, flowers, tides, mountains etc for importance ▫ New environmentalism: John Muir and Sierra Club • CA utilizes traditional waterwheel technology as they transfer to an industrial economy ▫ Pelton designs new waterwheel which is able to retain nearly all of its water • John and James Montgomery experiment with “heavier than air” aviation technologies ▫ August 1883 one brother boards their gull-winged glider while the other pulls him along with a kite. ▫ Demonstrated that innovation in aviation was compatible with California ▫ January 1910 Los Angeles County Chamber of Commerce organizes their first show ▫ By 1920, over a third of California air traffic operated in Los Angeles
  3. 3. Ch.10 cont… • Electronic innovations seen in CA: ▫ Television, radio, international phone calls ▫ Edward Armstrong and Lee de Forest compete as they both innovate stereo amplification simultaneously • Philio T. Farnsworth experiments with the electronic transmission of images ▫ September 7th, 1927 Farnsworth’s “orthicon” transmitted the first image by completely electronic means ▫ Picture of black glass with a line drawn through the middle • August 19th, 1937 at Stanford University the first klystron tube was produced ▫ Upon perfection, it became a vital component in radar machines • Other Stanford graduates make innovations: ▫ David Packard and William Hewett design/build and audio oscillator that generates electrical signals within frequencies of human hearing.
  4. 4. Ch.10 cont… • UC Berkeley professor Ernest Orlando Lawrence invents and develops by 1931 a cyclotron that generates high-energy beams of nuclear particles. ▫ Allows for exploration of the atom nucleus • Innovations continue throughout the second World War • Mass markets of wartime broadened horizons of inventors. ▫ Through the tragedy of war, new electronics were brought to existence • Stanford University holds great authority in science and technology innovations ▫ Owned over 8 acres of land for development, very modern research institute • Biological basis of all life was manipulated through cutting- edge technology in California
  5. 5. Chapter 11 • Technologies developed in California opened the possibility for new entertainment media: ▫ Radio, television and film • Painting, printing, photography, architecture, and music composition also art forms practiced in CA • The Arts redefined California as an “Imagined Place” • Movies/motion pictures seen in CA as early as 1872 ▫ Hollywood industrializes movie production by the 1920s with corporately owned directors, actors and technicians ▫ Smaller film studios bought out by larger presences • Movie industry never wavered during harsh times • Dark events in history inspire dark movie scripts • The arts functioned as an imaginative means of interpreting life in the California style.
  6. 6. Ch.11 cont… • Late 1940s brings hard-hitting detective stories • Darker poetry and novels appear • John Steinbeck transcends nature into literature. ▫ Saw nature as the “everything” in which all living organisms were • Contained and held the common goal of survival. • Nature annoys critic Edmund Wilson ▫ Sees no metaphors for nature in life • Classic writers including Horace McCoy, F. Scott Fitzgerald, James M. Cain migrate to Southern CA in hopes of having screenplays adapted. ▫ The Grapes of Wrath was the first novel written to be adapted into a screenplay.
  7. 7. Ch.11 cont… • Writers and filmmakers seek to fill a void in California with their work. • Raymond Chandler’s existentialism: ▫ Bleak and emotional disconnect from society ▫ Some believe they create their best works during such a period • William Saroyan fills his void through bohemian art and “hanging out”. ▫ Explores questions of love, life, death and the universe • Additional artists take on bohemianism ▫ John Fante claims that everything in American society “will never deliver” • Many painters depict CA landscapes and boardwalks; photographers captures beaches and seashells. • The arts served as a method of interpreting life in California.
  8. 8. Chapter 12 • Ethnic diversity has always been prevalent in CA ▫ Native Americans had between seventy and eighty different language groups • First settlers in 1781 were Europeans and Africans that encountered Native Americans. ▫ Some possible Spaniards or Mexicans • Gold Rush sends people from every corner of the globe to CA • None of these groups treated the others respectfully ▫ Spanish intrude upon Native Americans • California was essentially founded on racial distinctions and repressions: ▫ Aggression from Mexican land titles, disenfranchisement of Africans and Asians
  9. 9. Ch.12 cont… • San Francisco holds a heavily Jewish community ▫ Influx of immigrants continues during the 1930s by refugees of fascism ▫ Jewish people found countless major enterprises and clubs • In the early 1900s, Koreans, Mexicans and south east Asians immigrate to California for better opportunities in labor. • United States begins to regulate immigration in 1965 with the Immigration and Nationality Acts ▫ Reforms laws that previously did not allow certain ethnic groups to migrate to CA ▫ California expected a dramatic rise in immigrants for the next thirty years from troubled parts of the world ▫ Immigrant children flood LAUSD; by 1999 over eighty languages besides English are spoken in LA schools.
  10. 10. Ch.12 cont… • Racial, ethnic and religious tensions grow stronger in CA • Watt Riots in Los Angeles, 1965 were racially motivated.. ▫ Black man arrested for drunk driving, angry crowd gathers in his support. ▫ Mainly white police officers draw larger crowd and make more arrests; five days of rioting ensues. • Rodney King beaten so severely by police, he was to be hospitalized while his police attackers were acquitted, which resulted in more riots. • Los Angeles riots in 1992 positioned African-Americans and Mexicans against Whites and Asians. • Previous riots had mainly been African-Americans versus Whites. • Illegal immigration anxiety surfaces to these issues: ▫ Public aid to illegal immigrants ▫ Affirmative action ▫ Bilingual school system • Modern-day Californians cohabitate in a widely diverse state.

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