The Chapter 17 Ppt Aligned

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The Chapter 17 Ppt Aligned

  1. 1. Chap.17 Challenge of the Cities
  2. 2. Growth of an urban nation
  3. 3. Pouring In <ul><li>People are flocking to cities </li></ul><ul><li>from farms/Europe </li></ul><ul><li>1865-1920: 25 Million immigrants </li></ul><ul><li>“ By 1890, New York city held as many Germans as Hamburg, twice as many Irish as Dublin, and half as many Italians as Naples.” Boorstin and Kelley </li></ul>
  4. 4. Although the crowds of immigrants brought comfort for each other, the result was C R O W D I N G.
  5. 5. America’s Latest Innovation: <ul><li>Tenement house </li></ul><ul><li>Had a “dumbbell” design </li></ul><ul><li>Many crammed into small spaces </li></ul><ul><li>56” between </li></ul><ul><li>Flue / garbage </li></ul><ul><li>shared plumbing </li></ul>
  6. 7. <ul><ul><ul><li>Slums became notorious : </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Misery Lane, Murderer’s Alley </li></ul></ul></ul>
  7. 8. Who’s In Charge Here? <ul><li>Who’s thumb is this? </li></ul>
  8. 9. Urban Conditions <ul><li>streets </li></ul><ul><li>sewer </li></ul><ul><li>garbage </li></ul><ul><li>corruption </li></ul><ul><li>“ machine” </li></ul><ul><li>“ Immigrants to Blame?” </li></ul>
  9. 10. Politicians and Immigrants <ul><li>Corruption in the form of Bosses </li></ul><ul><li>Councilmen, Aldermen </li></ul><ul><li>Supplied government jobs, money, and advice to immigrants </li></ul><ul><li>Political “machine” </li></ul><ul><li>Oiled by generosity of Boss, and rewarded by patronage of immigrant (vote) </li></ul>Look at your worksheet Boss offers jobs Conditionally Immigrant Expected to vote for boss Boss maintains power Immigrants report to Boss
  10. 11. Why were our cities so trashed? <ul><li>Frederick Jackson Turner’s theory </li></ul><ul><li>“ Lost Frontier” </li></ul><ul><li>People had: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>No space to start over </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>On Frontier or “safety valve” </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>No escape </li></ul></ul>
  11. 12. Waves of Immigration: Old and New <ul><li>First wave v. second wave </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Oldcomers looked down upon newcomers </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Immigration Restriction League </li></ul><ul><li>Hall, Warren, and Ward </li></ul><ul><li>Prejudicial education from Harvard </li></ul><ul><li> Keep out newcomers </li></ul><ul><li>Literacy test </li></ul><ul><li>1.     over 14 </li></ul><ul><li>2.      own language OK </li></ul><ul><li>3.      Italian and Greek immigrants from poor rural settings </li></ul><ul><li>                                                             </li></ul>Sorry, we’re closed
  12. 13. <ul><li>U.S. Tries to stop immigration </li></ul><ul><li>Many Presidents declared law un-American, under-handed </li></ul><ul><li>Yet in 1917, it passes through Congress with veto override </li></ul><ul><li>Superior v. Inferior ideology </li></ul>Shut the Door, We’re Closed…
  13. 15. Our West Coast and Chinese Immigration
  14. 16. West Coast <ul><li>Asian immigrants becoming a “concern”- Why? </li></ul><ul><li>Chinese Exclusion Act of 1882 </li></ul><ul><li>1907- President Roosevelt persuades Japan to stop allowing people to flee to US- </li></ul><ul><li>“ Gentlemen’s Agreement” which becomes the term for unspoken discrimination </li></ul>
  15. 19. Has the Immigration Policy changed today? 2006
  16. 20. United States in the Gilded Age. <ul><li>What are some concerns in America nearing the turn of the century? </li></ul><ul><li>How are many people becoming Americanized? </li></ul><ul><li>What is the difference between the “oldcomer” and “newcomer” immigrants? </li></ul><ul><li>What are conditions like in the biggest cities of the United States during this time? </li></ul><ul><li>What is one theory about the condition of American cities? </li></ul><ul><li>What are politics like in the late 19 th century? </li></ul>
  17. 21. Section 2: Reformers <ul><li>Jane Addams </li></ul><ul><li>Frances Willard </li></ul><ul><li>Ida B. Wells-Barnett </li></ul>
  18. 22. Jane Addams <ul><li>From a wealthy family- went to London for education </li></ul><ul><li>Witnessed college students there living and giving in the slums </li></ul><ul><li>Idea! Settlement Houses </li></ul><ul><li>Benefit immigrants: refuge, club, and school </li></ul><ul><li>Hull House-Chicago for Newcomers: Old and very young--Becomes cultural center </li></ul>
  19. 23. Frances Willard <ul><li>Hunter/ Teacher from Wisconsin wilderness </li></ul><ul><li>Leads temperance movement </li></ul><ul><ul><li>no alcohol, corruption of Christian home, lifestyle </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>President, Women’s Christian Temperance Movement </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Right to vote becomes her new emphasis </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Wyoming 1890 Utah 1896 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Colorado 1893 Idaho 1896 </li></ul></ul>
  20. 24. Ida B. Wells- Barnett <ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Born a slave </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Became writer who exposed lynching in South </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Founded National Association for the Advancement of Colored People NYC 1909 </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>1913- settlement house in Chicago to help black newcomers f/ South </li></ul></ul></ul></ul>
  21. 25. 17.3 Learning <ul><li>A. Schools producing Americans </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Kids teaching parents English and customs </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Free school (American invention) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Literate nation (emphasized education) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>More cultural exchange than parents </li></ul></ul>
  22. 26. <ul><li>B. Colleges </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Old colleges run by oldcomers, elite membership of oldcomers Anglo-Saxons </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Morrill Act 1862 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Congressman Justin S. Morrill -Vermont </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Get govt to issue public lands to state with the purpose of building colleges </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Farming, engineering, science, and literature </li></ul></ul></ul>
  23. 27. 1880- Philanthropy <ul><ul><ul><li>Johns Hopkins </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Stanford </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Univ. of Chicago </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>William Vassar </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Publicize importance of women’s education </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>More Philanthropy </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Millions given to educate Black Americans </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Rockefeller: 50 Million to teachers of Black Americans </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>South segregated and under-funded Black education </li></ul></ul></ul>
  24. 28. Booker T. Washington <ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Tuskegee Institute in Alabama </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Machine </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Farmers, mechanics </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>“ step by step” </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>accomodationist </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Believed the vote could wait </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Jobs were more important </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul>
  25. 29. W.E.B. DuBois <ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>College education </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Studied in Germany </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>PhD Harvard </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>believed Blacks needed all rights and now! </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>vote now </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>equality </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul>
  26. 30. 17.4 Bridges
  27. 31. <ul><li>Cities mostly on rivers realizing need for Railroads and more transportation </li></ul><ul><li>James Buchanan Eads </li></ul><ul><ul><li>During the Civil War, suggested heavy (iron) gunboats to protect Miss. R </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>St. Louis needed RR </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Eads had experience in diving bells for recovery </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Walked the floor of the Mississippi </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Realized a bridge would require a foundation at 86’ and 123’ below the water’s surface </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>50 ft above </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>caissons </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>75’ stations for underwater work </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>10 stories below water </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>“ caisson disease” pressure, bends </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>1874 finished </li></ul></ul></ul>
  28. 32. Brooklyn <ul><ul><li>Lower Manhattan to Brooklyn over East River </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Winter of 1866, frozen ferries </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>John Roebling </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Germany </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Innovation-wire rope </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Spurred the creation of suspension bridge </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Niagara </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Allegheny </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Ohio </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>(East?) 1595 ft wide, 271 ft tall WOW! </li></ul></ul></ul></ul>
  29. 33. Brooklyn (cont) <ul><ul><li>J. Roebling hurt on dock and dies </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Son, Washington Roebling takes over </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>at age 32. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Fire </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>In caisson for 7 hrs </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Caisson disease </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Wheelchair for rest of life </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Commanded from his apartment </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>wife send messages from WR to crew </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Bridge finished in 1883 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Observers saluted the bridge’s “saint and hero” (wife, W.R.) </li></ul></ul></ul>
  30. 34. 17.5 Elevators and Skyscrapers <ul><li>Bessemer </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Mass production of steel (furnace) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Blowing air into molten iron to burn out carbon= steel </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>100 tons in 12 hours </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>United States becomes a world leader </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Bogardus </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Iron skeleton </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Steel changes </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>architecture, </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>rigidity perfect </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul>Bigger buildings taller than 4-5 stories Structure- Bogardus Elevators- Elisha Graves Otis
  31. 35. 17. 6 New Towns in the Country Railroads made it possible to establish factories anywhere along the RR, not just in cities <ul><li>Avoiding the slums. </li></ul><ul><li>Company towns </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Give employees nice place to live close to work </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Carnegie, 1881, Homestead PA </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Provided houses, library, and bowling alley </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>George Pullman </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Pullman IL, town square, churches, parks </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Result: feudal serfdom </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Company controls prices on everything </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Homestead </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>1892, violent strikes </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Frederick Olmsted and Calvert Vaux </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Garden-cities </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Exclusive suburbs </li></ul></ul>

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