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  1. 1. Jean Lowry<br />50587<br />California: An Overview<br />
  2. 2. Chapter 5: Regulation, Railroad, and Revolution<br />In mid-August 1850, riots broke out when the sheriff sought to evict squatters from lots claimed by Sutter<br />During treaty negotiations, the American government had promised to honor land-grant titles from Spanish and Mexican eras<br />Grantees from Spanish and Mexican era was lost, many considered this a betrayal of the treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo and a legalized form of theft<br />Lives were made or ruined by titles confirmed or denied<br />Southern Californians asked congress to admit the southern California territory<br />Businessmen’s Revolution<br />Nothing like it had ever happened before in an American city: the seizure of power and open defiance of legitimate government by right-wing businessmen “reformers” backed by a paramilitary force<br />
  3. 3. Chapter 5: Regulation, Railroad, and Revolution<br />In 1860 construction began on an ornate neoclassical capitol building by architect F.M Butler<br />The capitol building was completed in the 1870s<br />The establishment of colleges by Catholics, Methodists, and Congregationalists, underscored the fact that religion was not absent from the Gold Rush<br />One year into the Gold Rush, California was sprouting churches and synagogues<br />In 1852 Legislature commenced plans to build a state prison at Point San Quentin<br />By 1854, the first cell block –called “the stones”- was ready for occupancy<br />The Gold Rush gave a strong second wind to the cattle industry<br />The Great Drought of 1862-64 dealt a devastating blow to this revived cattle economy, replacing it with sheep-raising<br />
  4. 4. Chapter 5: Regulation, Railroad, and Revolution<br />By 1860 more than thirty thousand miles of track linked the cities and hinterlands of the East and Midwest<br />When that bank failed in 1875, San Francisco experienced its own version of the Wall Street Panic of 1873<br />August 26, 1875, panic broke out in the city and there was a run on the bank<br />Behind closed doors, major investors now learned just how extensively Ralston had depleted the resources of the bank<br />They demanded his resignation<br />San Francisco was now divided into two armed camps, for disgruntled unemployed men of the city<br />The call for a rewriting of the state constitution had the support of farmers, small business owners, and others concerned that California was bifurcating itself into polarities <br />
  5. 5. Chapter 10: O Brave New World!<br />The completion of the trans-Sierra portion of the transcontinental railroad can be seen as an engineering feat of the highest order<br />The development of mining led to the Pelton turbine, a California invention, which in turn brought hydroelectricity to California<br />Aviation was adopted and perfected in California<br />California had taken the lead in vacuum tube technology<br />By the 1930s, Californians were taking the lead in smashing the atom<br />Scientific, engineering, or technological advance emerged in the effort to discover a truth, solve a problem, make a profit, and make the world a better and more interesting place<br />For thousands of years, the technology of the waterwheel had remained unchanged<br />
  6. 6. Chapter 10: O Brave New World!<br />The new configuration: a double cup with a wedge-shaped divider in the middle; drove the turbine faster <br />From the increased speed came the premise for hydroelectrical generation as spinning turbines, driven by water dropped from dams through penstocks<br />In 1883 John Montgomery inserted himself into a gull-winged glider, the glider gained altitude of fifteen feet and glided for six hundred feet, then landed safely<br />T. Claude Ryan was interested in long-distance flight, the result was the M-1, soon refined into the M-2 monoplane<br />Ryan’s monoplane, christened the spirit of St. Louis was flown across the Atlantic in May 1927 by Charles Lindbergh<br />By the mid-1920s, a third of the aviation traffic in the United States was operating from fifty private landing fields<br />
  7. 7. Chapter 10: O Brave New World!<br />Graf Zeppelin arrived in Los Angeles on an around-the-world your<br />An estimated 150,000 visitors flocked to catch a glimpse of the tethered behemoth whose very arrival signaled an impending era of international flight<br />After nearly three decades of scientific activity in California, Davidson, built the first astronomical observatory on the west coast in San Francisco<br />After Millionaire James Lick died, he left funds for an observatory supporting the most powerful telescope on the planet<br />At Palo Alto, new inventions would soon be making an entirely new world of transcontinental phone calls. Radio, television, and high-speed electronics<br />In 1912, de forest invented a vacuum tube called the Audion that converted alternating current to direct current and functioned as an amplifier<br />
  8. 8. Chapter 11: An Imagined Place<br />The twentieth century witnessed the debut of three entertainment media- film, radio, and television- dependent upon electronic technologies developed in California<br />Painting embraced Expressionism and abstraction at midcentury, then diversified into a number of styles at the end of the century<br />Due to the harsh weather on the east coast, filming was harder to do outside so directors came to the west coast in order to film outdoor scenes<br />By the 1920s it was apparent that the production of films in Hollywood would be on an industrialized basis<br />What was amazing about Hollywood was that, decade after decade, it never fell into a slump<br />
  9. 9. Chapter 11: An Imagined Place<br />By 1990 California was becoming the most urbanized and suburbanized state in the nation<br />The painters of California remained preoccupied with landscape through the 1920s<br />The depression at last brought social Realism to California, especially among the watercolorist, who were almost like photographers in their ability to directly capture a passing scene<br />Photography in California entered the twentieth century<br />Architecturally, California maintained its preference for the Arts-and-Crafts- inspired shingle style<br />As modernism flourished among artist-architects and their discriminating clients, another domestic tradition-California Ranch, proved more attractive to an audience<br />
  10. 10. Chapter 11: An Imagined Place<br />The outdoor life, mountaineering especially, and sport-boxing, swimming, tennis, baseball, football, and track and field most notably- had characterized the California lifestyle since the late nineteenth century<br />1860 a group of German immigrants, highly influenced by the physical fitness movement in their homeland, founded an Olympic Club devoted to gymnastic pursuits<br />Boxing was especially prized at the Olympic Club<br />The tennis courts of California, many of them municipally funded, tended to favor hard surfaces, which were more economical<br />Baseball was introduced in 1859 and flourished through the rest of the nineteenth century as a club pursuit<br />Mountaineering remained a largely elite endeavor, pursued by such upper-middle-class Sierra Club members<br />
  11. 11. Source<br />Starr, Kevin. California: a History. New York: Modern Library, 2005. Print.<br />