California Set 1


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California Set 1

  1. 1. California Set 1 (1860-1960) Michael Zin Hist. 141
  2. 2. Chapter 7 • California’s first 40 years as a state included the organization of political and socioeconomic structures ▫ lay foundation of planned environment • 20th century brought public works infrastructures ▫ served exponentially growing state population • In order to make CA Inhabitable by people, a statewide water system would be necessary to transport water from precipitation-heavy north to drought-like southern state ▫ 1878 Drainage Act creates state engineers and allocates $100,000 to water industry • Lux V. Haggin lawsuit from land barons against Kern county Land and Water Company • Wright Act 1887 allows communities to divert river water dry lands for irrigation
  3. 3. Ch.7 cont… • These actions resulted in mass irrigation of the Colorado River ▫ Charles Robinson Rockwood plans gravity canal to tap river to flow westward and turn Salton Sink into a reservoir ▫ Ten years and 3 trips to Europe later, plans are underway ▫ 5 months of construction to dig canal • May 14th, 1901 water goes into the Salton Sink • Settlers continue to move to southern CA; expands to form Riverside and San Bernardino counties • William Smythe believes new “Ultimate CA” was forming ▫ Based on joint-stock company, irrigation, and classic town hall meetings
  4. 4. Ch.7 cont… • Irrigation is essentially a reorganization of nature, which bears its own risks ▫ 1904 California Development Company installs a second canal from western bank of the Colorado River illegally and for a very small price ▫ Spring 1905 rains overwhelm the canal by 25 to 200 feet ▫ Valley drowned in sea; Feb. 10, 1907 eight foot high levee complete • Years later as Europe entered war, architecture from San Diego and San Francisco was developed that would be influential in architectural design for many decades. • California population continues to grow exponentially into the 1940s.
  5. 5. Chapter 8 • Great Depression had lesser effect on CA because its economy was more diverse: ▫ Agricultural, industrial, entertainment, tourist and service sectors • However, structural instability of agriculture, militant labor movements, labor-resistance and dedication to a radical tradition were also prevalent. ▫ Worker unions and organizations form to fight for better pay and working hours • Lawyer Burnette Haskell utilizes more radical strategies to obtain rights ▫ Violent demonstrations/strikes occur across the nation as groups demand fair treatment • Burnette follower Alfred Fuhrman led strike in 1887 for Brewers ▫ 200 employees marched to headquarters and obtained a pay raise and the right to live outside designated dorms
  6. 6. Ch.8 cont… • Depression of 1893 greatly set back progress made by labor unions ▫ Company strikes; police would escort non-strikers to work • General Strike of 1901 results in formation of Union Labor Party in San Francisco; succeeds to win election of two mayors • San Francisco greatly differed from Los Angeles in union sense among others ▫ Union opposer Harrison Otis of the LA times was dominant force in city ▫ Times offices bombed in midst of a strike; 20 employees killed and 17 injured ▫ Bombers receive life sentences while 33 of the union members were charged with compliance of crime • This event deters progress in union movements for the next 25 years
  7. 7. Ch.8 cont… • 1912 San Diego encounters a dock strike by Industrial Workers of the World ▫ Goal was to take over CA and establish and industrial economy ▫ High capacity for physical and rhetorical violence • Union tensions grew for the next 10 years • August 30th, 1919 Criminal Syndicalism Act passed to criminalize the use of violence as a means of changing industrial or political control • Violence now begins between capitalists and unions in 1930s ▫ Struggle between republicans and democrats mirrors conflicts between fascism and communism in Europe
  8. 8. Chapter 9 • Military had always been connected to California through bases and naval fleets • During WWII their presence upgraded and heavily increased • “America First” had great support in CA; diminished when Pearl Harbor was • Attacked ▫ State goes in to panic • Japanese submarine surfaces in the Santa Barbara Channel and fires 25 inch shells across Pacific Coast Highway, causing minor damage • “Yellow Peril” movement sends anti-Japanese message • “White California” was racism based on jealousy due to success of Japanese in California • On the day of the Pearl Harbor attack, FBI began gathering Japanese aliens for detainment • February 19th, 1942 President Roosevelt signs Executive Order 9066 ▫ Allows Department of War to remove possibly suspicious people from military areas
  9. 9. Ch.9 cont… • During trials in San Francisco attorney General Warren argues to evacuate all Japanese, even if they are citizens • Lieutenant General de Witt, head of Western Defense Command, had authority to already declare Japanese evacuation ▫ “A Jap’s a Jap” when it comes to citizenship • March 1st, 1942 de Witt issues Proclamation Number One ▫ declares CA, OR, WA military zones and all Japanese must be removed • California becomes military state during war; was overtaken by bases. • Thousands of troops on leave flooded city streets • Zoot Suit Riots between young servicemen and young Mexican Americans
  10. 10. Ch.9 cont… • During WWII, California becomes and industrial culture ▫ Working population becomes non-draftable elderly ▫ Early HMO plan developed • Aircraft industry is major success in southern state ▫ Manufacturers like Lockheed provide daycare, medical benefits, food services, and social hours to employees ▫ Women assume authoritative positions by 1944 • Life after wars end: ▫ Many institutions and programs remained ▫ Widespread prosperity ▫ Inexpensive housing ▫ Population grew by 53% by 1950