Chapter 15 Notes

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Chapter 15 Notes

  1. 1. AMERICAN SOCIETY & ECONOMY TRANSFORMED
  2. 2. Second Great Awakening Began in New England in the 1790s, but spread across the country Camp meetings became common:  Large audiences listened to many different preachers  Speakers called on worshippers to ask for forgiveness & prepare for the Second Coming  Largest meeting took place in Kentucky in 1801
  3. 3. Second Great Awakening Charles Finney:  Former lawyer & gifted speaker  Used language that all could understand  Advocated that anyone could achieve salvation  Argued that human nature was not necessarily dominated by sin  Eventually became president of Oberlin College
  4. 4. Religious & Utopian Societies
  5. 5. Shaker Society Established a number of communities in several states Hoped to be self-sufficient & became known for their furniture & handicrafts The movement peaked between 1820-1860
  6. 6. Era of Reform There were many groups attempting to improve society, including followers of:  Temperance  Public Education  Abolition  Women’s Rights
  7. 7. Alcohol & Temperance Alcohol abuse was seen as a major problem Religious reformers saw alcohol consumption as immoral Factory owners complained about productivity & quality
  8. 8. Alcohol & Temperance The American Society for the Promotion of Temperance began in 1826:  Encouraged abstinence pledges  Lobbied states for the prohibition of alcohol Rates of alcohol consumption had dropped in half by the 1840s
  9. 9. Public Education For many years, public education was considered to be a family’s responsibility & was not required Horace Mann became a leading reformer in Massachusetts & the US
  10. 10. Mann’s Education Reforms School attendance was made mandatory & the school year was extended Curriculum was standardized & began to emphasize practical education Many states adopted similar reforms in order to educate children & assimilate immigrants
  11. 11. Abolition Quakers advocated the abolition of slavery in the years following the American Revolution American Colonization Society called for the removal of free blacks from the US
  12. 12. American Colonization Society Founded in 1817 Believed in the following:  Gradual emancipation of slaves with compensation for slave owners  Former slaves should be transported to the African nation of Liberia  Slavery was wrong, yet blacks were inferior to whites
  13. 13. American Colonization Society Paul Cuffe provided ships & money to former slaves hoping to travel to Liberia Not many slaves earned their freedom – it was very expensive Many former slaves had no desire to live in Africa
  14. 14. Abolition Black abolitionists such as David Walker, Sojourner Truth, & Frederick Douglass were also active William Lloyd Garrison called for the immediate abolition of slavery
  15. 15. Women in the Abolition Movement Angelina Grimke was born to a slave-holding family in South Carolina She & her sister spoke to anti-slavery audiences Some criticized the Grimke sisters for speaking to mixed audiences
  16. 16. Women’s Rights Margaret Fuller received an education in the classics Wrote that women must be allowed to develop their own intellectual abilities Other women’s rights advocated included Lucretia Mott & Elizabeth Cady Stanton
  17. 17. Seneca Falls Convention Held in Seneca Falls, NY in 1848 Participants protested women’s lack of property rights & suffrage Created a Declaration of Sentiments – “All men & women are created equal”

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