WHAT IS VOCABULARY• A listing of the words used in some enterprise.• A language users knowledge of words.• The set of all words that are understood by a person or the set of all wordslikely to be used by that person when constructing new sentences.Collins Cobuild English Language Dictionary (1989)
WHY WAS VOCABULARY TEACHING NEGLECTED1. Assumption that L2 vocabulary would take care of itself in L2acquisition, the same as vocabulary development in L1 (Coady, 1993).2. Excessive focus on teaching learning strategies, grammar andsentence patterns over vocabulary (Folse, 2007).3. Language was perceived as a finite system, whereas vocabulary isa more open unlimited subsystem (Beltrán et al., 2010).
VOCABULARY TEACHING - EVOLUTIONPeriod Method Focus18th century – 1920s Grammar Translation Use of bilingual vocabulary listsFrom 1880s Reform movement Phonetics & transcription moreimportant than vocabulary.Simple and useful words given /taught in a context.End of 19th century Direct method Everyday vocabulary taught withno translation.Objects & demonstrations usedto teach simple concrete words.Abstract words taught usingword associations.1920s / 1930s Reading method / situationallanguage teachingVocabulary was givenprominence.Word-frequency lists used.
VOCABULARY TEACHING - EVOLUTIONPeriod Method Focus1940s Audio Lingual Simple & similar vocabulary.Language habits & exposure.Drilling.Overemphasis on grammar.1970s Communicative LanguageTeachingVocabulary is not primary focus.Appropriate use of languagevarieties.Emphasis on language asdiscourse.1980s The Natural Approach Contextual, not direct translation.Like L1, it can be acquired.From 1980s Current perspectives Role of vocabulary emphasized.(Espinosa, 2003)
VOCABULARY TEACHING - EVOLUTION(1) Grammar-Translation,(2) Direct,(3) Reading,(4) Audiolingualism (United States),(5) Oral-Situational (Britain),(6) Cognitive,(7) Affective-Humanistic,(8) Comprehension-Based, and(9) Communicative.Celce-Murcia (2001)classifies the major trendsin language teaching in thetwentieth century into nineapproaches, namely,
EXPLICIT VS IMPLICIT INSTRUCTIONExplicit Implicit focuses attention directly on theinformation to be learned using language for communicativepurposes (Schmitt, 1988) focuses on making the learner notice newvocabulary by doing exercises such aslearning vocabulary lists, word buildinggames and using various strategies(Nation, 1990). the meaning of a word is acquired totallyunconsciously as a result of abstractionfrom repeated exposures in a range ofactivated contexts. (Ellis, 1994:219) applying metacognitive strategies toremember new vocabulary, to consolidatea new understanding by repetition…’ (Ellis,1994:219). More contextualized, thus enables learnersto learn more words and can boost theirvocabulary retention (Hunt and Beglar,2002).
TEACHING IMPLICATIONS – EXPLICIT METHOD1) L2 learners have to make moreconscious effort to learn words(Nuttall1988: 70).2) Because most SS are not awarethat it is possible to understandnew words without being toldwhat they mean (Bright &McGregor 1970).3) Because we need to encouragethe students to adopt a positiveattitude towards new lexical items.1) Tendency to concentrate onindividual words.2) The learner may not attempt touse the context to decodemeaning.3) Over-frequent use of thedictionary can affect reading(Wallace, 1988).
TEACHING IMPLICATIONS – IMPLICIT METHOD1) To infer meaning from contextin the same way native speakersor competent speakers of aforeign language do.2) To show SS that many wordscan just be ignored.3) Better able to use the word inthe needed context or situation.4) More meaningful, authentic,fosters autonomy.1) Depends hugely on readingability (Haynes, 1990).2) Depends on learners’motivation.3) Learners might not be able toinfer the correct meaning.4) What if learners do not havethe vocabulary knowledge todecipher?
RECOMMENDATIONSIntegratevocabularywith the fourlanguageskillsTeachusefulwordsActivateschemataBuild a large sightvocabularyProvide anumber ofencountersUse both asappropriate
REFERENCESEspinosa, S.M. (2003). Vocabulary: reviewing trends in EFL/ESL instruction and testing.Odisea, 4, 91-112.Folse, K.S. (2007). Vocabulary Myths. Florida: Michigan Press.Beltrán, R.C., Chacon-beltran, R., Contesse, C.A., & López, M.M.T. (2010). (Eds.). Insights IntoNon-native Vocabulary Teaching and Learning. Bristol: Channel View Publications.Coady, J. (1993). Research on ESL/EFL vocabulary acquisition: Putting it in context. In T. Huckin& M. Haynes & J. Coady (Eds.), Second language reading and vocabulary learning (pp. 3-23).Norwood, N.J.: Ablex.Celce-Murcia, M. (2001). Language teaching approaches: An overview. In M. Celce- Murcia,(Ed), Teaching English as a second or foreign language, (pp.3-11), Boston, MA: Heinle & Heinle.Ellis, N. C. (Ed.) (1994). Implicit and explicit learning of languages. London: Academic Press.Hunt, A. & Beglar, D. (2002). Current research and practice in teaching vocabulary. In J. C.Richards & W. A. Renandya (Eds.) Methodology in language teaching: An anthology of currentpractice, (pp.254-266), Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
REFERENCESBright, J. A. & McGregor, G. P. (1970). Teaching English as a Second Language.London: Longman.Nuttal, C. (1988). Teaching Reading Skills it1 a Foreign Language. Oxford:Heinemann.Wallace, M. (1988). Teaching Vocabulaty. Oxford: Heinemann.Haynes, M. (1990). Examining the impact of L1 literacy on reading success in asecond writing system. In H. Burmeister & P. L. Rounds (Eds.), Variability in secondlanguage acquisition: Proceedings of the tenth meeting of the second languageresearch forum. Eugene, OR: Department of Linguistics, University of Oregon.