Project Time Management
Sections of this presentation were adapted from A Guide to the Project
Management Body of Knowledg...
Project Time Management
“The processes required to accomplish timely completion of the
project”
Why Time Management is Important?
Part of triple constraint, can’t manage one without the
others (scope, time, and quality)
How to Manage Time?
Sven processes in order
1. Plan Schedule Management
2. Define Activities
3. Sequence Activities
4. Est...
Plan Schedule Management
 Expert judgment
 .Analytical techniques
 .Meetings
Tools & Techniques
Inputs
Output
Define
Ac...
Define Activities
Enterprise Environmental
Factors
Organizational
Process Assets
Project Scope
Statement
 Decomposition
...
Define Activities
Rolling Wave Planning – Progressive planning where near
term work is broken down in detail and distant w...
Sequence Activities
Project Scope
Statement
Activity List
Activity
Attributes
 Precedence diagramming
method (PDM-AON)
 ...
9
Project Network Diagrams
 show the precedence relationships among
activities
 help to understand the flow of work in a...
Building the Network
1- Precedence diagramming method
 called also (Activity on Node) AON Network
 emphasizes activities...
Activity on Node (AON)
 Activity on Node (AON) showcases the inter-dependencies among
various project activities.
 This ...
AON Network 2:
 Activity on Node uses four types of dependencies.
 Finish to Start (FS): The end of one activity is requ...
Finish-to-Start
Linkage (FS)
Start-to-Start
Linkage (SS)
Finish-to-Finish
Linkage (FF)
Start-to-Finish
Linkage (SF)
Activi...
Activity on Arrow (AOA)
 The length of the arrow has no significance neither has its
orientation.
 As means of further d...
Drawing networks
Activities on nodes (AoN)
A B
Activities on arrows (AoA)
A B
 Dummy activities – For representing logica...
Drawing networks (cont.)
Many computer programs require one initial event and one exit/final event
What’s wrong with this?...
17
If there is a loop, it indicates a fault logic. There can not be a looping.
A E
D
CB
6/7/2014 11:36 PM 18
60
70
80
20 40
30
50
A
B
What is wrong with this activity naming?
19
60
70
80
20 40
30
50
45
There should be unique numbering and here we need dummies
A
B
Estimate Activity Resources
Expert judgment
Alternatives analysis
Published estimating data
Project management
softwar...
Estimate Activity Durations
 Expert judgment
 Analogous estimating
 Parametric estimating
 Three-point estimates
 Res...
Estimating Methods
CPM (Critical Path Method)
• One time estimate per task
• Controls cost with flexible schedule
• Only o...
Critical Path
• Longest time through the network diagram, the shortest
time the project is expected to take
Slack (or Floa...
Critical Path-Definition
 The critical path is defined as the longest path in the
diagram
 If one of the activities on t...
Estimating with PERT
PERT Formula (Expected Duration)
• =(P+4M+O)/6
Standard Deviation = (P-O)/6
Variance = [(P-O)/6]2
Tas...
Develop Schedule
Schedule network analysis
Critical path method
Schedule compression
What-if analysis
Resource leveli...
A Sample Set of Project Activities and Precedences
Task Predecessor
a -
b -
c a
d b
e b
f c,d
g e
Let‘s Built a Network
AON Network- Stage 1
A
B
Start
A
B
Start
C
D
E
AON Network- Stage 2
A
B
Start
C
D
E
F
G
Finish
AON Network- Stage 1-
Completed
AOA Network- Stage 1
Start
A
B
1
2
Start
A
B
1
2
3
4
5
D
E
C
AOA Network- Stage 2
Start
A
B
1
2
3
4
D
E
C
F
G
Finish
AOA Network- Stage 3-
Completed
Critical Path-Example
A C D
B E F
Start Finish
4 Weeks3 Weeks 2 Weeks
4 Weeks
1 Week 3 Weeks
Critical Path
Start – B – E – F – Finish: 8 weeks
Start – A – C – D – Finish: 9 weeks
Start – B – C – D – Finish: 10 weeks...
Information Contents in an AON Node
Activity Name
Earliest Start Time (EST) Earliest Finish Time (EFT)
Latest Start Time (...
Critical Path Determination
EFT=EST+DUR-1
LST=LFT-DUR+1
Total Float=Slack=LFT-EFT or LST-EST
Critical Path=A-C-D
Non-Criti...
Control Schedule
 Schedule network
analysis
 Critical path method
 Schedule compression
 What-if analysis
 Resource l...
Gantt Charts
 It was developed as a tool for scheduling work
in factories by Henri Gannt in 1917
 The main purpose of a ...
Gantt Chart-ex.1
http://www.matchware.com/images/special/gantt-chart-template-640.jpg
Gantt Chart-ex 2
http://www.matchware.com/images/special/gantt-chart-template-640.jpg
AON using earliest possible start of the activities
AON using latest possible start of the activities
Ghant Chart with Floats
 A project usually have tens of activities and might have much
more complex dependencies than this example,
 Project man...
Other Important Terms
Lag – Inserted waiting time between tasks
Free Slack – Available delay time without impacting start ...
Individual Homework
Given the information provided by Instructor please construct a Gantt
chart, with overlaps as specifie...
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Transcript of "Project Time Management"

  1. 1. Project Time Management Sections of this presentation were adapted from A Guide to the Project Management Body of Knowledge 5th Edition, Project Management Institute Inc., © 2013
  2. 2. Project Time Management “The processes required to accomplish timely completion of the project”
  3. 3. Why Time Management is Important? Part of triple constraint, can’t manage one without the others (scope, time, and quality)
  4. 4. How to Manage Time? Sven processes in order 1. Plan Schedule Management 2. Define Activities 3. Sequence Activities 4. Estimate Activity Resources 5. Estimate Activity Durations 6. Develop Schedule 7. Control Schedule Define Activities Sequence Activities Estimate Activity Resources Estimate Activity Durations Develop Schedule Control Schedule Plan Schedule Management
  5. 5. Plan Schedule Management  Expert judgment  .Analytical techniques  .Meetings Tools & Techniques Inputs Output Define Activities Sequence Activities Estimate Activity Resources Estimate Activity Durations Develop Schedule Control Schedule Plan Schedule Management Project management plan Project charter Enterpriseenvironmental factors Organizational process assets Schedule management plan
  6. 6. Define Activities Enterprise Environmental Factors Organizational Process Assets Project Scope Statement  Decomposition  Templates  Rolling wave planning  Expert judgment  Planning component Tools & Techniques Work Breakdown Structure WBS Dictionary Project Management Plan Activity List Activity Attributes Milestone List Requested Changes Inputs Outputs Define Activities Sequence Activities Estimate Activity Resources Estimate Activity Durations Develop Schedule Control Schedule Plan Schedule Management Schedule Management
  7. 7. Define Activities Rolling Wave Planning – Progressive planning where near term work is broken down in detail and distant work is kept at a higher WBS level Planning Component – WBS items that cannot be broken down into work packages are put in a: • Control Account – High level planning dates for the scope to be defined • Planning Package – Package includes scope to be completed but no activities.
  8. 8. Sequence Activities Project Scope Statement Activity List Activity Attributes  Precedence diagramming method (PDM-AON)  Arrow diagramming method (ADM-AOA)  Schedule network templates  Dependency determination  Applying leads and lags Tools & Techniques Milestone List Enterprise environmental factors Organizational process assets Project Schedule Network Diagrams Project Document Updates :Activity List Updates/Activity Attributes/Requested Changes Inputs Outputs Define Activities Sequence Activities Estimate Activity Resources Estimate Activity Durations Develop Schedule Control Schedule Plan Schedule Management Schedule Management
  9. 9. 9 Project Network Diagrams  show the precedence relationships among activities  help to understand the flow of work in a project  a useful tool for project planning and control, as well as for scheduling “A picture is worth a thousand words”
  10. 10. Building the Network 1- Precedence diagramming method  called also (Activity on Node) AON Network  emphasizes activities  no dummy activities 2-Arrod Diagraming Method  Called also (Activity on Arrow) AOA Networks  sometimes requires dummy activities  emphasizes events; milestones can be easily flagged
  11. 11. Activity on Node (AON)  Activity on Node (AON) showcases the inter-dependencies among various project activities.  This technique is used to draw the project schedule network diagrams; e.g. Critical Path Network Diagram to identify the Critical path and the float for each activity  In an AON diagram, each rectangle box represents a node and a definable achievement in the project.  These boxes portray the project dependencies.  Boxes have zero duration and does not consume any resource.  AON emphasizes activities and does not involve dummy activities On the internet you can see many videos, this is one of these: http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=nLiAvW7Xvq4
  12. 12. AON Network 2:  Activity on Node uses four types of dependencies.  Finish to Start (FS): The end of one activity is required for the start of the next one. This is the most common dependency  Finish to Finish (FF): The end of the first activity is required for the second activity to finish  Start To Start (SS): The second activity starts only after the first activity has started  Start to Finish (SF): second activity cannot be finished until first activity starts.
  13. 13. Finish-to-Start Linkage (FS) Start-to-Start Linkage (SS) Finish-to-Finish Linkage (FF) Start-to-Finish Linkage (SF) Activity 1 Activity 2 Activity 1 Activity 2 Activity 1 Activity 2 Activity 1 Activity 2  Finish to Start (FS): The end of one activity is required for the start of the next one. This is the most common dependency  Finish to Finish (FF): The end of the first activity is required for the second activity to finish  Start To Start (SS): The second activity starts only after the first activity has started  Start to Finish (SF): second activity cannot be finished until first activity starts. Activity on Node uses four types of dependencies. AON Network (cont.)
  14. 14. Activity on Arrow (AOA)  The length of the arrow has no significance neither has its orientation.  As means of further defining the point in time when an activity starts or finishes, start and finish events are added.  An Node(= event), unlike an activity, does not consume time or resources, it merely represents a point in time at which something or some things happen.  Unique numbers are given to each activity.  The first event in a project schedule is the start of the project. The last event in a project schedule is the end of the project
  15. 15. Drawing networks Activities on nodes (AoN) A B Activities on arrows (AoA) A B  Dummy activities – For representing logical relationships, you may need dummies In AoA, any 2 events in network can be directly connected to only one activity. Wrong: Right: 15PROJECT MANAGEMENT 1 2 x y z 1 2 3 x y zDummy
  16. 16. Drawing networks (cont.) Many computer programs require one initial event and one exit/final event What’s wrong with this? Can you explain? 16PROJECT MANAGEMENT 0 1 2 58 59 60 15 17 16 A B x y Dummy start Dummy stop B C A Many activities Many activities Many activities Dummy start Dummy stop
  17. 17. 17 If there is a loop, it indicates a fault logic. There can not be a looping. A E D CB
  18. 18. 6/7/2014 11:36 PM 18 60 70 80 20 40 30 50 A B What is wrong with this activity naming?
  19. 19. 19 60 70 80 20 40 30 50 45 There should be unique numbering and here we need dummies A B
  20. 20. Estimate Activity Resources Expert judgment Alternatives analysis Published estimating data Project management software Bottom-up estimating Inputs OutputsTools & Techniques Inputs Outputs Define Activities Sequence Activities Estimate Activity Resources Estimate Activity Durations Develop Schedule Control Schedule Plan Schedule Management Schedule management plan Activity list Activity attributes Resource calendars Risk register Activity cost estimates Enterprise environmental factors Organizational process assets Activity resource requirements Resource breakdown structure Project documents updates
  21. 21. Estimate Activity Durations  Expert judgment  Analogous estimating  Parametric estimating  Three-point estimates  Reserve Analysis  Group Decision-making Techniques Tools & Techniques Activity Duration Estimates Project Document updates Inputs Outputs Define Activities Sequence Activities Estimate Activity Resources Estimate Activity Durations Develop Schedule Control Schedule Plan Schedule Management Schedule management plan Activity list Activity attributes .Activity resource requirements Resource calendars Project scope statement Risk register Resource breakdown structure Enterprise environmental factors Organizational process assets
  22. 22. Estimating Methods CPM (Critical Path Method) • One time estimate per task • Controls cost with flexible schedule • Only on AOA networks (can have dummies) • Not the same thing as schedule critical path PERT (Program Evaluation and Review Technique) • Three estimates per activity (Optimistic, Pessimistic, most likely) • Emphasis on meeting schedule with flexible cost • Only on AOA networks (can have dummies)
  23. 23. Critical Path • Longest time through the network diagram, the shortest time the project is expected to take Slack (or Float) • The amount of time a task can be delayed without impacting the project • Calculated using: – Late Start – Early Start (LS-ES) Or – Late Finish – Early Finish (LF-EF) • Early Starts computed by making a “forward pass” through the network while late starts are computed using a “backward pass” Estimating Methods
  24. 24. Critical Path-Definition  The critical path is defined as the longest path in the diagram  If one of the activities on the critical path is delayed the entire project is delayed!  It is important to determine if the project will be delayed if an activity is delayed.  If the activity is on any critical path the answer is Yes!  If not, it depends on if the delay makes the activity create a new critical path. If not, the answer is No!
  25. 25. Estimating with PERT PERT Formula (Expected Duration) • =(P+4M+O)/6 Standard Deviation = (P-O)/6 Variance = [(P-O)/6]2 Task O Optimistic M Most Likely P Pessimistic PERT (Expected Duration) Std Dev Variance A 2 days 4 days 8 days 4.3 days 1 day 1 day
  26. 26. Develop Schedule Schedule network analysis Critical path method Schedule compression What-if analysis Resource leveling Critical chain method Project management software Applying calendars Adjustable leads and lags Schedule model Inputs Tools & Techniques Inputs Outputs Define Activities Sequence Activities Estimate Activity Resources Estimate Activity Durations Develop Schedule Control Schedule Plan Schedule Management Schedule management plan Activity list Activity attributes Project schedule network diagrams Activity resource requirements Resource calendars Activity duration estimates Project scope statement Risk register Project staff assignments Resource breakdown structure Enterprise environmental factors Organizational process assets Schedule baseline Project schedule Schedule data Project calendars Project management plan updates Project documents updates
  27. 27. A Sample Set of Project Activities and Precedences Task Predecessor a - b - c a d b e b f c,d g e Let‘s Built a Network
  28. 28. AON Network- Stage 1 A B Start
  29. 29. A B Start C D E AON Network- Stage 2
  30. 30. A B Start C D E F G Finish AON Network- Stage 1- Completed
  31. 31. AOA Network- Stage 1 Start A B 1 2
  32. 32. Start A B 1 2 3 4 5 D E C AOA Network- Stage 2
  33. 33. Start A B 1 2 3 4 D E C F G Finish AOA Network- Stage 3- Completed
  34. 34. Critical Path-Example A C D B E F Start Finish 4 Weeks3 Weeks 2 Weeks 4 Weeks 1 Week 3 Weeks
  35. 35. Critical Path Start – B – E – F – Finish: 8 weeks Start – A – C – D – Finish: 9 weeks Start – B – C – D – Finish: 10 weeks  The critical path is path B-C-D that which is of 10 weeks. WHY?  if activity D is delayed 1 week, the project will be delayed with 1 week.  But if activity E is delayed 1 week, it will not delay the project WHY?
  36. 36. Information Contents in an AON Node Activity Name Earliest Start Time (EST) Earliest Finish Time (EFT) Latest Start Time (LST) Latest Finish Time (LFT) Duration Total Float
  37. 37. Critical Path Determination EFT=EST+DUR-1 LST=LFT-DUR+1 Total Float=Slack=LFT-EFT or LST-EST Critical Path=A-C-D Non-Critical Path=A-B-D 10 5 5 56 1 16 15106 15 30 15 16 0 30 5 6 0 11 15 1 0 5 A B C D
  38. 38. Control Schedule  Schedule network analysis  Critical path method  Schedule compression  What-if analysis  Resource leveling  Critical chain method  Project management software  Applying calendars  Adjustable leads and lags  Scheduling tool Tools & Techniques Inputs Outputs Define Activities Sequence Activities Estimate Activity Resources Estimate Activity Durations Develop Schedule Control Schedule Plan Schedule Management Project management plan Project schedule Work performance data Project calendars Schedule data Organizational process assets Work performance information .Schedule forecasts .Change requests Project management plan updates .Project documents updates .Organizational process assets updates
  39. 39. Gantt Charts  It was developed as a tool for scheduling work in factories by Henri Gannt in 1917  The main purpose of a Gantt chart is to display the schedule of activities  They are easy to understand  They are flexible in that you can also show other information on the chart, such as resources required, who is responsible, critical activities, percent complete, etc. All project management software includes Gantt charts
  40. 40. Gantt Chart-ex.1 http://www.matchware.com/images/special/gantt-chart-template-640.jpg
  41. 41. Gantt Chart-ex 2 http://www.matchware.com/images/special/gantt-chart-template-640.jpg
  42. 42. AON using earliest possible start of the activities
  43. 43. AON using latest possible start of the activities
  44. 44. Ghant Chart with Floats
  45. 45.  A project usually have tens of activities and might have much more complex dependencies than this example,  Project managers usually use software to set up the activities and dependencies and let the software calculate the critical path(s).  If an activity is delayed the project manager can enter the delay in the software and see how it affects the overall finish of the project.  If the project is delayed the project manager can use the software to rearrange activities, dependencies or suggest additional activities as needed to bring the project back on track.  The critical path is critical to the Time Management knowledge area.  Make sure you know how to use it correctly whenyou manage a project. Important to Notice
  46. 46. Other Important Terms Lag – Inserted waiting time between tasks Free Slack – Available delay time without impacting start of successor Total Slack – Amount of time a task can be delayed without delaying project completion date Project Slack – Amount of time a project can be delayed without impacting completion dates imposed by client Crashing – Adding resources to critical path items to shorten schedule Fast Tracking – Performing critical path tasks in parallel rather than series Resource Leveling – Adjusting completion dates of tasks to meet available resources Heuristics – Rules of thumb
  47. 47. Individual Homework Given the information provided by Instructor please construct a Gantt chart, with overlaps as specified. You should use a computer software package
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