Cross-cultural Differences in Social Networking: Girard & Bertsch

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Cross-cultural Differences in Social Networking: An Examination of the Global Web Index Behavior Types. John Girard and Andy Bertsch's presentation at 15th Cross Cultural Research Conference, …

Cross-cultural Differences in Social Networking: An Examination of the Global Web Index Behavior Types. John Girard and Andy Bertsch's presentation at 15th Cross Cultural Research Conference,
Sheraton Keauhou Bay Resort, Kona, Hawaii

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  • 1. Cross-cultural Differences in Social Networking: Girard & Bertsch   Cross-­‐cultural  Differences  in  Social  Networking:   An  Examina<on  of  the  Global  Web  Index  Behaviour   Types   1   John  Girard   john.girard@minotstateu.edu     Andy  Bertsch   andy.bertch@minotstateu.edu   Overview   2   —  Third  phase  in  a  research  project     —  Aim  to  understanding  rela<onships  that  exist  between   social  media  usage  and  societal  cultural  differences   —  In  this  phase:  GLOBE  Societal  Value  scores  and    social   networking  data  as  reported  by  the  Global  Web  Index   —  Employs  an  exploratory  research  design  aimed  at   exploring  the  rela<onships  between  cultural  values   dimension  variables  (IV)  and  a  country’s  placement  on   social  media  scales  (DV)   —  We  opted  to  use  correla<on  and  regression  techniques   to  explore  these  rela<onships   Cross-­‐cultural  Differences  in  Social  Networking:  Girard  &  Bertsch   1  
  • 2. Cross-cultural Differences in Social Networking: Girard & Bertsch   Background:  Social  Technology   3        “A  social  trend  in  which   people  use  technologies   to  get  the  things  they   need  from  each  other,   rather  than  from   tradi<onal  ins<tu<ons   like  corpora<ons.”   groundswell.forrester.com   Cross-­‐cultural  Differences  in  Social  Networking:  Girard  &  Bertsch   The  Social  Technographics™  Ladder   4   Creators   Creators  make  social  content   go.  They  write  blogs  or  upload   Cri%cs  respond  to  content  from   video,  music,  or  text.   others.  They  post  reviews,   Cri%cs   comment  on  blogs,  par<cipate   in  forums,  and  edit  wiki  ar<cles.   Collectors  organize  content  for   Collectors   themselves  or  others  using  RSS   feeds,  tags,  and  vo<ng  sites  like   Digg.com   Joiners  connect  in  social   Joiners   networks  like  MySpace  and   Facebook   Spectators  consume  social   Spectators   content  including  blogs,  user-­‐ generated  video,  podcasts,   Inac%ves  neither  create  nor   forums,  or  reviews   consume  social  content  of  any   Inac%ves   kind   Cross-­‐cultural  Differences  in  Social  Networking:  Girard  &  Bertsch   2  
  • 3. Cross-cultural Differences in Social Networking: Girard & Bertsch   The  Social  Technographics™  Ladder   US  Adults   5   2007   2010   Creators   US  18-­‐24   US  35-­‐44   US  55+   18%   24%   46%   23%   12%                       Cri%cs   25%   37%   50%   34%   28%                       Collectors   12%   21%   38%   20%   12%                       Joiners   25%   51%   85%   54%   26%                       Spectators   48%   73%   89%   73%   64%                       Inac%ves   44%   18%   3%   17%   30%   Cross-­‐cultural  Differences  in  Social  Networking:  Girard  &  Bertsch   The  Social  Technographics™  Ladder   South  Korea  Adults   Japanese  Adults   6   2007   2009   Creators   2007   2009   38%   49%   22%   34%                   Cri%cs   27%   46%   36%   30%                   Collectors   14%   19%   6%   11%                   Joiners   41%   48%   22%   26%                   Spectators   39%   76%   70%   69%                   Inac%ves   36%   9%   26%   23%   Cross-­‐cultural  Differences  in  Social  Networking:  Girard  &  Bertsch   3  
  • 4. Cross-cultural Differences in Social Networking: Girard & Bertsch   The  Knowledge  Pyramid   7   InformaHon  to   Knowledge   · Compare   · Consequences   · Connects   Knowledge   · Conversa<on   Data  to     InformaHon   InformaHon   · Context   · Categorize   · Calculate   · Correct   · Condense   Data   Cross-­‐cultural  Differences  in  Social  Networking:  Girard  &  Bertsch   Social Technographics Dimensions     Adapted from Li and Bernoff (2008) 8   Dimension   Knowledge  Sharing  Ac%vity   Creators   Creators   produce   and   share   informa<on   and   knowledge   that   is   freely  available  to  other  users,  the  quintessence  of  need-­‐to-­‐share.     Cri%cs   Cri<cs  add  value  to  the  data,  informa<on  and  knowledge  shared  by   creators.     Their   feedback,   comments,   and   correc<ons   oeen   facilitate  the  metamorphosis  of  data  to  informa<on  or  informa<on   to  knowledge  thorough  conversa<on,  connec<ons,  and  comparison.   Collectors   Collectors   provide   access   and   provide   the   opportunity   for   other   users  to  compare  and  connect  informa<on.   Joiners   Online  communi<es  facilitate  conversa<on.     Spectators   Spectators   consume   the   informa<on   and   knowledge   created   by   others.     Inac%ves   Inac<ves  do  not  create  or  exchange  social  knowledge   Cross-­‐cultural  Differences  in  Social  Networking:  Girard  &  Bertsch   4  
  • 5. Cross-cultural Differences in Social Networking: Girard & Bertsch   Hostede’s  Cultural  Dimension   9   hgp://www.geert-­‐hofstede.com/hofstede_united_states.shtml   hgp://www.geert-­‐hofstede.com/hofstede_japan.shtml   Dimension Con%nuum Power  Distance  Index  (PDI) Low  Power  Distance  vs.  High  Power  Distance Uncertainty  Avoidance  Index  (UAI) Low  Uncertainty  Avoidance  vs.  High  Uncertainty  Avoidance Individualism  (IDV) Individualism  vs.  Collec<vism Masculinity  (MAS) Masculinity  vs.  Femininity Long-­‐Term  Time  Orienta%on  (LTO) Long-­‐term  orienta<on  vs.  Short-­‐term  orienta<on Cross-­‐cultural  Differences  in  Social  Networking:  Girard  &  Bertsch   Methodology   10   —  Scager  Diagrams.    Produce  scager  diagrams  to  visually   explore  possible  rela<onships.   —  Pearson’s  Coefficient  of  Correla<on.    If  appropriately   linear,  Pearson’s  r  will  be  used  to  determine  the  strength   of  rela<onship.  Cau<on  will  be  in  order  as  correla<on  is   not  the  same  as  causa<on     —  Test  for  significance  of  Pearson’s  r.       —  Regression  analysis  in  order  to  determine  the   reasonableness  of  predic<ng  a  country’s  placement   along  the  Forrester  scale.   Cross-­‐cultural  Differences  in  Social  Networking:  Girard  &  Bertsch   5  
  • 6. Cross-cultural Differences in Social Networking: Girard & Bertsch   Phase  1:  Country  Scores  (13)   11   Country Creators Cri%cs Collectors Joiners Spectators Inac%ves PDI UAI IDV MAS US 24 37 21 51 73 18 40 46 91 62 Canada 18 29 17 57 64 21 39 48 80 52 UK 15 21 6 38 50 37 35 35 89 66 France 12 19 6 24 51 40 68 86 71 43 Germany 9 12 4 21 38 52 35 65 67 66 Italy 29 25 7 33 52 36 50 76 70 75 Metro  China 44 46 37 32 79 17 80 20 66 30 Japan 34 30 11 26 69 23 54 92 46 95 South  Korea 49 46 19 48 76 9 60 18 39 85 Australia 23 31 14 50 64 22 36 51 90 61 Spain 15 21 8 24 56 38 57 86 51 42 Netherlands 20 20 8 38 64 27 38 53 80 14 Sweden 14 21 8 37 59 32 31 29 71 5 Cross-­‐cultural  Differences  in  Social  Networking:  Girard  &  Bertsch   Scager  Diagrams   12   PDI  and  Creators     60   50   40   30   20   10   0   0   10   20   30   40   50   60   70   80   90   Cross-­‐cultural  Differences  in  Social  Networking:  Girard  &  Bertsch   6  
  • 7. Cross-cultural Differences in Social Networking: Girard & Bertsch   Phase  1  Results   13     Creators Cri%cs Collectors Joiners Spectators Inac%ves 0.5736   0.4994   0.5276   -­‐0.3520   0.3928   -­‐0.2520   PDI t  =  2.32   t  =  1.91   t  =  2.06   t  =  -­‐1.25   t  =  1.42   t  =  -­‐0.86   R2  =  0.33     R2  =  0.25   R2  =  0.28   R2  =  0.12     R2  =  0.15   R2  =  0.06   SE  =  11 SE  =  9 SE  =  8 SE  =  11 SE  =  11 SE  =  12 -­‐0.3907   -­‐0.5423   -­‐0.5646   -­‐0.5728   -­‐0.4645   0.5264   UAI t  =  -­‐1.41   t  =  -­‐2.14   t  =  -­‐2.27   t  =  -­‐2.32   t  =  -­‐1.74   t  =  2.05   R2  =  0.15   R2  =  0.29     R2  =  0.32     R2  =  0.33   R2  =  0.22   R2  =  0.28   SE  =  12 SE  =  9 SE  =  8 SE  =  10 SE  =  11 SE  =  10 -­‐0.4827   -­‐0.2245   -­‐0.0435   0.4311   -­‐0.1771   0.1135   IDV t  =  -­‐1.83   t  =  -­‐0.76   t  =  -­‐0.14   t  =  1.58   t  =  -­‐0.60   t  =  0.38   R2  =  0.23   R2  =  0.05     R2  =  0.00     R2  =  0.19     R2  =  0.03   R2  =  0.01     SE  =  11 SE  =  11 SE  =  9 SE  =  11 SE  =  12 SE  =  12 0.3622   0.2444   -­‐0.0511   0.0452   0.0065   -­‐0.1283   MAS t  =  1.29   t  =  0.84   t  =  -­‐0.17   t  =  0.15   t  =  0.02   t  =  -­‐0.43   R2  =0.13     R2  =  0.06   R2  =  0.00     R2  =  0.00   R2  =  0.00   R2  =  0.02     SE  =  12 SE  =  11 SE  =  9 SE  =  12 SE  =  12 SE  =  12 Cross-­‐cultural  Differences  in  Social  Networking:  Girard  &  Bertsch   Phase  1  Conclusion   14   Although  the  authors  believe  that  culture  influences   behaviours,  this  study  did  not  reveal  any  reasonable   rela%onships  between  culture  and  placement  along  the   Social  Technographics.    However,  it  is  possible  that  there   exists  problems  in  the  Hofstede  scales.    The  Hofstede   scales  have  been  highly  cri<cized  in  the  literature  (for  an   example  of  such  cri<cism,  see  McSweeny  (2002)  and   Sivakumar  &  Nakata  (2001)).    It  may  be  that  other  cross-­‐ cultural  models  such  as  GLOBE,  Schwartz,  Triandis,  or   others  may  yield  different  results.    In  this  regard,  further   research  is  necessary.   Cross-­‐cultural  Differences  in  Social  Networking:  Girard  &  Bertsch   7  
  • 8. Cross-cultural Differences in Social Networking: Girard & Bertsch   Phase  2   15   —  Hofstede’s  culture  scores  /  GLOBE  Societal  Values  scores   —  Analysis  included  running  correla<on  coefficients   (Peasson’s  r)  for  each  rela<onship,  tes<ng  for   significance  of  each  respec<ve  Pearson’s  r,  and   conduc<ng  regression  analyses  on  each  rela<onship.     —  The  results  were  mixed.    There  were  several  sta<s<cally   significant  correla<ons  between  the  GLOBE  Societal   Values  scales  and  the  Social  Technographics  scores   —  Only  one  rela<onship  passed  the  R-­‐square  test:  Gender   Egalitarianism  Values  and  a  society’s  placement  on  the   Creator  rung  of  the  Forrester  ladder.   Cross-­‐cultural  Differences  in  Social  Networking:  Girard  &  Bertsch   Phase  3:     GLOBE  and  Global  Web  Index   8  
  • 9. Cross-cultural Differences in Social Networking: Girard & Bertsch   17   hgp://www.globalwebindex.net   Cross-­‐cultural  Differences  in  Social  Networking:  Girard  &  Bertsch   Global  Web  Index  Consumer  Behaviour  Dimensions   Adapted  from  (Smith,  T  (2011))   18   Dimension   Global  Web  Index  Defini%on   Messengers  and   Emailed  /  sent  messages  to  friends  OR   Makers  (MM)   Instant  messaged  with  friends  OR       Wrigen  a  status  update   Content  Sharers  (CS)   Share  a  news  story  OR       Share  content  from  a  brand/product  OR   Uploaded  and  shared  videos  on  your  profile  OR   Uploaded  and  shared  videos  on  your  profile   Joiners  and  Creators   Joined  a  group  OR   of  Groups  (JC)   Started  a  group  OR       Joined  a  group  affiliated  /  connected  with  a  brand  or  product  OR   Joined  a  group  from  a  musician  /  ar<st   Cross-­‐cultural  Differences  in  Social  Networking:  Girard  &  Bertsch   9  
  • 10. Cross-cultural Differences in Social Networking: Girard & Bertsch   GLOBEs  Dimensions  of  Societal  Culture   Defini<ons  adopted  by  GLOBE  (Chhokar,  Brodbeck  and  House,  2008)     19   Dimension   Defini%on   Performance   The  extent  to  which  high  level  members  of  organiza<ons  and  socie<es,  encourage  and   Orienta%on  (PO)   reward  group  members  for  performance  improvement  and  excellence.   Future  Orienta%on   The  degree  to  which  individuals  in  organiza<ons  or  socie<es  engage  in  future-­‐oriented   (FO)   behaviors  such  as  planning,  inves<ng  in  the  future,  and  delaying  individual  or  collec<ve   gra<fica<on.   Gender  Egalitarianism  The  extent  to  which  an  organiza<on  or  a  society  minimizes  gender  role  differences  while   (GE)   promo<ng  gender  equity  and  equality  of  genders.   Asser%veness  (A)   The  degree  to  which  individuals  in  organiza<ons  or  socie<es  are  asser<ve,  confronta<onal,   and  aggressive  in  social  rela<onships.     Ins%tu%onal   The  degree  to  which  organiza<onal  and  societal  ins<tu<onal  prac<ces  encourage  and  reward   Collec%vism  (IC)   collec<ve  distribu<on  of  resources  and  collec<ve  ac<on.   In-­‐Group  Collec%vism   The  degree  to  which  individuals  express  pride,  loyalty,  and  cohesiveness  in  their   (GC)   organiza<ons,  families,  circle  of  close  friends,  or  other  such  small  groups.   Power  Distance  (PD)   The  degree  to  which  members  of  an  organiza<on  and  society  encourage  and  reward  unequal   distribu<on  of  power  with  greater  power  at  higher  levels.   Humane  Orienta%on   The  degree  to  which  individuals  in  organiza<ons  or  socie<es  encourage  and  reward   (HO)   individuals  for  being  fair,  altruis<c,  friendly,  generous,  caring,  kind  to  others,  and  exhibi<ng   and  promo<ng  altruis<c  ideals.   Uncertainty   The  extent  to  which  members  of  an  organiza<on  or  society  strive  to  avoid  uncertainty  by   Avoidance  (UA)   relying  on  established  social  norms,  rituals,  and  bureaucra<c  prac<ces  to  decrease  the   probability  of  unpredictable  future  events  that  could  adversely  affect  the  opera<on  of  an   organiza<on  or  society,  and  also  to  remedy  the  poten<al  adverse  effects  of  such   unpredictable  future  events.   Cross-­‐cultural  Differences  in  Social  Networking:  Girard  &  Bertsch   Country  Scores  for  Global  Web  Index  and  GLOBE   Societal  Values  Scales     20   Global  Web  Index  Behavior   Country   GLOBE  Societal  Values  Scales   Types     MM   CS   JC   PO   FO   GE   A   IC   GC   PD   HO   UA   US   51   51   20   6.14   5.31   5.06   4.32   4.17   5.77   2.85   5.53   4.00   Canada   54   43   26   6.15   5.35   5.11   4.15   4.17   597   2.70   5.64   3.75   UK   44   40   28   5.90   5.06   5.17   3.70   4.32   5.55   2.80   5.43   4.11   France   57   45   28   5.65   4.96   4.40   3.38   4.86   5.42   2.76   5.67   4.26   Germany   47   38   32   6.01   4.85   4.89   3.09   4.82   5.18   2.54   5.46   3.94   Italy   38   49   36   6.07   5.91   4.88   3.82   5.13   5.72   2.47   5.58   4.47   China   47   53   34   5.67   4.73   3.68   5.44   4.56   5.09   3.10   5.32   5.28   Japan   16   16   8   5.17   5.25   4.33   5.56   3.99   5.26   2.86   5.41   4.33   South  Korea   23   33   11   5.25   5.69   4.22   3.75   3.9   5.41   2.55   5.60   4.67   Australia   50   48   27   5.89   5.15   5.02   3.81   4.40   5.76   2.78   5.58   3.98   Spain   47   45   36   5.80   5.63   4.82   4.00   5.20   5.79   2.26   5.69   4.76   Netherlands   45   42   18   5.49   5.07   4.99   3.02   4.55   5.17   2.45   5.20   3.24   Cross-­‐cultural  Differences  in  Social  Networking:  Girard  &  Bertsch   10  
  • 11. Cross-cultural Differences in Social Networking: Girard & Bertsch   Correla<on  Coefficients  (r)  with  t-­‐Scores,  R2  values   21       MM   CS   JC   r  =  0.7163   r  =  0.6734   r  =  0.6720   t  =  3.24   t  =  2.88    t=  2.86   PO  -­‐  Values   r2  =  0.51   r2  =  0.45   r2  =  0.45   SE  =  8.92     SE  =  7.69     SE  =  7.22     r  =  0.8183   t  =  4.50   *(p<0.05) IC  -­‐  Values   r2  =  0.67           SE  =  5.61     Hair,  et  al.  (2006)  suggests  that  R2  values  less  than  0.50  result  in  less  than  acceptable   models.  When  a  model  yields  an  R2  value  that  is  less  than  0.50,  more  than  0.50  of   the  variance  in  the  dependent  variable  is  agributed  to  spurious  variables  or  error   (Joseph  F.  Hair,  Jr.,  et  al.,  2006).      This  phase  of  this  mul%-­‐phased  research  project   yielded  sta%s%cally  significant  results.    In  par%cular,  GLOBE’s  Performance   Orienta%on  Societal  Values  scores  can  be  used  to  place  a  society  along  the  MM   con%nuum  of  the  Global  Web  Index.    Similarly,  GLOBE’s  Ins%tu%onal  Collec%vism   Societal  Values  scores  can  be  used  to  place  a  society  along  the  JC  con%nuum  of  the   Global  Web  Index.     Cross-­‐cultural  Differences  in  Social  Networking:  Girard  &  Bertsch   More  Data  Coming  Soon  >30  Countries   22   hgp://www.globalwebindex.net   Cross-­‐cultural  Differences  in  Social  Networking:  Girard  &  Bertsch   11