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Apr 23, 2012
John Girard's presentation to Abu Dhabi Police and Abu Dhabi Chamber of Commerce, April 2012
www.sscs.ae or www.km-‐me.com 1 A Leader’s Guide to Knowledge Management It is all about People! 3 Sagology is dedicated to connec�ng people with people to facilitate collabora�on, learning, and knowledge sharing through keynotes, workshops, and consul�ng. sagology [sāj-‐ol-‐uh-‐jee] -‐noun 1. the study of organiza�onal wisdom in all its forms, esp. with reference to technology, leadership, culture, process, and measurement 2. the study of one venerated for experience, judgment, and wisdom. Origin: 2008; Canadian English, from Middle English sage + -‐ology. Sage [Middle English, from Old French, from Vulgar La�n *sapius, from La�n sapere, to be wise; see sep-‐ in Indo-‐European roots.] -‐ology [Middle English -‐logie, from Old French, from La�n -‐logia, from Greek -‐logiā (from logos, word, speech; see leg-‐ in Indo-‐ European roots) and from -‐logos, one who deals with (from legein, to speak; see leg-‐ in Indo-‐European roots).] A Leaders Guide to KM © 2012, John P. Girard, Ph.D. www.sscs.ae 1 firstname.lastname@example.org
Recent CPA Ar�cle 5 h�p://incpas.org/Member/Resources/CPAINPerspec�ve.aspx About You 1. Name 2. Organiza�on 3. Posi�on 4. KM Story www.sscs.ae 2 email@example.com
Agenda 7 Part 1 – 8:30 to 10:00 Keys to Success 1. Where is the Knowledge? 1. Par�cipa�on 2. Organize What? 2. Courtesy 3. What Types of Knowledge Exist? 3. Conﬁden�ality 4. Time L 4. Simples Ideas 5. Do you Really Want to Know What you Know? Part 2 – 10:30 to 12:00 5. Tools, Tac�cs, and Techniques: Today and Tomorrow 7. Guiding Organiza�ons Into the Future 8. The Future is Just a Day Away A Leaders Guide to KM © 2012, John P. Girard, Ph.D. CHAPTER 1 THE WHERE Where is the wisdom we have lost in knowledge? Where is the knowledge we have lost in information? —T. S. Eliot, The Rock (1935)www.sscs.ae 3 firstname.lastname@example.org
Informa�on Overload 10 245+ academic papers on Information Overload 1972-2000 (Bawden, 2001) Information Overload Personal Information Overload Information overload occurs A perception on the part of the individual when the amount of input to a (or observers of that person) that the flow system exceeds its of information associated with work tasks is processing capacity. greater than can be managed effectively. (Speier et al, 1999, p. 338) (Wilson, 2001, p. 113) Information Overload Organizational Information Overload Information overload is that A situation in which the extent of state in which available, and perceived information overload is potentially useful, information sufficiently widespread within an is a hindrance rather than a organization as to reduce the overall help. effectiveness of management operations. (Bawden, 2001, p. 6) (Wilson, 2001, p. 113) A Leaders Guide to KM © 2012, John P. Girard, Ph.D. The Cost? 11 A Leaders Guide to KM © 2012, John P. Girard, Ph.D. The Problem – Enterprise Demen�a 12 2/3 of managers complained of 43% of the managers delayed Information overload (KPMG, 2000) decisions because of too much information. (Wilson, 2001) Managers “dwell on information that is entertaining but not informative, or 38% of the surveyed managers easily available but not of high waste a substantial amount of time quality” (Linden, 2001, p.2) locating information (Wilson, 2001) The number of books published annually has increased exponentially since the 16th century. At present, the prediction is that the number of books doubles every 33 years (Hanka & Fuka, 2000). The total accumulated codified database of the world, which includes all books and all electronic files, doubles every seven years and some predict this will double twice a day by 2010 (Bontis, 2000). A Leaders Guide to KM © 2012, John P. Girard, Ph.D. www.sscs.ae 4 email@example.com
The Future 13 “In an economy where the only certainty is uncertainty, the only sure source of las�ng Ikujiro Nonaka compe��ve advantage is knowledge.” A Leaders Guide to KM © 2012, John P. Girard, Ph.D. CHAPTER 2 ORGANIZE WHAT? Generally, management of the many is the same as management of the few. It is a matter of organization. —Sun Tzu (400–320 BC), The Art of War Founda�on or Too Busy 15 A Leaders Guide to KM © 2012, John P. Girard, Ph.D. www.sscs.ae 5 firstname.lastname@example.org
Knowledge Sharing – Nothing New? 16 Knowledge Management is the creation, transfer, and exchange of organizational knowledge to achieve a [competitive] advantage. A Leaders Guide to KM © 2012, John P. Girard, Ph.D. What Advantage? 17 A Leaders Guide to KM © 2012, John P. Girard, Ph.D. History of KM: Academic Perspec�ve 18 c. 350 BC 17th Century 1950s 1990s Aristotle Sir Francis Bacon Michael Polanyi Ikujiro Nonaka Carla O’Dell Classification of Knowledge Aristotle A Leaders Guide to KM © 2012, John P. Girard, Ph.D. www.sscs.ae 6 email@example.com
What is knowledge? 19 Data Knowledge Information knowledge is "defined broadly to include Knowledge: information, data, communication and Concepts, culture" experience, and insight that(p. 293) a framework provide for creating, evaluating and using information (p. 373). A Leaders Guide to KM © 2012, John P. Girard, Ph.D. The Cogni�ve Hierarchy 20 Wisdom Ackoff’s Apex Understanding Knowledge Knowledge Wisdom: Information The collective and individual Data experiences of applying knowledge to the solution of problems (p. 373). A Leaders Guide to KM © 2012, John P. Girard, Ph.D. The diﬀerence . . . Data to Knowledge 21 October 27, 1917 Q1 - What time is it? Q2 – Where are these people? Q3 – Why is the boy smiling? A Leaders Guide to KM © 2012, John P. Girard, Ph.D. www.sscs.ae 7 firstname.lastname@example.org
Data 22 Davenport & Prusak (1998) deﬁne data “as a set of discrete, objec�ve facts about events” and they suggest, “in an organiza�onal context, data is most usefully described as structured records of transac�ons” (p. 2). Data A Leaders Guide to KM © 2012, John P. Girard, Ph.D. Informa�on 23 Peter F. Drucker (1998) claims that "Informa�on is data endowed with relevance and purpose" Informa�on Data A Leaders Guide to KM © 2012, John P. Girard, Ph.D. Knowledge 24 Authors Joseph and Jimmie Boye� (2001) suggest "knowledge is easy to talk about but hard to deﬁne" Knowledge Informa�on Data A Leaders Guide to KM © 2012, John P. Girard, Ph.D. www.sscs.ae 8 email@example.com
Types of Knowledge 25 Easier to document and Explicit share Contributes to Easier to efficiency replicate 20% Leads to competency Michael Polanyi 80% Tacit Carla O’Dell Harder to articulate Harder to steal Higher competitive advantage Harder to transfer O’Dell, C. (2002, May). Knowledge Management New Generation. Presented at the APQC’s 7th Knowledge Conference, Washington, DC. A Leaders Guide to KM © 2012, John P. Girard, Ph.D. Exchange and Transfer of Knowledge 26 TACIT n Ext tio ern za a i ial liz Soc ati on EXPLICIT TACIT Ikujiro Nonaka on Co ati mb liz a in rn a ti on Inte EXPLICIT A Leaders Guide to KM © 2012, John P. Girard, Ph.D. The importance of sharing . . . 27 According to Computer Associates . . . http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=lH39xjXaLW8 A Leaders Guide to KM © 2012, John P. Girard, Ph.D. www.sscs.ae 9 firstname.lastname@example.org
CHAPTER 3 THE TYPES Scientia protenia est (Latin maxim, “For also knowledge itself is power.”) —Sir Francis Bacon, Meditationes Sacrae (1597) KM Models 29 Developed by Dr Stankosky and his team at George Washington University Webber, F., Wunram, M., Kemp, J., Pudlatz., & Bredehorst, B. (2002). Standardisation in in 1999 knowledge management – Towards a common KM framework in Europe. Proceedings of UNICOM Seminar Towards Common Approaches & Standards in KM. London. Infrastructure Organization Technology Leadership Measures Learning Process Content Culture KM Pillars European Framework DON Balanced KM Enablers of Transfer KM Assessment Tool Bennet, A. & Kantner, J. (2001). Navigating the KM dimension, Next- Generation Knowledge Management: Enabling Business Processes. American Productivity & Quality Center. A Leaders Guide to KM © 2012, John P. Girard, Ph.D. A New View of Knowledge Management 30 Measurement Leadership Process Technology Culture A Leaders Guide to KM © 2012, John P. Girard, Ph.D. www.sscs.ae 10 email@example.com
A li�le TLC goes a long way! 31 Leadership Transparency Vision and example Measurement Resources (including time) Leadership Technology Culture Process Technology Help or hinder Need to Share vs Culture Need to Know Security issues Privacy Ease of access Content Creators Tending toward free A Leaders Guide to KM © 2012, John P. Girard, Ph.D. TLC: Leadership 32 Including Ray Downey, Special Operations Command lost 95 men that day – totaling 1,600 years of experience. (emphasis added) A Leaders Guide to KM © 2012, John P. Girard, Ph.D. Open Leadership 33 Share constantly Respect that your to build trust. customers and Nurture curiosity employees have and humility. power. Hold openness Forgive failure. accountable. http://www.charleneli.com/resources/new-‐rules/ A Leaders Guide to KM © 2012, John P. Girard, Ph.D. www.sscs.ae 11 firstname.lastname@example.org
Openness Audit 34 http://www.slideshare.net/charleneli/openness-‐audit A Leaders Guide to KM © 2012, John P. Girard, Ph.D. TLC: Culture 35 A Leaders Guide to KM © 2012, John P. Girard, Ph.D. Tribal Leadership 36 A Leaders Guide to KM © 2012, John P. Girard, Ph.D. www.sscs.ae 12 email@example.com
Exchange and Transfer of Knowledge 37 TACIT n Ext tio ern za a i ial liz Soc ati on EXPLICIT TACIT on Measurement Co Leadership ati mb liz a in a ti Process Technology rn on Inte Culture EXPLICIT A Leaders Guide to KM © 2012, John P. Girard, Ph.D. Measurement 38 APQC Stages of KM Stage 5 Stage 4 Stage 3 Institutionalize Stage 2 Expand Stage 1 Design and Knowledge Develop a and Get Launch a Management Strategy Support Started KM Initiative Remember: Measure the outcome, not the process USAF 5-2-1 A Leaders Guide to KM © 2012, John P. Girard, Ph.D. CHAPTER 4 SIMPLE IDEAS I believe what I said yesterday.
I don’t know what I said,
but I know what I think, and, well,
I assume it’s what I said.
—Former U.S. Secretary of Defense Donald Rumsfeldwww.sscs.ae 13 firstname.lastname@example.org
Complex: A Deﬁni�on 40 “a group of obviously related units of which the degree and nature of the rela�onship is imperfectly known” A Leaders Guide to KM © 2012, John P. Girard, Ph.D. Exchange and Transfer of Knowledge 41 TACIT n Ext tio ern za a i ial liz Soc ati on EXPLICIT TACIT on Measurement C Leadership om ati liz b a in a ti Process Technology rn on Inte Culture EXPLICIT A Leaders Guide to KM © 2012, John P. Girard, Ph.D. Crea�on and Transfer of Knowledge 42 TACIT n Ext tio ern za a i ial liz Soc ati on EXPLICIT TACIT on Co ati mb liz in na r a ti on Inte Internalization Combination EXPLICIT Learning by doing Formal Education (MBA) Experience Policies Values/Ethos Data mining Teradata, 1991 Wal-Mart, 2004 TYLENOL® crises of 1982 and 1986 A Leaders Guide to KM © 2012, John P. Girard, Ph.D. www.sscs.ae 14 email@example.com
Our Credo (Johnson & Johnson) J&J Credo We believe our first responsibility is to the doctors, nurses and patients, to mothers and fathers and all others who use our products and services. In meeting their needs everything we do must be of high quality. We must constantly strive to reduce our costs in order to maintain reasonable prices. Customers orders must be serviced promptly and accurately. Our suppliers and distributors must have an opportunity to make a fair profit. We are responsible to our employees, the men and women who work with us throughout the world. Everyone must be considered as an individual. We must respect their dignity and recognize their merit. They must have a sense of security in their jobs. Compensation must be fair and adequate, and working conditions clean, orderly and safe. We must be mindful of ways to help our employees fulfill their family responsibilities. Employees must feel free to make suggestions and complaints. www.jnj.com/our_company/our_credo/ A Leaders Guide to KM © 2012, John P. Girard, Ph.D. There must be equal opportunity for employment, development and advancement for those qualified. We must provide competent management, and their actions must be just and ethical. We are responsible to the communities in which we live and work and to the world community as well. We must be good citizens – support good works and charities and bear our fair share of taxes. We must encourage civic improvements and better health and education. We must maintain in good order the property we are privileged to use, protecting the environment and natural resources. Our final responsibility is to our stockholders. Business must make a sound profit. We must experiment with new ideas. Research must be carried on, innovative programs developed and mistakes paid for. New equipment must be purchased, new facilities provided and new products launched. Reserves must be created to provide for adverse times. When we operate according to these principles, the stockholders should realize a fair return. http://www.jnj.com/our_company/our_credo/ A Leaders Guide to KM © 2012, John P. Girard, Ph.D. Crea�on and Transfer of Knowledge 45 Socialization Externalization Social spaces (Ba) After action review TACIT Master/apprentice Lessons learned Storytelling Metaphor n Ext tio ern za a i ial liz Soc ati on EXPLICIT TACIT on Co ati mb liz in na r a ti on Inte Internalization Combination EXPLICIT Learning by doing Formal Education (MBA) Experience Policies Values/Ethos Data mining Teradata, 1991 Wal-Mart, 2004 TYLENOL® crises of 1982 and 1986 A Leaders Guide to KM © 2012, John P. Girard, Ph.D. www.sscs.ae 15 firstname.lastname@example.org
The Knowledge Edge – The Ul�mate Goal 46 Kn 14 November 2004 ow le d ge Wisdom “With 3,600 stores in the United States and Ed ge roughly 100 million customers walking Understanding throughKnowledge each week, Wal-Mart has the doors on ati Knowledge access to information about a broad slice of C re America . . . The data are gathered item by ge ed item at the checkout aisle, then recorded, l ow Information Kn mapped and updated by store, by state, by region . . . By its own account Wal-Mart has Data 460 terabytes of data.” ( 750,000 CDs 1 terabyte ~ 1,000,000 MB) Hurricane A Leaders Guide to KM © 2012, John P. Girard, Ph.D. Combina�on: Not always good! 47 HMCS Toronto sails at the lead of the starburst formation as nuclear-‐powered USS George Washington aircraft carrier takes the center. HMCS Toronto is taking part in Operation Altair, joining the USS George Washington Aircraft Carrier Task Group to help monitor shipping in the Arabian Gulf region. By restricting the �low of weapons, drugs, and other illicit trade, HMCS Toronto and her crew are helping to end terrorism and bring long-‐term stability to the area. Credit: MCpl Colin Kelley, Formation Imaging Services Halifax A Leaders Guide to KM © 2012, John P. Girard, Ph.D. Something to consider . . . 48 “. . . there are known knowns; there are things we know that we know. There are known unknowns; that is to say there are things that we now know we don’t know. But there are also unknown unknowns — there are things that we do not know we dont know.” A Leaders Guide to KM © 2012, John P. Girard, Ph.D. www.sscs.ae 16 email@example.com
Knowns and Unknowns 49 Unknown Unknown Knowns Unknowns Known Known Knowns Unknowns AKA Johari Window A Leaders Guide to KM © 2012, John P. Girard, Ph.D. Unknown unknowns 50 Somewhere on the West Coast A Leaders Guide to KM © 2012, John P. Girard, Ph.D. Knowns and Unknowns Exercise 51 Unknown Knowns Unknown Unknowns 1. Printer/Scanner 1. Data Mining 2. 2. 3. 3. Known Knowns Known Unknowns 1. Competitive Intell 2. 3. A Leaders Guide to KM © 2012, John P. Girard, Ph.D. www.sscs.ae 17 firstname.lastname@example.org
A�er Ac�on Review 52 1. What was planned? 2. What happened? 3. What is the delta? 4. What do we do about it? A Leaders Guide to KM © 2012, John P. Girard, Ph.D. CHAPTER 5 DO YOU REALLY? Yu, shall I teach you what knowledge is? When you know a thing, to hold that you know it; and when you do not know a thing, to allow that you do not know it;—this is knowledge. —Confucius, The Analects, 2:17 Organiza�onal Forge�ng (de Holan et al.) 54 From Source of Knowledge Existing Memory Decay Unlearning Stock Newly Avoiding Bad Failure to Capture Innovated Habits Accidental Intentional Mode of Forgetting Figure 7. Forms of Organizational Forgetting (Adapted from de Holan et al.) A Leaders Guide to KM © 2012, John P. Girard, Ph.D. www.sscs.ae 18 email@example.com
Energizing a Na�on 55 A Leaders Guide to KM © 2012, John P. Girard, Ph.D. What do we know 40 years later? 56 A Leaders Guide to KM © 2012, John P. Girard, Ph.D. Organiza�onal Memory 57 Organiza�onal memory is the body of knowledge, past, present, and future, necessary to achieve the strategic objec�ves of an organiza�on. Enabled by technology, leadership, and culture, organiza�onal memories include repositories of ar�facts, communi�es of people, and organiza�onal knowledge sharing processes, which focus on achieving the organiza�onal vision. Girard, 2009 A Leaders Guide to KM © 2012, John P. Girard, Ph.D. www.sscs.ae 19 firstname.lastname@example.org
Memory Test* 58 Bed Slumber Rest Night Pajamas Awake Pillow Blanket Snore Dream * Developed by Nancy Dixon A Leaders Guide to KM © 2012, John P. Girard, Ph.D. Broader Challenge = Informa�on Anxiety 59 Gartner Research’s Information Overload Survey concluded there are four information issues affecting competition: siloed information; too much information; unindexed information; and ineffective searching procedures (Linden et al, 2002) Causes of Cognitive Overload: Components of Information Anxiety: 1. Too much information 1. Not understanding information; supply; 2. Feeling overwhelmed by the amount 2. Too much information of information to be understood; demand; 3. Not knowing if certain information 3. The need to deal with multi- exists; tasking and interruption; and 4. Not knowing where to find 4. Wurman Inadequate workplace information; and (1989) infrastructure to help reduce 5. Knowing exactly where to find the metacognition. information, but not having the key to (Kirsh, 2000) access it. (Wurman, 1989, p. 44) A Leaders Guide to KM © 2012, John P. Girard, Ph.D. Informa�on Anxiety: A 400 year dilemma 17th Century 60 Sir Francis Bacon, a pioneer in the quest to explain the rela�onship, looked to King Solomon’s biblical wri�ngs for wisdom “That in spacious knowledge there is much contrista�on, and that he that increaseth knowledge increaseth anxiety” (1605/1915, p. 4). He countered King Solomon’s council by sta�ng “And for the second [referring to King Solomon’s prose], certain it is, there is no vexa�on or anxiety of mind which resulteth from knowledge Sir Francis Bacon otherwise than merely by accident” The Advancement Some four centuries a�er Sir Francis challenged the ancient of Learning philosophy of King Solomon we appear closer to explaining this phenomenon Francis Bacon A Leaders Guide to KM © 2012, John P. Girard, Ph.D. www.sscs.ae 20 email@example.com
CHAPTER 6 THE TOOLS I wish we knew what we know at HP.
—Lew Platt, Hewlett-Packard KM Strategies: Towards a Taxonomy 63 Michael Earl 2001, a�er ﬁve-‐year study Genesis: confusion amongst execu�ves Purpose: to help guide execu�ves on choices to ini�ate KM Seven Schools: Technocratic ¡ Systems School ¡ Cartographic Economic ¡ Process ¡ Commercial Behavioral ¡ Organiza�onal ¡ Spa�al ¡ Strategic A Leaders Guide to KM © 2012, John P. Girard, Ph.D. www.sscs.ae 21 firstname.lastname@example.org
Earl’s Strategies: Will they work in a 2.0 world? 64 Technocratic Economic School System Cartographic Engineering Commercial Attribute Focus Technology Maps Processes Income Knowledge Aim Knowledge bases Knowledge flows Knowledge assets directories Philosophy Codification Connectivity Capability Commercialization Behavioral School Organizational Spatial Strategic Attribute Focus Networks Space Mindset Knowledge Knowledge Aim Knowledge pooling exchange capabilities Philosophy Collaboration Contactivity Consciousness A Leaders Guide to KM © 2012, John P. Girard, Ph.D. Earl’s System School 65 Focus Technology “to capture specialist knowledge in knowledge bases Aim Knowledge bases which other specialist or Philosophy Codiﬁca�on qualiﬁed people can access” http://www.pcmag.com/article2/0,4149,28792,00.asp A Leaders Guide to KM © 2012, John P. Girard, Ph.D. Earl’s System School 2.0 66 h�p://www.youtube.com/watch?v=cY2E7rzutMA A Leaders Guide to KM © 2012, John P. Girard, Ph.D. www.sscs.ae 22 email@example.com