AFLI 2012 Girard Keynote


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John Girard's opening keynote at Arab Federation for Libraries and Information annual conference, Doha, Qatar

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AFLI 2012 Girard Keynote

  1. 1.    ‫ﲤﻜﲔ  اﻟﻌﺎﻣﻠﲔ  ﻓﻲ    ﻣﺠﺎل  اﳌﻌﺮﻓﺔ  ﻓﻲ  اﻟﻌﺎﻟﻢ  اﻟﻌﺮﺑﻲ‬   Empowering  Knowledge  Workers      )  ‫  (ﻣﻦ  ﺧﻼل  ﺑﻨﺎء  ﺑﻴﺌﺔ  ﻣﻌﺮﻓﻴﺔ‬   in  the  Arab  World     (by  crea�ng  a  Knowledge  Environment)        1   2    ‫اﻟﺪﻛﺘﻮر  ﺟﻮن  ﺟﻴﺮارد‬ John  P.  Girard,  Ph.D.    ‫ﻣﺸﺎرﻛﺔ اﳌﻌﺮﻓﺔ‐­-  ﻻ  ﺟﺪﻳﺪ  ؟‬ Knowledge  Sharing  –  Nothing  New?   3   4    ‫ﺗﺒﺎدﻟﻬﺎ  ﻟﺘﺤﻘﻴﻖ  اﻟﺘﻤﻴﺰ  ﺑﲔ  اﳌﻨﺎﻓﺴﲔ‬ Knowledge Management is the  ‫إدارة  اﳌﻌﺮﻓﺔ  ﻫﻲ  ﺧﻠﻖ  اﳌﻌﺮﻓﺔ  اﳌﺆﺳﺴﻴﺔ    و  ﻧﻘﻠﻬﺎ  و‬ creation, transfer, and exchange of organizational knowledge to achieve a [competitive] advantage. Empowering  Knowledge  Workers  in  the  Arab  World  ©  2012,  John  P.  Girard,  Ph.D.   Empowering  Knowledge  Workers  in  the  Arab  World  ©  2012,  John  P.  Girard,  Ph.D.   -‫إدارة  اﳌﻌﺮﻓﺔ  اﻟﺸﺮق  اﻻوﺳﻂ  1102  :  )اﻟﻘﻴﺎدة‬ KM  Middle  East  2011:  The  TLC  of  KM      ‫اﻟﺘﻜﻨﻮﻟﻮﺟﻴﺎ-اﻟﺜﻘﺎﻓﺔ( ﻹدارة  اﳌﻌﺮﻓﺔ‬ 5   6   Empowering  Knowledge  Workers  in  the  Arab  World  ©  2012,  John  P.  Girard,  Ph.D.   Empowering  Knowledge  Workers  in  the  Arab  World  ©  2012,  John  P.  Girard,  Ph.D.                        1                                                                              
  2. 2. Exchange  and  Transfer  of    ‫ﺗﺒﺎدل وﻧﻘﻞ اﳌﻌﺮﻓﺔ‬ Knowledge   7   8   TACIT TACIT n Ext n Ext tio ern tio ern za a za a i i ial ial liz liz Soc Soc ati ati on on EXPLICIT EXPLICIT TACIT TACIT on on Co Co ati ati mb mb Measurement Measurement liz liz in in Leadership Leadership a a ti a a ti rn on rn on Inte Inte Process Process Technology Technology Culture Culture EXPLICIT EXPLICIT Empowering  Knowledge  Workers  in  the  Arab  World  ©  2012,  John  P.  Girard,  Ph.D.   Empowering  Knowledge  Workers  in  the  Arab  World  ©  2012,  John  P.  Girard,  Ph.D.    ‫آﺛﺎر ﻋﺪم اﳌﺸﺎرﻛﺔ‬ The  impact  of  not  .  .  .  sharing   9   10   ...���‫ب��� ا������ �� ���ل ا����� ا‬ According to Computer Associates . . .   Empowering  Knowledge  Workers  in  the  Arab  World  ©  2012,  John  P.  Girard,  Ph.D.   Empowering  Knowledge  Workers  in  the  Arab  World  ©  2012,  John  P.  Girard,  Ph.D.    ‫ﻟﻮﺿﻊ ﻣﻬﻤﺘﻨﺎ ﺿﻤﻦ اﻟﺴﻴﺎق‬ Pu�ng  our  Task  in  Context   11   12   Empowering  Knowledge  Workers  in  the  Arab  World  ©  2012,  John  P.  Girard,  Ph.D.   Empowering  Knowledge  Workers  in  the  Arab  World  ©  2012,  John  P.  Girard,  Ph.D.                        2                                                                              
  3. 3.  ‫ﻣﺎ ﻛﺘﺒﻪ دروﻛﺮ ﻋﻦ اﻟﻌﺎﻣﻠﲔ ﻓﻲ اﳌﻌﺮﻓﺔ‬ Drucker  on  Knowledge  Workers   13   14   “Every  knowledge  worker  in  modern  organiza�on  is  an    ‫"ﻛﻞ  ﻋﺎﻣﻞ  ﻓﻲ  ﻣﺠﺎل  اﳌﻌﺮﻓﺔ  ﻓﻲ  اﳌﺆﺳﺴﺎت  اﳊﺪﻳﺜﺔ  ﻳﻌﺪ  "  ﺗﻨﻔﻴﺬي"  إذا  ﻛﺎن  و  ﺑﺤﺴﺐ  ﺗﺄﺛﻴﺮ  وﻇﻴﻔﺘﻪ  أو‬ "execu�ve"  if,  by  virtue  of  his  posi�on  or  knowledge,  he  is    ."‫اﻟﻨﺘﺎﺋﺞ‬  ‫ﻣﻌﺮﻓﺘﻪ  ﻣﺴﺆوﻻ  ﻋﻦ  اﳌﺴﺎﻫﻤﺔ  ﻓﻲ  اﻟﺘﺎﺛﻴﺮ  و  ﺑﺸﻜﻞ  ﻣﺎدي  ﻋﻠﻰ  ﻗﺪرة  اﳌﺆﺳﺴﺔ  ﻋﻠﻰ  اﻻرﺗﻘﺎء  ﺑﺎداﺋﻬﺎ  و  ﲢﻘﻴﻖ‬ responsible  for  a  contribu�on  that  materially  affects  the  capacity   of  the  organiza�on  to  perform  and  to  obtain  results.”       1966‫اﳌﺼﺪر:  اﳌﺴﺆول  اﻟﺘﻨﻔﻴﺬي  اﻟﻔﻌﺎل‬      Source:  The  Effec�ve  Execu�ve  –  1966      "  ‫اﻟﻌﺎﻣﻠﲔ    ﺑﺤﻴﺚ  ﻳﻜﻮﻧﻮ  ﻣﻦ  اﻟﻌﺎﻣﻠﲔ  اﳌﻌﺮﻓﲔ    ﺑﺪﻻ  ﻣﻦ  اﻟﻌﺎﻣﻠﲔ  اﻟﻴﺪوﻳﲔ‬    ‫"  و  اﺧﻴﺮا  ﻫﺬه  اﻟﺼﻨﺎﻋﺎت  اﳉﺪﻳﺪة  ﺗﺨﺘﻠﻒ  ﻋﻦ  اﻟﺼﻨﺎﻋﺔ  اﳊﺪﻳﺜﺔ  اﻟﺘﻘﻠﻴﺪﻳﺔ  ﺑﺤﻴﺚ  ﻳﺘﻢ  ﺗﻮﻇﻴﻒ  ﻏﺎﻟﺒﻴﺔ‬ “Finally,  these  new  industries  differ  from  the  tradi�onal  modern      1969-­‐  ‫اﳌﺼﺪر:  زﻣﻦ  اﻟﻼاﺳﺘﻤﺮارﻳﺔ‬ industry  in  that  they  will  employ  predominantly  knowledge     workers  rather  than  manual  workers.”            Source:  The  Age  of  Discon�nuity  –  1969      "  ‫"إن  ﻣﺮﻛﺰ  اﳉﺎذﺑﻴﺔ  ﻟﻠﻘﻮة  اﻟﻌﺎﻣﻠﺔ  ﻫﻮ  اﻟﺘﺤﻮل  ﻋﻦ  اﻟﻌﺎﻣﻞ  اﻟﻴﺪوي  إﻟﻰ  اﻟﻌﺎﻣﻞ  اﳌﻌﺮﻓﻲ‬    1973-­‐  ‫اﳌﺼﺪر:  اﻹدارة‬ “.  .  .  the  center  of  gravity  of  the  work  force  is  shi�ing  from  the   manual  worker  to  the  knowledge  worker.”          Source:  Management  -­‐  1973   Empowering  Knowledge  Workers  in  the  Arab  World  ©  2012,  John  P.  Girard,  Ph.D.   Empowering  Knowledge  Workers  in  the  Arab  World  ©  2012,  John  P.  Girard,  Ph.D.    ‫وﺿﻊ ﻣﻬﻤﺘﻨﺎ ﻓﻲ ﺳﻴﺎﻗﻬﺎ‬ Pu�ng  our  Task  in  Context   15   16   Empowering  Knowledge  Workers  in  the  Arab  World  ©  2012,  John  P.  Girard,  Ph.D.   Empowering  Knowledge  Workers  in  the  Arab  World  ©  2012,  John  P.  Girard,  Ph.D.    ‫ﲤﻜﲔ اﻟﻌﺎﻣﻠﲔ ﻓﻲ اﳌﻌﺮﻓﺔ‬ Empowering  Knowledge  Workers   17   18      ‫اﻻﻧﺘﺎﺟﻴﺔ  ﻣﻦ  ﺧﻼل  اﻷﻓﺮاد‬ :»8«  ‫اﻟﻔﺼﻞ‬ Chapter  8:  Produc�vity     Through  People   1982   1982   Empowering  Knowledge  Workers  in  the  Arab  World  ©  2012,  John  P.  Girard,  Ph.D.   Empowering  Knowledge  Workers  in  the  Arab  World  ©  2012,  John  P.  Girard,  Ph.D.                        3                                                                              
  4. 4.  ‫وﺿﻊ  ﻣﻬﻤﺘﻨﺎ  ﻓﻲ  ﺳﻴﺎﻗﻬﺎ‬ Pu�ng  our  Task  in  Context   19   20   Empowering  Knowledge  Workers  in  the  Arab  World  ©  2012,  John  P.  Girard,  Ph.D.   Empowering  Knowledge  Workers  in  the  Arab  World  ©  2012,  John  P.  Girard,  Ph.D.      ‫اﳉﻮار:  اﻷﺑﻌﺎد  اﻟﺜﻘﺎﻓﻴﺔ‬ Hofstede:  Cultural  Dimensions   21   22   Empowering  Knowledge  Workers  in  the  Arab  World  ©  2012,  John  P.  Girard,  Ph.D.   Empowering  Knowledge  Workers  in  the  Arab  World  ©  2012,  John  P.  Girard,  Ph.D.    ‫وﺿﻊ  ﻣﻬﻤﺘﻨﺎ  ﻓﻲ  ﺳﻴﺎﻗﻬﺎ‬ Pu�ng  our  Task  in  Context   23   24   Empowering  Knowledge  Workers  in  the  Arab  World  ©  2012,  John  P.  Girard,  Ph.D.   Empowering  Knowledge  Workers  in  the  Arab  World  ©  2012,  John  P.  Girard,  Ph.D.                        4                                                                              
  5. 5.  ‫ﺗﻘﺮﻳﺮ  اﳌﻌﺮﻓﺔ  اﻟﻌﺮﺑﻲ‬ Arab  Knowledge  Report   25   26   www.mbrfounda�   www.mbrfounda�   www.mbrfounda�   www.mbrfounda�   www.mbrfounda�   www.mbrfounda�   www.mbrfounda�   www.mbrfounda�   Empowering  Knowledge  Workers  in  the  Arab  World  ©  2012,  John  P.  Girard,  Ph.D.   Empowering  Knowledge  Workers  in  the  Arab  World  ©  2012,  John  P.  Girard,  Ph.D.      ‫اﻷﻫﺪاف  ﻋﻠﻰ  ﺟﻤﻴﻊ  اﳌﺴﺘﻮﻳﺎت‬ Macro  Level  Goals   27   28   “Chief  among  the  reasons  for    ‫اﻟﺴﺒﺐ  اﻟﺮﺋﻴﺴﻲ  ﻟﻼﻫﺘﻤﺎم  اﻟﻌﺮﺑﻲ  اﳊﺎﻟﻲ‬ the  current  Arab  interest  in    ‫ﻟﺘﺄﺳﻴﺲ  ﻣﺠﺘﻤﻊ  ﻣﻌﺮﻓﻲ  ﻫﻮ  اﻟﺮﻏﺒﺔ  ﻓﻲ  ﻋﺪم‬ establishing  the  knowledge    .‫اﻟﺘﺨﻠﻒ  ﻋﻦ  اﻟﺘﺄﺛﻴﺮ  اﳌﺘﻮﻗﻊ  ﻟﻠﺜﻮرة  اﳌﻌﺮﻓﻴﺔ‬ society  is  the  desire  not  to   miss  out  on  the  an�cipated   effects  of  the  knowledge    ‫واﻟﺘﻨﺒﻪ  ﻟﻠﺪور  اﻟﺬي  ﺗﻠﻌﺒﻪ  ﻓﻲ  ﺧﻠﻖ  اﻟﺘﻄﻮر‬ revolu�on  and  to  be  alert  to    ‫ﺳﻮاء  ﻛﺎن  ذﻟﻚ  ﻋﻠﻰ  اﻟﺼﻌﻴﺪ  اﻟﺴﻴﺎﺳﻲ  أو‬ the  roles  it  plays  in    .‫اﻻﻗﺘﺼﺎدي  أو  اﻻﺟﺘﻤﺎﻋﻲ‬ genera�ng  progress,  whether   on  the  poli�cal,  economic,  or   social  level”   Empowering  Knowledge  Workers  in  the  Arab  World  ©  2012,  John  P.  Girard,  Ph.D.   Empowering  Knowledge  Workers  in  the  Arab  World  ©  2012,  John  P.  Girard,  Ph.D.    ‫اﳌﻔﺎﻫﻴﻢ اﻟﺮﺋﻴﺴﻴﺔ‬ Key  Concepts   29   30    ‫اﻟﻔﺼﻞ  اﻟﺮاﺑﻊ:  ﺗﻘﻨﻴﺎت  اﳌﻌﻠﻮﻣﺎت  و  اﻻﺗﺼﺎل  ﻓﻲ‬ Chapter  4:  Informa�on  and   .  ‫اﻟﺪول  اﻟﻌﺮﺑﻴﺔ  :  أرﻛﺎن  و  أدوات  اﳌﻌﺮﻓﺔ‬ communica�ons  technologies     in  the  Arab  countries:  The    ‫اﻟﻔﺼﻞ  اﳋﺎﻣﺲ:  اﻷداء  اﻟﻌﺮﺑﻲ  ﻓﻲ  ﻣﺠﺎل  اﻟﺒﺤﺚ‬ pillars  and  tools  of  knowledge    .‫و  اﻹﺑﺘﻜﺎر‬ Chapter  5:  Arab  performance       in  research  and  innova�on    ‫اﻟﻔﺼﻞ  اﻟﺴﺎدس  :  ﺑﻨﺎء  ا�ﺘﻤﻊ  اﳌﻌﺮﻓﻲ  ﻓﻲ  اﻟﻌﺎﻟﻢ‬ Chapter  6:  Building  the    .‫اﻟﻌﺮﺑﻲ:  اﻟﺮؤﻳﺔ  و  اﳋﻄﺔ‬ knowledge  society  in  the  Arab   world:  A  vision  and  a  plan       Empowering  Knowledge  Workers  in  the  Arab  World  ©  2012,  John  P.  Girard,  Ph.D.   Empowering  Knowledge  Workers  in  the  Arab  World  ©  2012,  John  P.  Girard,  Ph.D.                        5                                                                              
  6. 6.  ‫ﻳﺠﺐ اﻷﺧﺬ ﺑﻌﲔ اﻹﻋﺘﺒﺎر اﻟﺘﺼﻮر اﻟﻌﺮﺑﻲ‬ We  must  consider  the  Arab  View   31   32   Empowering  Knowledge  Workers  in  the  Arab  World  ©  2012,  John  P.  Girard,  Ph.D.   Empowering  Knowledge  Workers  in  the  Arab  World  ©  2012,  John  P.  Girard,  Ph.D.   33   34   Empowering  Knowledge  Workers  in  the  Arab  World  ©  2012,  John  P.  Girard,  Ph.D.   Empowering  Knowledge  Workers  in  the  Arab  World  ©  2012,  John  P.  Girard,  Ph.D.    ‫ﻳﺠﺐ اﻷﺧﺬ ﺑﻌﲔ اﻹﻋﺘﺒﺎر اﻟﺘﺼﻮر اﻟﻌﺮﺑﻲ‬ We  must  consider  the  Arab  View   35   36   Learn  lessons   Learn  lessons   from  others   from  others   to  avoid   to  avoid   repea�ng  their   repea�ng  their   errors.       errors.       Empowering  Knowledge  Workers  in  the  Arab  World  ©  2012,  John  P.  Girard,  Ph.D.   Empowering  Knowledge  Workers  in  the  Arab  World  ©  2012,  John  P.  Girard,  Ph.D.                        6                                                                              
  7. 7.  ‫وﺿﻊ  ﻣﻬﻤﺘﻨﺎ  ﻓﻲ  ﺳﻴﺎﻗﻬﺎ‬ Pu�ng  our  Task  in  Context   37   38    !‫اﻷﺳﺌﻠﺔ أﻛﺜﺮ ﻣﻦ اﻷﺟﻮﺑﺔ‬ More  ques�ons  than  answers!   Empowering  Knowledge  Workers  in  the  Arab  World  ©  2012,  John  P.  Girard,  Ph.D.   Empowering  Knowledge  Workers  in  the  Arab  World  ©  2012,  John  P.  Girard,  Ph.D.   (‫ﻗﻠﻴﻞ ﻣﻦ ) اﻟﻘﻴﺎدة-اﻟﺘﻜﻨﻮﻟﻮﺟﻴﺎ-اﻟﺜﻘﺎﻓﺔ‬ A  li�le  TLC  goes  a  long  way!     ‫ﻗﻄﻌﺖ ﻣﺴﺎﻓﺔ ﻃﻮﻳﻠﺔ‬ 39   40   ‫ا����دة‬ Leadership ‫ ﺍاﻝلﺵشﻑفﺍاﻑفﻱيﺓة‬  Transparency Measurement ‫ ﺍاﻝلﺭرﺅؤﻱيﺓة ﻭوﺍاﻝلﻡمﺙثﺍاﻝل‬  Vision and example Leadership Measurement )‫ ﺍاﻝلﻡمﺹصﺍاﺩدﺭر ( ﻭوﻡمﻥن ﺽضﻡمﻥنﻩهﺍا ﺍاﻝلﻭوﻕقﺕت‬  Resources (including time) Leadership Technology Culture Process ����������‫ا‬ ������‫ا‬ Technology Process Technology Culture  Help or hinder  Need to Share vs Culture ‫ ﺕتﺱسﺍاﻉعﺩد ﺃأﻭو ﺕتﻉعﻱيﻕق‬ ‫ ﺍاﻝلﺡحﺍاﺝجﺓة ﻝلﻝلﻡمﺵشﺍاﺭرﻙكﺓة ﻑفﻱي‬ Need to Know .‫ﻡمﻭوﺍاﺝجﻩهﺓة ﺍاﻝلﺡحﺍاﺝجﺓة ﻝلﻝلﻡمﻉعﺭرﻑفﺓة‬  Ease of access ‫ ﺱسﻩهﻭوﻝلﺓة ﺍاﻝلﻭوﺹصﻭوﻝل ﻝلﻩهﺍا‬  Privacy ‫ ﺍاﻝلﺥخﺹصﻭوﺹصﻱيﺓة‬  Tending toward ‫ ﺍاﻝلﻡمﻱيﻭوﻝل ﻥنﺡحﻭو ﺍاﻝلﺡحﺭرﻱيﺓة‬ free  Content Creators ‫ ���ع ا����ى‬ and Joiners �� ������‫وا‬ Empowering  Knowledge  Workers  in  the  Arab  World  ©  2012,  John  P.  Girard,  Ph.D.   Empowering  Knowledge  Workers  in  the  Arab  World  ©  2012,  John  P.  Girard,  Ph.D.      ‫اﻟﺘﻜﻨﻮﻟﻮﺟﻴﺎ  -  اﻟﻘﻴﺎدة‬ Technology  -­‐  Leadership   41   42   “On  the  ICT  axis,  the  Arab     "‫(  ﺣﻘﻖ  اﻟﻌﺮب  ﻋﻠﻰ  ﻣﺤﻮر  ال‬ICT)  ‫  ﺗﻘﺪﻣﺎ‬ states  have  made  reasonable   ‫    "ﻣﻌﻘﻮﻻ‬ Progress”         "‫  إن  ﻧﻘﻄﺔ  ﺿﻌﻒ  اﻷداء  اﻟﻌﺮﺑﻲ  اﳌﻌﺮﻓﻲ  ﻫﻲ‬ “The  weakest  point  in  Arab   ‫  اﻟﻨﻘﺺ  ﻓﻲ  إﺗﺎﺣﺔ  ﺑﻴﺌﺎت  ﻣﻨﺎﺳﺒﺔ  ﻟﺘﺄﺳﻴﺲ‬ knowledge  performance  may   ‫  ”ا�ﺘﻤﻊ  اﳌﻌﺮﻓﻲ‬ be  the  lack  of  enabling   environments  appropriate  to   the  establishment  of  a   knowledge  society”   Empowering  Knowledge  Workers  in  the  Arab  World  ©  2012,  John  P.  Girard,  Ph.D.   Empowering  Knowledge  Workers  in  the  Arab  World  ©  2012,  John  P.  Girard,  Ph.D.                        7                                                                              
  8. 8.    ‫اﻟﺘﻜﻨﻮﻟﻮﺟﻴﺎ  اﳊﺪﻳﺜﺔ‬ New  Technology   43   44   ���‫ا���ث دا��� أ‬ The Newest is always Best … Empowering  Knowledge  Workers  in  the  Arab  World  ©  2012,  John  P.  Girard,  Ph.D.   Empowering  Knowledge  Workers  in  the  Arab  World  ©  2012,  John  P.  Girard,  Ph.D.   45   46   Empowering  Knowledge  Workers  in  the  Arab  World  ©  2012,  John  P.  Girard,  Ph.D.   Empowering  Knowledge  Workers  in  the  Arab  World  ©  2012,  John  P.  Girard,  Ph.D.      ‫اﻟﺘﺮﻛﻴﺰ  ﻋﻠﻰ  اﳌﻬﺎرات  اﻟﺸﺨﺼﻴﺔ‬ Emphasis  on  So�  Skills   47   48    ‫ﻣﻦ  اﻟﻮاﺿﺢ  ان  اﻟﺮؤﺳﺎء  اﻟﺘﻨﻔﻴﺬﻳﻦ  اﻟﻌﺮب  ﻳﻔﻀﻠﻮن  اﳌﻬﺎرات‬ It  is  clear  that  Arab  CEOs  favor  so�  skills    ‫اﻟﺸﺨﺼﻴﺔ  ﻛﺤﻞ  اﳌﺸﻜﻼت  و  ﻣﻬﺎرات  اﻻﺗﺼﺎل  ﻋﻠﻰ‬ such  as  problem-­‐solving  and    ‫اﻟﻘﺪرة  ﻋﻠﻰ  ﺗﻨﻔﻴﺬ  اﳌﻬﺎم  اﻟﺮوﺗﻴﻨﻴﺔ، و  ﻗﺪ  ﻋﺰزت  ﻣﻨﻈﻤﺔ‬ communica�on  skills  over  the  ability  to    ‫اﻟﻌﻤﻞ  اﻟﺪوﻟﻴﺔ  ﻫﺬه  اﻟﻨﺘﺎﺋﺞ  ﻓﻲ  ﻣﻘﺘﺮﺣﻬﺎ:  اﻟﺘﻮﻇﻴﻒ  ﻳﺮﺗﺒﻂ‬ perform  rou�ne  tasks.  The  Interna�onal    ‫ﺑﺪرﺟﺔ  ﻛﺒﻴﺮة  ﺑﻘﺪرة  اﻟﻔﺮد  ﻋﻠﻰ  اﻟﺘﻜﻴﻴﻒ  ﻣﻊ  اﻟﺘﻐﻴﺮ  و  دﻣﺞ‬ Labor  Organiza�on  corroborates  these    ‫أﻧﻮاع  اﳌﻌﺮﻓﺔ  ا�ﺘﻠﻔﺔ  و  اﻟﺒﻨﺎء  ﻋﻠﻴﻬﺎ  ﻋﻦ  ﻃﺮﻳﻖ  إدارة  اﻟﺘﻌﻠﻴﻢ‬ finding  when  sugges�ng  that    .‫اﻟﺬاﺗﻲ  ﺧﻼل  اﳊﻴﺎة  اﻟﻌﻤﻠﻴﺔ‬ employability  is  closely  linked  to  the   capacity  of  an  individual  to  adapt  to   change  and  the  ability  to  combine   different  types  of  knowledge  and  build   on  them  by  managing  self-­‐learning   throughout  his/her  working  life   Empowering  Knowledge  Workers  in  the  Arab  World  ©  2012,  John  P.  Girard,  Ph.D.   Empowering  Knowledge  Workers  in  the  Arab  World  ©  2012,  John  P.  Girard,  Ph.D.                        8                                                                              
  9. 9. 49   50   Empowering  Knowledge  Workers  in  the  Arab  World  ©  2012,  John  P.  Girard,  Ph.D.   Empowering  Knowledge  Workers  in  the  Arab  World  ©  2012,  John  P.  Girard,  Ph.D.      ‫ﻣﻌﻮﻗﺎت  و  ﻣﻘﻮﻣﺎت  إدارة  اﳌﻌﺮﻓﺔ‬ KM  Enablers  and  Barriers   51   52   Empowering  Knowledge  Workers  in  the  Arab  World  ©  2012,  John  P.  Girard,  Ph.D.   Empowering  Knowledge  Workers  in  the  Arab  World  ©  2012,  John  P.  Girard,  Ph.D.    ‫ﻓﺮص إدارة اﳌﻌﺮﻓﺔ وﲢﺪﻳﺎﺗﻬﺎ‬ KM  Opportuni�es  and  Challenges   53   54   Empowering  Knowledge  Workers  in  the  Arab  World  ©  2012,  John  P.  Girard,  Ph.D.   Empowering  Knowledge  Workers  in  the  Arab  World  ©  2012,  John  P.  Girard,  Ph.D.                        9