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A Leader's Guide to Knowledge Management - International Institute for Applied Knowledge Management's conference


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John Girard's pre-confernece workshop "A Leader's Guide to KM" at the International Institute for Applied Knowledge Management's conference held on the campus of the The American University in Bulgaria, Blagoevgrad, Bulgaria

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A Leader's Guide to Knowledge Management - International Institute for Applied Knowledge Management's conference

  1. 1.                                                          1   Strategic   Data-­‐ Based   Wisdom  in   the  Big   Data  Era  
  2. 2.                                                          2   It  is  all  about  People!   A  Leader's  Guide  to  KM  ©  2014,  John  P.  Girard,  Ph.D.   3   Sagology  is  dedicated  to  connec%ng  people  with  people  to   facilitate  collabora%on,  learning,  and  knowledge  sharing   through  keynotes,  workshops,  and  consulAng.     sagology  [sāj-­‐ol-­‐uh-­‐jee]       -­‐noun         1.  the  study  of  organiza%onal  wisdom  in  all  its  forms,  esp.  with  reference  to   technology,  leadership,  culture,  process,  and  measurement   2.  the  study  of  one  venerated  for  experience,  judgment,  and  wisdom.       Origin:       2008;    Canadian  English,  from  Middle  English  sage  +  -­‐ology.         Sage  [Middle  English,  from  Old  French,  from  Vulgar  LaAn  *sapius,  from  LaAn  sapere,  to  be  wise;  see  sep-­‐  in  Indo-­‐European  roots.]   -­‐ology  [Middle  English  -­‐logie,  from  Old  French,  from  LaAn  -­‐logia,  from  Greek  -­‐logiā  (from  logos,  word,  speech;  see  leg-­‐  in  Indo-­‐ European  roots)  and  from  -­‐logos,  one  who  deals  with  (from  legein,  to  speak;  see  leg-­‐  in  Indo-­‐European  roots).]     About  You     1.  Name   2.  OrganizaAon   3.  PosiAon   4.  KM  Story    
  3. 3.                                                          3   Agenda   1.  Where  is  the  Knowledge?   2.  Organize  What?   3.  What  Types  of  Knowledge  Exist?   4.  Simples  Ideas     5.  Do  you  Really  Want  to  Know?     6.  Tools,  TacAcs,  and  Techniques:  Today   and  Tomorrow   7.  Guiding  OrganizaAons  Into  the  Future   8.  The  Future  is  Just  a  Day  Away     A  Leader's  Guide  to  KM  ©  2014,  John  P.  Girard,  Ph.D.   5     Keys  to  Success     1.  ParAcipaAon   2.  Courtesy   3.  ConfidenAality   4.  Time  L  
  4. 4.                                                          4   7   Resources   Where is the wisdom we have lost in knowledge? Where is the knowledge we have lost in information? —T. S. Eliot, The Rock (1935) CHAPTER 1 THE WHERE  iBooks Author
  5. 5.                                                          5   A  Leader's  Guide  to  KM  ©  2014,  John  P.  Girard,  Ph.D.   9   InformaAon  Overload   Information Overload Information overload occurs when the amount of input to a system exceeds its processing capacity. (Speier et al, 1999, p. 338) Information Overload Information overload is that state in which available, and potentially useful, information is a hindrance rather than a help. (Bawden, 2001, p. 6) Personal Information Overload A perception on the part of the individual (or observers of that person) that the flow of information associated with work tasks is greater than can be managed effectively. (Wilson, 2001, p. 113) Organizational Information Overload A situation in which the extent of perceived information overload is sufficiently widespread within an organization as to reduce the overall effectiveness of management operations. (Wilson, 2001, p. 113) 245+ academic papers on Information Overload 1972-2000 (Bawden, 2001) A  Leader's  Guide  to  KM  ©  2014,  John  P.  Girard,  Ph.D.   10   The  Cost?  
  6. 6.                                                          6   11   Broader  Challenge  =  InformaAon  Anxiety   A  Leader's  Guide  to  KM  ©  2014,  John  P.  Girard,  Ph.D.   Gartner Research’s Information Overload Survey concluded there are four information issues affecting competition: siloed information; too much information; unindexed information; and ineffective searching procedures (Linden et al, 2002) Components of Information Anxiety: 1.  Not understanding information; 2.  Feeling overwhelmed by the amount of information to be understood; 3.  Not knowing if certain information exists; 4.  Not knowing where to find information; and 5.  Knowing exactly where to find the information, but not having the key to access it. (Wurman, 1989, p. 44) Causes of Cognitive Overload: 1.  Too much information supply; 2.  Too much information demand; 3.  The need to deal with multi- tasking and interruption; and 4.  Inadequate workplace infrastructure to help reduce metacognition. (Kirsh, 2000) InformaAon  Anxiety   12  
  7. 7.                                                          7   13   InformaAon  Anxiety   A  Leader's  Guide  to  KM  ©  2014,  John  P.  Girard,  Ph.D.   2.12 2.31 2.26 2.14 2.07 1.8 0 1 2 3 Mean Inform ation A nxiety A ccessing Inform ation Inform ation Exists Finding Inform ation Inform ation O verload U nderstanding Inform ation Summary of Findings • Low levels reported M = 2.12, • Order and difference important • Accessing Information higher (significantly) than Information Overload, i.e. more troubling • Understanding Information significantly lower than others, i.e. less of a problem • Validates decisions to consider the wider of Anxiety instead of just overload • High scale reliability Cronbach's Alpha 0.852 Implication • Leadership failure we must dismantle unnecessary barriers and provide middle managers access and accountability 14  
  8. 8.                                                          8   15   16  
  9. 9.                                                          9   Generally, management of the many is the same as management of the few. It is a matter of organization. —Sun Tzu (400–320 BC), The Art of War CHAPTER 2 ORGANIZE WHAT?  iBooks Author A  Leader's  Guide  to  KM  ©  2014,  John  P.  Girard,  Ph.D.   18   FoundaAon  or  Too  Busy  
  10. 10.                                                          10   Knowledge  Sharing  –  Nothing  New?   A  Leader's  Guide  to  KM  ©  2014,  John  P.  Girard,  Ph.D.   19   Defining  Knowledge  Management   20  
  11. 11.                                                          11   Defining  Knowledge  Management   —  Step  1:  Form  into  three  groups   —  Step  2:  Deal  the  cards     —  Step  3:  Individually  review  the  definiAons  in  your  hand   and  highlight  key  amributes  need  to  be  present  in  a   definiAon  of  Knowledge  Management   —  Step  4:  Select  one  or  two  “best”  definiAons   —  Step  5:  Reconvene  as  a  group  and  discuss  the  individually   sleeted  definiAons.   —  Step  6:  Select  two  “best”  definiAons   21   A  Leader's  Guide  to  KM  ©  2014,  John  P.  Girard,  Ph.D.   Knowledge  Sharing  –  Nothing  New?   A  Leader's  Guide  to  KM  ©  2014,  John  P.  Girard,  Ph.D.   22   Knowledge Management is the creation, transfer, and exchange of organizational knowledge to achieve a [competitive] advantage.
  12. 12.                                                          12   A  Leader's  Guide  to  KM  ©  2014,  John  P.  Girard,  Ph.D.   23   What  Advantage?   A  Leader's  Guide  to  KM  ©  2014,  John  P.  Girard,  Ph.D.   24   History  of  KM:  Academic  PerspecAve   Michael Polanyi 1950s Aristotle c. 350 BC Classification of Knowledge Aristotle Sir Francis Bacon 17th Century 1990s Carla O’Dell 2000s
  13. 13.                                                          13   A  Leader's  Guide  to  KM  ©  2014,  John  P.  Girard,  Ph.D.   25   What  is  knowledge?    knowledge is "defined broadly to include information, data, communication and culture" (p. 293) Knowledge Data Information Knowledge: Concepts, experience, and insight that provide a framework for creating, evaluating and using information (p. 373). A  Leader's  Guide  to  KM  ©  2014,  John  P.  Girard,  Ph.D.   26   The  CogniHve  Hierarchy   Knowledge Information Data Ackoff’s Apex Wisdom Understanding Knowledge Wisdom: The collective and individual experiences of applying knowledge to the solution of problems (p. 373).
  14. 14.                                                          14   A  Leader's  Guide  to  KM  ©  2014,  John  P.  Girard,  Ph.D.   27   Puqng  the  Pieces  Together   October 27, 1917 Q1 - What time is it? Q2 – Where are these people? Q3 – Why is the boy smiling? A  Leader's  Guide  to  KM  ©  2014,  John  P.  Girard,  Ph.D.   28   Data   Data   Davenport  &  Prusak  (1998)  define  data  “as  a   set  of  discrete,  objec%ve  facts  about  events”   and  they  suggest,  “in  an  organiza%onal   context,  data  is  most  usefully  described  as   structured  records  of  transac%ons”  (p.  2).    
  15. 15.                                                          15   A  Leader's  Guide  to  KM  ©  2014,  John  P.  Girard,  Ph.D.   29   InformaAon   Data   InformaHon   Peter  F.  Drucker  (1998)  claims  that   "Informa)on  is  data  endowed  with  relevance   and  purpose"   A  Leader's  Guide  to  KM  ©  2014,  John  P.  Girard,  Ph.D.   30   Knowledge   Knowledge   Data   InformaHon   Authors  Joseph  and  Jimmie  Boyem  (2001)  suggest  "knowledge   is  easy  to  talk  about  but  hard  to  define"    
  16. 16.                                                          16   Managing  the  Metamorphosis  of   Knowledge   31   A  Leader's  Guide  to  KM  ©  2014,  John  P.  Girard,  Ph.D.   Knowledge Information Data Type 2 - Information Managers • Context • Categorize • Calculate • Correct • Condense Type 1- Knowledge Managers • Compare • Consequences • Connects • Conversation 32   Management  Tasks   0 1 2 3 4 Mean C 4 -C onversation C 6 -C ategorize C 9 -C ondense C 2 -C onsequencesC 7 -C alculate C 3 -C onnectsC 8 -C orrect C 1 -C om pare Frequency Information Anxiety Summary of Findings • Significant negative relationship between frequency of task and information anxiety t(6) = -4.243, p = .005 • r2 value of 0.75 indicates that frequency of task explains 75% of the variability in information anxiety. Implications KM strategy and sharing may help reduce anxiety with infrequent tasks High scale reliability Cronbach's Alpha of 0.800
  17. 17.                                                          17   A  Leader's  Guide  to  KM  ©  2014,  John  P.  Girard,  Ph.D.   33   Types  of  Knowledge   Michael Polanyi Easier to replicate Leads to competency Harder to articulate Harder to transfer Harder to steal Higher competitive advantage Contributes to efficiency Easier to document and share 20% 80% Explicit Tacit Carla O’Dell O’Dell, C. (2002, May). Knowledge Management New Generation. Presented at the APQC’s 7th Knowledge Conference, Washington, DC. A  Leader's  Guide  to  KM  ©  2014,  John  P.  Girard,  Ph.D.   34   Exchange  and  Transfer  of  Knowledge   Sociali zation Externa lization Interna lization Comb ination TACIT EXPLICIT EXPLICIT TACIT Ikujiro Nonaka
  18. 18.                                                          18   A  Leader's  Guide  to  KM  ©  2014,  John  P.  Girard,  Ph.D.   35   The  importance  of  sharing  .  .  .   According to Computer Associates . . .   Yu, shall I teach you what knowledge is? When you know a thing, to hold that you know it; and when you do not know a thing, to allow that you do not know it;—this is knowledge. —Confucius, The Analects, 2:17 CHAPTER 5 DO YOU REALLY?  iBooks Author
  19. 19.                                                          19   A  Leader's  Guide  to  KM  ©  2014,  John  P.  Girard,  Ph.D.   37   OrganizaAonal  Forgeqng  (de  Holan  et  al.)   SourceofKnowledge From Existing Stock Memory Decay Unlearning Newly Innovated Failure to Capture Avoiding Bad Habits Accidental Intentional Mode of Forgetting Figure 7. Forms of Organizational Forgetting (Adapted from de Holan et al.) A  Leader's  Guide  to  KM  ©  2014,  John  P.  Girard,  Ph.D.   38   Energizing  a  NaAon  
  20. 20.                                                          20   A  Leader's  Guide  to  KM  ©  2014,  John  P.  Girard,  Ph.D.   39   What  do  we  know  40  years  later?   A  Leader's  Guide  to  KM  ©  2014,  John  P.  Girard,  Ph.D.   40   OrganizaAonal  Memory   OrganizaAonal  memory  is  the  body  of   knowledge,  past,  present,  and  future,   necessary  to  achieve  the  strategic   objecAves  of  an  organizaAon.    Enabled  by   technology,  leadership,  and  culture,   organizaAonal  memories  include   repositories  of  ar)facts,  communi)es  of   people,  and  organiza)onal  knowledge   sharing  processes,  which  focus  on   achieving  the  organiza)onal  vision.            Girard,  2009  
  21. 21.                                                          21   A  Leader's  Guide  to  KM  ©  2014,  John  P.  Girard,  Ph.D.   41   OrganizaAonal  Forgeqng  (de  Holan  et  al.)   SourceofKnowledge From Existing Stock Memory Decay Unlearning Newly Innovated Failure to Capture Avoiding Bad Habits Accidental Intentional Mode of Forgetting Figure 7. Forms of Organizational Forgetting (Adapted from de Holan et al.) 42   Are  your  messages  clear?  
  22. 22.                                                          22   Well that didn’t actually happen, but . . . it could have! —Geena Davis, Actor and Raconteur CHAPTER 7 FUTURE TALES  iBooks Author Memory  Test*   — Bed   — Rest   — Pajamas   — Pillow   — Snore     — Slumber   — Night   — Awake   — Blanket   — Dream   * Developed by Nancy Dixon 44   A  Leader's  Guide  to  KM  ©  2014,  John  P.  Girard,  Ph.D.  
  23. 23.                                                          23   Knowledge Management Information Management Data Management Artificial Intelligence Expertise Locator Records Management Document Management Database Management Data Warehouse Data Integration Virtual Collaboration Group Ware Taxonomies Ontologies Enterprise Portal Content Management After Action Review Forms Management Search Engine Web Portal Storytelling Subject Classification Communities of Practice * Developed by Denise Charbonneau (TBS) and Dr. John Girard InterrelaAonship  of  DM,  IM,  KM*   45   A  Leader's  Guide  to  KM  ©  2014,  John  P.  Girard,  Ph.D.   Stonecumer  or  Cathedral  Builder?   A  Leader's  Guide  to  KM  ©  2014,  John  P.  Girard,  Ph.D.   46   John Constable. Salisbury Cathedral, from the Meadows. 1831. Oil on canvas. Private collection, on loan to the National Gallery, London, UK.
  24. 24.                                                          24   Storytelling  by  Steve  Denning   Purpose  of  Story   —  Sparking  acAon   —  CommunicaAng  who  you  are   —  Transmiqng  values   —  Fostering  collaboraAon   —  Taming  the  grapevine   —  Sharing  knowledge   —  Leading  people  into  the  future 47   A  Leader's  Guide  to  KM  ©  2014,  John  P.  Girard,  Ph.D.   HBR  May  2004   In  June  of  1995,  a  health  worker  in  a   Hny  town  in  Zambia  went  to  the  Web   site  of  the  Centers  for  Disease  Control   and  got  the  answer  to  a  quesHon  about   the  treatment  for  malaria.  Remember   that  this  was  in  Zambia,  one  of  the   poorest  countries  in  the  world,  and  it   happened  in  a  Hny  place  600  kilometers   from  the  capital  city.  But  the  most   striking  thing  about  this  picture,  at  least   for  us,  is  that  the  World  Bank  isn't  in  it.   Despite  our  know-­‐how  on  all  kinds  of   poverty  related  issues,  that  knowledge   isn‘t  available  to  the  millions  of  people   who  could  use  It.  Imagine  if  it  were.   Think  what  an  organizaHon  we  could   become.   48   A  Leader's  Guide  to  KM  ©  2014,  John  P.  Girard,  Ph.D.  
  25. 25.                                                          25   WriAng  the  Future   —  Snowden’s  (2002:  3)  ‘we  can  always  know  more  than  we  can  tell,   and  we  will  always  tell  more  than  we  can  write  down.’     However,  Snowden  (2002:3)  suggests:     —  I  can  speak  in  five  minutes  what  it  will  otherwise  take  me  two   weeks  to  get  round  to  spend  a  couple  of  hours  wriHng  it  down.   The  process  of  wriHng  something  down  is  reflecHve  knowledge;  it   involves  both  adding  and  taking  away  from  the  actual  experience   or  original  thought.  ReflecHve  knowledge  has  high  value,  but  is   Hme  consuming  and  involves  loss  of  control  over  its  subsequent   use.   49   A  Leader's  Guide  to  KM  ©  2014,  John  P.  Girard,  Ph.D.   A  Leader's  Guide  to  KM  ©  2014,  John  P.  Girard,  Ph.D.   Guiding  Government  Leaders  into  the  Future     Ø  excite  change  in  a  very  large   bureaucraAc  organizaAon     Ø  Five  years  in  the  future   Ø  Balance  of  real  and   imaginary   CriAcal  Success  Factors:   Ø  Look  of  the  story   Ø  Believable   Ø  ExecuAve  Support   For complete stories see: 50  
  26. 26.                                                          26   A  Leader's  Guide  to  KM  ©  2014,  John  P.  Girard,  Ph.D.   51   Guiding  Faculty  into  the  Future     Ø  excite  change  in  a  small   mid-­‐west  university   Ø  Mock  interview  with  Dean   Ø  Balance  of  real  and   imaginary   CriAcal  Success  Factors:   Ø  Real  Dean   Ø  RealisAc  Journal   Ø  “Now  I  get  it”   For complete stories see: Powerful  Messages   A  Leader's  Guide  to  KM  ©  2014,  John  P.  Girard,  Ph.D.   52  
  27. 27.                                                          27