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Putting Action Back in Knowledge Management

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John Girard's masterclass at KM Singapore 2015 "Putting Action Back in Knowledge Management." A series of high impact activities to inspire and educate teams about KM.

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Putting Action Back in Knowledge Management

  1. 1. www.sagology.com                                                                  info@sagology.com  1   O�awa   Minot   Macon  
  2. 2. www.sagology.com                                                                  info@sagology.com  2   It  is  all  about  People!   KM  Singapore  2015  -­‐  John  P.  Girard,  Ph.D.  -­‐  www.johngirard.net   4   Sagology  is  dedicated  to  connec�ng  people  with  people  to   facilitate  collabora�on,  learning,  and  knowledge  sharing   through  keynotes,  workshops,  and  consul�ng.     sagology  [sāj-­‐ol-­‐uh-­‐jee]       -­‐noun         1.  the  study  of  organiza�onal  wisdom  in  all  its  forms,  esp.  with  reference  to   technology,  leadership,  culture,  process,  and  measurement   2.  the  study  of  one  venerated  for  experience,  judgment,  and  wisdom.       Origin:       2008;    Canadian  English,  from  Middle  English  sage  +  -­‐ology.         Sage  [Middle  English,  from  Old  French,  from  Vulgar  La�n  *sapius,  from  La�n  sapere,  to  be  wise;  see  sep-­‐  in  Indo-­‐European  roots.]   -­‐ology  [Middle  English  -­‐logie,  from  Old  French,  from  La�n  -­‐logia,  from  Greek  -­‐logiā  (from  logos,  word,  speech;  see  leg-­‐  in  Indo-­‐ European  roots)  and  from  -­‐logos,  one  who  deals  with  (from  legein,  to  speak;  see  leg-­‐  in  Indo-­‐European  roots).]  
  3. 3. www.sagology.com                                                                  info@sagology.com  3   Themes   1.  KM  in  Ac�on   2.  Technology  –  A  Double-­‐edged  Sword     3.  Leading  Knowledge  Workers   4.  The  Impact  of  Culture   5.  Storytelling  in  Ac�on   6.  The  Future  is  Just  a  Day  Away     KM  Singapore  2015  -­‐  John  P.  Girard,  Ph.D.  -­‐  www.johngirard.net   5     Keys  to  Success     1.  Par�cipa�on   2.  Courtesy   3.  Confiden�ality   4.  Time  L   Recommended  Schedule   0900  –  1000:  Session  1   1000  –  1030:  Networking  Break   1030  –  1230:  Session  2   1230  –  1330:  Lunch   1330  –  1500:  Session  3   1500  –  1530:  Networking  Break   1530  –  1700:  Session  4     6   KM  Singapore  2015  -­‐  John  P.  Girard,  Ph.D.  -­‐  www.johngirard.net  
  4. 4. www.sagology.com                                                                  info@sagology.com  4   Overview   Drawing  on  the  Past   1.  Where  is  the  Knowledge?   2.  Organize  What?   3.  What  types  of  Knowledge  exist?   Leading  Today’s  Knowledge  Workers   4.  Simples  Ideas     5.  Do  you  Really  Want  to  Know     6.  Tools,  Tac�cs,  and  Techniques   KM  in  Singapore   KM  Singapore  2015  -­‐  John  P.  Girard,  Ph.D.  -­‐  www.johngirard.net   7     About  You     1.  Name   2.  Organiza�on   3.  Posi�on   4.  KM  Story     8   KM  Singapore  2015  -­‐  John  P.  Girard,  Ph.D.  -­‐  www.johngirard.net  
  5. 5. www.sagology.com                                                                  info@sagology.com  5   Where is the wisdom we have lost in knowledge? Where is the knowledge we have lost in information? —T. S. Eliot, The Rock (1935) CHAPTER 1 THE WHERE Knowledge  Management  –  Nothing  New?   KM  Singapore  2015  -­‐  John  P.  Girard,  Ph.D.  -­‐  www.johngirard.net   10  
  6. 6. www.sagology.com                                                                  info@sagology.com  6   What  is  KM  to  you?   11   KM  Singapore  2015  -­‐  John  P.  Girard,  Ph.D.  -­‐  www.johngirard.net   Defining  Knowledge  Management   1.  Form  into  groups   2.  Deal  the  cards     3.  Individually  review  the  defini�ons  in   your  hand  and  highlight  key  a�ributes   need  to  be  present  in  a  defini�on  of   Knowledge  Management   4.  Select  one  or  two  “best”  defini�ons   5.  Reconvene  as  a  group  and  discuss  the   individually  selected  defini�ons.   6.  Select  the  “best”  defini�on   12   KM  Singapore  2015  -­‐  John  P.  Girard,  Ph.D.  -­‐  www.johngirard.net   EX  
  7. 7. www.sagology.com                                                                  info@sagology.com  7   Defining  Knowledge  Management   13   h�p://www.johngirard.net/km   KM  Singapore  2015  -­‐  John  P.  Girard,  Ph.D.  -­‐  www.johngirard.net   Overview   —  Aim:  to  demonstrate  the  depth,  breadth,  and   interna�onal  nature  of  KM   —  First  a�empt  to  catalog,  within  the  academic  literature,   KM  defini�ons,  especially  those  with  an  applied   orienta�on.     —  Hope  other  researchers  will  build  on  this  founda�on  with   a  view  to  cataloging  the  many  defini�ons  in  use  today   and  in  the  future.     KM  Singapore  2015  -­‐  John  P.  Girard,  Ph.D.  -­‐  www.johngirard.net   14  
  8. 8. www.sagology.com                                                                  info@sagology.com  8   Defini�on  Selec�on   —  To  ensure  access  to  the  source  material,  only  defini�ons   that  are  widely  available  on  the  Internet  were   considered.     —  Some  might  ques�on  the  exclusion  of  some  o�-­‐cited   defini�ons  that  are  locked  in  the  academic  vaults  we  call   journals;  however,  given  the  field  is  about  sharing,  it   seemed  rather  oxymoronic  to  discuss  defini�ons  that   many  people  cannot  access.     KM  Singapore  2015  -­‐  John  P.  Girard,  Ph.D.  -­‐  www.johngirard.net   15   Scope   —  No  sugges�on  that  every  KM  defini�on  penned  in  the   past  three  decades  has  been  considered.     —  Goal  was  to  consider  a  wide  variety  of  defini�ons  in   terms  of  origina�ng  discipline  and  country.     —  Opted  to  present  the  defini�ons  by  domain,  which  we   acknowledge  is  very  subjec�ve.     —  Listed  the  country  of  origin,  which  again  is  rather   subjec�ve  as  it  is  usually  based  on  the  lead  author  or   publisher’s  country  of  origin.     KM  Singapore  2015  -­‐  John  P.  Girard,  Ph.D.  -­‐  www.johngirard.net   16  
  9. 9. www.sagology.com                                                                  info@sagology.com  9   Limita�ons   —  Major  limita�on  of  this  project  is  the  methodology  for   collec�ng  the  defini�ons.     —  Only  defini�ons  that  were  widely  available  on  the   Internet  were  considered.     —  Collec�on  should  be  considered  a  convenience  sample  as   there  was  no  a�empt  to  include  every  defini�on  penned.     —  All  of  the  defini�ons  considered  were  in  the  English   language.     KM  Singapore  2015  -­‐  John  P.  Girard,  Ph.D.  -­‐  www.johngirard.net   17   KM  Singapore  2015  -­‐  John  P.  Girard,  Ph.D.  -­‐  www.johngirard.net   18  
  10. 10. www.sagology.com                                                                  info@sagology.com  10   Domain   Number   Management   33   Informa�on  Technology   18   Development   6   Government   6   Educa�on   5   General   5   Informa�on  and  Library  Science   3   Informa�on  Management   3   Content  Management   2   Defense   2   Energy   2   KM  Singapore  2015  -­‐  John  P.  Girard,  Ph.D.  -­‐  www.johngirard.net   19   Domain   Number   Engineering   2   Finance   2   Health   2   Human  Resources   2   Science  and  Technology   2   Accoun�ng   1   Aerospace   1   Archivists   1   Ar�ficial  Intelligence   1   Law   1   Social   1   Sta�s�cs   1   Systems  Thinking   1   KM  Singapore  2015  -­‐  John  P.  Girard,  Ph.D.  -­‐  www.johngirard.net   20  
  11. 11. www.sagology.com                                                                  info@sagology.com  11   Analysis   —  Word  parsing  tool  used  to  create  a  list  of  words   contained  in  the  collec�on  of  >  100  defini�ons   —  “knowledge  management”  eliminated  to  ensure  the   emphasis  of  the  individual  words  knowledge  and   management  were  not  exaggerated.     —  Root  word  combina�ons  grouped:  create,  created   and  crea�on  grouped  as  create.     —  Preposi�ons  and  pronouns  were  removed   —  Only  words  appearing  at  least  four  �mes  were   included  in  the  list   KM  Singapore  2015  -­‐  John  P.  Girard,  Ph.D.  -­‐  www.johngirard.net   21   Most  Common  Terms   knowledge    112       organiza�on    69       process      50       informa�on    44       use        40       share      36       create      33       manage      30         assets      19       people      18       prac�ce      18       improve      15       systema�c    15       capture      14       value      14       resources      12       KM  Singapore  2015  -­‐  John  P.  Girard,  Ph.D.  -­‐  www.johngirard.net   22  
  12. 12. www.sagology.com                                                                  info@sagology.com  12   KM  Singapore  2015  -­‐  John  P.  Girard,  Ph.D.  -­‐  www.johngirard.net   KM  Singapore  2015  -­‐  John  P.  Girard,  Ph.D.  -­‐  www.johngirard.net  
  13. 13. www.sagology.com                                                                  info@sagology.com  13   KM  Defined?   If  we  consider  only  the  words  that  appear  at  least  30  �mes   then  we  might  create  the  following  defini�ons:     —  Knowledge  Management  is  the  process  of  crea�ng,   sharing,  using  and  managing  the  knowledge  and   informa�on  of  an  organiza�on.     —  Knowledge  Management  is  the  management  process  of   crea�ng,  sharing  and  using  organiza�onal  informa�on   and  knowledge.     KM  Singapore  2015  -­‐  John  P.  Girard,  Ph.D.  -­‐  www.johngirard.net   25   KM  Singapore  2015  -­‐  John  P.  Girard,  Ph.D.  -­‐  www.johngirard.net   26   The  Future   Ikujiro Nonaka “In  an  economy  where  the   only  certainty  is  uncertainty,   the  only  sure  source  of  las�ng   compe��ve  advantage  is   knowledge.”    
  14. 14. www.sagology.com                                                                  info@sagology.com  14   KM  Singapore  2015  -­‐  John  P.  Girard,  Ph.D.  -­‐  www.johngirard.net   Scientia protenia est (Latin maxim, “For also knowledge itself is power.”) —Sir Francis Bacon, Meditationes Sacrae (1597) CHAPTER 3 THE TYPES KM  Singapore  2015  -­‐  John  P.  Girard,  Ph.D.  -­‐  www.johngirard.net   28  
  15. 15. www.sagology.com                                                                  info@sagology.com  15   KM  Enablers  and  Inhibitors   29   KM  Singapore  2015  -­‐  John  P.  Girard,  Ph.D.  -­‐  www.johngirard.net   KM  Singapore  2015  -­‐  John  P.  Girard,  Ph.D.  -­‐  www.johngirard.net   30   KM  Models   Webber, F., Wunram, M., Kemp, J., Pudlatz., & Bredehorst, B. (2002). Standardisation in knowledge management – Towards a common KM framework in Europe. Proceedings of UNICOM Seminar Towards Common Approaches & Standards in KM. London. KM Pillars European Framework DON Balanced KM Enablers of Transfer KM Assessment Tool Technology Leadership Culture Infrastructure Organization Process Measures Learning Content Bennet, A. & Kantner, J. (2001). Navigating the KM dimension, Next- Generation Knowledge Management: Enabling Business Processes. American Productivity & Quality Center. Developed by Dr Stankosky and his team at George Washington University in 1999
  16. 16. www.sagology.com                                                                  info@sagology.com  16   A  New  View  of  Knowledge  Management   KM  Singapore  2015  -­‐  John  P.  Girard,  Ph.D.  -­‐  www.johngirard.net   31   Leadership Measurement Process Technology Culture 32   Which  enabler(s)  ma�er?   KM  Singapore  2015  -­‐  John  P.  Girard,  Ph.D.  -­‐  www.johngirard.net  
  17. 17. www.sagology.com                                                                  info@sagology.com  17   33   Exploratory  Research:  The  Torii   0 1 2 3 4 5 MeanLeadership Technology C ulture Process M easurem ent The survey statement was <blank> is an important enabler of knowledge management. This exploratory question also resulted in some interesting findings. Of note is the discovery that more than 90% of respondents agreed or strongly agreed that Leadership is an important enabler of knowledge management. Process Measurement Leadership Technology Culture F(4, 468) = 11.532, p = .0000 Leadership is significant at the .05 critical alpha level. KM  Singapore  2015  -­‐  John  P.  Girard,  Ph.D.  -­‐  www.johngirard.net   34   Exploratory  Research:  The  Torii   0 1 2 3 4 5 4.49 4.07 4.02 3.95 3.74 4.8 4.3 4.7 4.3 3.9 Mean KM  Singapore  2015  -­‐  John  P.  Girard,  Ph.D.  -­‐  www.johngirard.net  
  18. 18. www.sagology.com                                                                  info@sagology.com  18   TLC:  Leadership   KM  Singapore  2015  -­‐  John  P.  Girard,  Ph.D.  -­‐  www.johngirard.net   35   Including Ray Downey, Special Operations Command lost 95 men that day – totaling 1,600 years of experience. (emphasis added) 36   Leadership  and  Governance   KM  Singapore  2015  -­‐  John  P.  Girard,  Ph.D.  -­‐  www.johngirard.net  
  19. 19. www.sagology.com                                                                  info@sagology.com  19   37   Leadership  and  Governance   KM  Singapore  2015  -­‐  John  P.  Girard,  Ph.D.  -­‐  www.johngirard.net   New  Technology   KM  Singapore  2015  -­‐  John  P.  Girard,  Ph.D.  -­‐  www.johngirard.net   38   Is the newest always best?
  20. 20. www.sagology.com                                                                  info@sagology.com  20   The  Right  Technology   KM  Singapore  2015  -­‐  John  P.  Girard,  Ph.D.  -­‐  www.johngirard.net   39   40   KM  Tools  and  Pla�orms   KM  Singapore  2015  -­‐  John  P.  Girard,  Ph.D.  -­‐  www.johngirard.net  
  21. 21. www.sagology.com                                                                  info@sagology.com  21   41   KM  Tools  and  Pla�orms   KM  Singapore  2015  -­‐  John  P.  Girard,  Ph.D.  -­‐  www.johngirard.net   KM  Singapore  2015  -­‐  John  P.  Girard,  Ph.D.  -­‐  www.johngirard.net   42   TLC:  Culture  
  22. 22. www.sagology.com                                                                  info@sagology.com  22   Open  Leadership   Respect  that  your   customers  and   employees  have   power.   Share  constantly   to  build  trust.   Nurture  curiosity   and  humility.   Hold  openness   accountable.   Forgive  failure.   43   KM  Singapore  2015  -­‐  John  P.  Girard,  Ph.D.  -­‐  www.johngirard.net   http://www.charleneli.com/resources/new-­‐rules/   Openness  Audit   44   KM  Singapore  2015  -­‐  John  P.  Girard,  Ph.D.  -­‐  www.johngirard.net       http://www.slideshare.net/charleneli/openness-­‐audit  
  23. 23. www.sagology.com                                                                  info@sagology.com  23   KM  Singapore  2015  -­‐  John  P.  Girard,  Ph.D.  -­‐  www.johngirard.net   45   Tribal  Leadership     About  You     1.  Name   2.  Organiza�on   3.  Posi�on   4.  KM  Story     46   KM  Singapore  2015  -­‐  John  P.  Girard,  Ph.D.  -­‐  www.johngirard.net  
  24. 24. www.sagology.com                                                                  info@sagology.com  24   47   Culture  Approaches   KM  Singapore  2015  -­‐  John  P.  Girard,  Ph.D.  -­‐  www.johngirard.net   48   Culture  Approaches   KM  Singapore  2015  -­‐  John  P.  Girard,  Ph.D.  -­‐  www.johngirard.net  
  25. 25. www.sagology.com                                                                  info@sagology.com  25   Rewards   49   KM  Singapore  2015  -­‐  John  P.  Girard,  Ph.D.  -­‐  www.johngirard.net   50   Marshmallow  Challenge   KM  Singapore  2015  -­‐  John  P.  Girard,  Ph.D.  -­‐  www.johngirard.net  
  26. 26. www.sagology.com                                                                  info@sagology.com  26   Recommended  Schedule   0900  –  1000:  Session  1   1000  –  1030:  Networking  Break   1030  –  1230:  Session  2   1230  –  1330:  Lunch   1330  –  1500:  Session  3   1500  –  1530:  Networking  Break   1530  –  1700:  Session  4     51   KM  Singapore  2015  -­‐  John  P.  Girard,  Ph.D.  -­‐  www.johngirard.net   A�er  Ac�on  Review   1.  What was planned? 2.  What happened? 3.  What is the delta? 4.  What do we do about it? 52   KM  Singapore  2015  -­‐  John  P.  Girard,  Ph.D.  -­‐  www.johngirard.net  
  27. 27. www.sagology.com                                                                  info@sagology.com  27   53   Marshmallow  Challenge   KM  Singapore  2015  -­‐  John  P.  Girard,  Ph.D.  -­‐  www.johngirard.net   Lessons  for  KM   1.  Mul�disciplinary  teams   2.  Team  development   3.  Value  of  prototyping   4.  Sa�sficing  /  Measure  of  Success   5.  Accep�ng  /  Learning  from  failure   6.  Impact  of  rewards   7.  Planning  versus  execu�on   8.  Best  design  is  based  on  team’s  talent     9.  Google  cannot  solve  everything  …    
  28. 28. www.sagology.com                                                                  info@sagology.com  28   Generally, management of the many is the same as management of the few. It is a matter of organization. —Sun Tzu (400–320 BC), The Art of War CHAPTER 2 ORGANIZE WHAT? KM  Singapore  2015  -­‐  John  P.  Girard,  Ph.D.  -­‐  www.johngirard.net   KM  Singapore  2015  -­‐  John  P.  Girard,  Ph.D.  -­‐  www.johngirard.net   56   Founda�on  or  Too  Busy  
  29. 29. www.sagology.com                                                                  info@sagology.com  29   KM  Singapore  2015  -­‐  John  P.  Girard,  Ph.D.  -­‐  www.johngirard.net   57   What  is  knowledge?    knowledge is "defined broadly to include information, data, communication and culture" (p. 293) Knowledge Data Information Knowledge: Concepts, experience, and insight that provide a framework for creating, evaluating and using information (p. 373). KM  Singapore  2015  -­‐  John  P.  Girard,  Ph.D.  -­‐  www.johngirard.net   58   The  Cogni�ve  Hierarchy   Knowledge Information Data Ackoff’s Apex Wisdom Understanding Knowledge Wisdom: The collective and individual experiences of applying knowledge to the solution of problems (p. 373).
  30. 30. www.sagology.com                                                                  info@sagology.com  30   I believe what I said yesterday.
 I don’t know what I said,
 but I know what I think, and, well,
 I assume it’s what I said.
 —Former U.S. Secretary of Defense Donald Rumsfeld CHAPTER 4 SIMPLE IDEAS KM  Singapore  2015  -­‐  John  P.  Girard,  Ph.D.  -­‐  www.johngirard.net   59   Complex:  A  Defini�on    “a  group  of  obviously  related   units  of  which  the  degree  and   nature  of  the  rela�onship  is   imperfectly  known”   60   KM  Singapore  2015  -­‐  John  P.  Girard,  Ph.D.  -­‐  www.johngirard.net  
  31. 31. www.sagology.com                                                                  info@sagology.com  31   Exchange  and  Transfer  of  Knowledge   KM  Singapore  2015  -­‐  John  P.  Girard,  Ph.D.  -­‐  www.johngirard.net   61   Sociali zation Externa lization Interna lization Comb ination TACIT EXPLICIT EXPLICIT TACIT Leadership Measurement Process Technology Culture Crea�on  and  Transfer  of  Knowledge   KM  Singapore  2015  -­‐  John  P.  Girard,  Ph.D.  -­‐  www.johngirard.net   62   Sociali zation Externa lization Interna lization Comb ination TACIT EXPLICIT EXPLICIT TACIT Combination  Formal Education (MBA)  Policies  Data mining Teradata, 1991 Wal-Mart, 2004 Internalization  Learning by doing  Experience  Values/Ethos TYLENOL® crises of 1982 and 1986
  32. 32. www.sagology.com                                                                  info@sagology.com  32   KM  Singapore  2015  -­‐  John  P.  Girard,  Ph.D.  -­‐  www.johngirard.net   http://www.jnj.com/about-jnj/jnj-credo Our Credo (Johnson & Johnson) We believe our first responsibility is to the doctors, nurses and patients, to mothers and fathers and all others who use our products and services. In meeting their needs everything we do must be of high quality. We must constantly strive to reduce our costs in order to maintain reasonable prices. Customers' orders must be serviced promptly and accurately. Our suppliers and distributors must have an opportunity to make a fair profit. We are responsible to our employees, the men and women who work with us throughout the world. Everyone must be considered as an individual. We must respect their dignity and recognize their merit. They must have a sense of security in their jobs. Compensation must be fair and adequate, and working conditions clean, orderly and safe. We must be mindful of ways to help our employees fulfill their family responsibilities. Employees must feel free to make suggestions and complaints. 63   http://www.jnj.com/about-jnj/jnj-credo There must be equal opportunity for employment, development and advancement for those qualified. We must provide competent management, and their actions must be just and ethical. We are responsible to the communities in which we live and work and to the world community as well. We must be good citizens – support good works and charities and bear our fair share of taxes. We must encourage civic improvements and better health and education. We must maintain in good order the property we are privileged to use, protecting the environment and natural resources. Our final responsibility is to our stockholders. Business must make a sound profit. We must experiment with new ideas. Research must be carried on, innovative programs developed and mistakes paid for. New equipment must be purchased, new facilities provided and new products launched. Reserves must be created to provide for adverse times. When we operate according to these principles, the stockholders should realize a fair return. KM  Singapore  2015  -­‐  John  P.  Girard,  Ph.D.  -­‐  www.johngirard.net   64  
  33. 33. www.sagology.com                                                                  info@sagology.com  33   Crea�on  and  Transfer  of  Knowledge   KM  Singapore  2015  -­‐  John  P.  Girard,  Ph.D.  -­‐  www.johngirard.net   65   Sociali zation Externa lization Internalization Comb ination TACIT EXPLICIT EXPLICIT TACIT Combination  Formal Education (MBA)  Policies  Data mining Teradata, 1991 Wal-Mart, 2004 Internalization  Learning by doing  Experience  Values/Ethos TYLENOL® crises of 1982 and 1986 Externalization  After action review  Lessons learned  Metaphor Socialization  Social spaces (Ba)  Master/apprentice  Storytelling KM  Singapore  2015  -­‐  John  P.  Girard,  Ph.D.  -­‐  www.johngirard.net   66   The  importance  of  sharing  .  .  .   http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=lH39xjXaLW8  
  34. 34. www.sagology.com                                                                  info@sagology.com  34   67   KM  Processes   KM  Singapore  2015  -­‐  John  P.  Girard,  Ph.D.  -­‐  www.johngirard.net   68   KM  Tools  and  Pla�orms   KM  Singapore  2015  -­‐  John  P.  Girard,  Ph.D.  -­‐  www.johngirard.net  
  35. 35. www.sagology.com                                                                  info@sagology.com  35   69   KM  Tools  and  Pla�orms   KM  Singapore  2015  -­‐  John  P.  Girard,  Ph.D.  -­‐  www.johngirard.net   70   Pu�ng  the  Pieces  Together   KM  Singapore  2015  -­‐  John  P.  Girard,  Ph.D.  -­‐  www.johngirard.net  
  36. 36. www.sagology.com                                                                  info@sagology.com  36   KM  Singapore  2015  -­‐  John  P.  Girard,  Ph.D.  -­‐  www.johngirard.net   71   The  difference  .  .  .  Data  to  Knowledge   October 27, 1917 Q1 - What time is it? Q2 – Where are these people? Q3 – Why is the boy smiling? KM  Singapore  2015  -­‐  John  P.  Girard,  Ph.D.  -­‐  www.johngirard.net   72   The  Knowledge  Edge  –  The  Ul�mate  Goal   Knowledge Information Data Wisdom Understanding Knowledge KnowledgeCreation “With 3,600 stores in the United States and roughly 100 million customers walking through the doors each week, Wal-Mart has access to information about a broad slice of America . . . The data are gathered item by item at the checkout aisle, then recorded, mapped and updated by store, by state, by region . . . By its own account Wal-Mart has 460 terabytes of data.” ( 750,000 CDs 1 terabyte ~ 1,000,000 MB) 14 November 2004 Hurricane
  37. 37. www.sagology.com                                                                  info@sagology.com  37   KM  Singapore  2015  -­‐  John  P.  Girard,  Ph.D.  -­‐  www.johngirard.net   73   KM  Models   KM Pillars European Framework DON Balanced KM Enablers of Transfer KM Assessment Tool Technology Leadership Culture Infrastructure Organization Process Measures Learning Content Bennet, A. & Kantner, J. (2001). Navigating the KM dimension, Next- Generation Knowledge Management: Enabling Business Processes. American Productivity & Quality Center. Developed by Dr Stankosky and his team at George Washington University in 1999 Leadership Measurement Process Technology Culture Inukshuk   74   KM  Singapore  2015  -­‐  John  P.  Girard,  Ph.D.  -­‐  www.johngirard.net  
  38. 38. www.sagology.com                                                                  info@sagology.com  38   Inukshuk:  KM  Model   75   KM  Singapore  2015  -­‐  John  P.  Girard,  Ph.D.  -­‐  www.johngirard.net   Foundation Leadership Technology Culture Internalization Socialization Externalization Combination Process Tacit Knowledge Explicit Knowledge Measurement Inukshuk:  “likeness of a person” (essential component of KM)  Guide leaders  Every Inukshuk is different  Artifacts matter! KM  Singapore  2015  -­‐  John  P.  Girard,  Ph.D.  -­‐  www.johngirard.net   Vision:   An  environment  that  facilitates  knowledge   discovery,  crea�on  and  innova�on,  and  which   fosters  the  development  of  a  learning   organiza�on   (From  DM/CDS  May  2002  based  on  IMSR)   KM  Core  Group      1.  Governance            2.  KM  Support        3.  Awareness   KM  SOC   VC  Study   CoP  Toolkit   War  stories   Knowledge  Cafe   Exploit   Successes   Build   Partnerships    EDRMS     C4ISR   Supports:   Policy  &   Strategy     Stakeholders   Needs   Creates   Value   KM  Strategic  Opera�ng  Concept:   Driven  by  Strategy,  Based  on  Results   Decentralised   Coordinated   DND/CF  Transforma�on  Objec�ves   Leadership   Technology   Culture   Internaliza�on   Socializa�on   Externaliza�on     Combina�on   Tacit  Knowledge       Explicit  Knowledge       Measurement   Our  Guide   76  
  39. 39. www.sagology.com                                                                  info@sagology.com  39   Knowledge  Strategy   The  Future  Knowledge  Environment   •  Leaders  View   •  Knowledge  Workers  View   •  A  Vision  of  the  Future   Guiding  Principles   •  Driven  by  Strategy  –  Based  on  Results   •  Decentralized   •  Coordinated   Governance   •  Knowledge  Management  Advisory  Group   •  Chief  Knowledge  Officer  /  Director  Knowledge  Management  du�es  and   responsibili�es.   77   KM  Singapore  2015  -­‐  John  P.  Girard,  Ph.D.  -­‐  www.johngirard.net   Char�ng  a  Course  toward  a  Knowledge   Environment   78   KM  Singapore  2015  -­‐  John  P.  Girard,  Ph.D.  -­‐  www.johngirard.net   2003   2004   2005   2006   2007   2008   Get  Started   Develop  a  Strategy   Design  &  Launch  a  KM  Initiative   Expand  and  Support   Institutionalize   VCDS  Endorsement   Stage  5     Institutionalize     Knowledge     Management   Stage  4   Expand    and     Support   Stage  3   Design  and     Launch  a     KM   Initiative   Stage  2   Develop  a   Strategy   Stage  1   Get       Started         APQC  Stages  of  KM   DMC  Endorsement   DMC  Endorsement   Leadership   Technology   Culture   Internalization   Socialization   Externalization     Combination   Tacit  Knowledge     Explicit  Knowledge     Measurement   Post  DEM  Brie�ing   C4ISR   1  RCHA  
  40. 40. www.sagology.com                                                                  info@sagology.com  40   79   KM  Planning   KM  Singapore  2015  -­‐  John  P.  Girard,  Ph.D.  -­‐  www.johngirard.net   I wish we knew what we know at HP.
 —Lew Platt, Hewlett-Packard CHAPTER 6 THE TOOLS KM  Singapore  2015  -­‐  John  P.  Girard,  Ph.D.  -­‐  www.johngirard.net   80  
  41. 41. www.sagology.com                                                                  info@sagology.com  41   KM  Strategies:  Towards  a  Taxonomy   —  Michael  Earl  2001,  a�er  five-­‐year  study   —  Genesis:  confusion  amongst  execu�ves   —  Purpose:  to  help  guide  execu�ves  on  choices  to   ini�ate  KM   —  Seven  Schools:   ¡  Systems  School   ¡  Cartographic   ¡  Process   ¡  Commercial   ¡  Organiza�onal   ¡  Spa�al   ¡  Strategic   Technocratic   Economic   Behavioral   81   KM  Singapore  2015  -­‐  John  P.  Girard,  Ph.D.  -­‐  www.johngirard.net   Earl’s  Strategies:     Will  they  work  in  a  2.0  world?   Technocratic Economic School Attribute System Cartographic Engineering Commercial Focus Technology Maps Processes Income Aim Knowledge bases Knowledge directories Knowledge flows Knowledge assets Philosophy Codification Connectivity Capability Commercialization Behavioral School Attribute Organizational Spatial Strategic Focus Networks Space Mindset Aim Knowledge pooling Knowledge exchange Knowledge capabilities Philosophy Collaboration Contactivity Consciousness 82   KM  Singapore  2015  -­‐  John  P.  Girard,  Ph.D.  -­‐  www.johngirard.net  
  42. 42. www.sagology.com                                                                  info@sagology.com  42   Earl’s  System  School    “to  capture  specialist   knowledge  in  knowledge  bases   which  other  specialist  or   qualified  people  can  access”   http://www.pcmag.com/article2/0,4149,28792,00.asp   Focus     Technology   Aim   Knowledge  bases   Philosophy     Codifica�on   83   KM  Singapore  2015  -­‐  John  P.  Girard,  Ph.D.  -­‐  www.johngirard.net   Earl’s  Cartographic  School     KM  Singapore  2015  -­‐  John  P.  Girard,  Ph.D.  -­‐  www.johngirard.net   84    “to  make  sure  knowledgeable   people  in  the  organiza�on  are   accessible  to  others  for  advice,   consulta�on,  or  knowledge   exchange”   84   “Exper�se  loca�on  systems   replace  the  second-­‐genera�on   technique  of  yellow  pages   making  connec�ons  between   people  and   communi�es”  (Dave  Snowden)   Focus     Maps   Aim   Knowledge     directories   Philosophy     Connec�vity  
  43. 43. www.sagology.com                                                                  info@sagology.com  43   Earl’s  Engineering  School   Engineering  school  focuses  on.:   1.  “performance  of  business   processes  can  be  enhanced  by   providing  opera�ng  personnel   with  knowledge  relevant  to  their   task”     2.  “management  processes  are   inherently  more  knowledge-­‐ intensive  than  business   processes”   FDA   Focus     Processes   Aim   Knowledge    Flows   Philosophy     Capability   85   KM  Singapore  2015  -­‐  John  P.  Girard,  Ph.D.  -­‐  www.johngirard.net   Earl’s  Economic  School    “it  is  overtly  and  explicitly   concerned  with  both   protec�ng  and  exploi�ng  a   firm's  knowledge  or   intellectual  assets  to  produce   revenue  streams”     Focus     Income   Aim   Knowledge    Assets   Philosophy     Commercial-­‐   iza�on    Dow  Vice  President  Richard  Gross   stated  Dow  was  able  to  reduce  their   patent  holdings  by  over  10,000  resul�ng   in  a  saving  of  $40  million  in  five  years.   86   KM  Singapore  2015  -­‐  John  P.  Girard,  Ph.D.  -­‐  www.johngirard.net  
  44. 44. www.sagology.com                                                                  info@sagology.com  44   Earl’s  Organiza�onal  School    “the  use  of  organiza�onal   structures,  or  networks  to   share  or  pool  knowledge”     Focus     Networks   Aim   Knowledge    Pooling   Philosophy     Collabora�on   Facing  the  drawdown  of  the  B-­‐2  project,  the   company  decided  it  would  be  necessary  to   “maintain  profiles  of  staff  who  could  be  used   for  future  B-­‐2  projects”  (APQC)   87   KM  Singapore  2015  -­‐  John  P.  Girard,  Ph.D.  -­‐  www.johngirard.net   Earl’s  Spa�al  School      “a  design  for  emergence   philosophy  of  knowledge   management  .  .  .  it  centers  on   the  use  of  space  or  spa�al   designs  to  facilitate   knowledge  exchange”   Focus     Space   Aim   Knowledge     Exchange   Philosophy     Contac�vity   Meeting   Environment   Supporting   Socialization   M   E   S   S   Ba  Bar   88   KM  Singapore  2015  -­‐  John  P.  Girard,  Ph.D.  -­‐  www.johngirard.net  
  45. 45. www.sagology.com                                                                  info@sagology.com  45   Earl’s  Strategic  School    “sees  knowledge  management   as  a  dimension  of  compe��ve   strategy”   Focus     Mindset   Aim   Knowledge     Capabili�es   Philosophy     Consciousness   89   KM  Singapore  2015  -­‐  John  P.  Girard,  Ph.D.  -­‐  www.johngirard.net   Which  school  would  be  best  for  you?   Technocratic Economic School Attribute System Cartographic Engineering Commercial Focus Technology Maps Processes Income Aim Knowledge bases Knowledge directories Knowledge flows Knowledge assets Philosophy Codification Connectivity Capability Commercialization Behavioral School Attribute Organizational Spatial Strategic Focus Networks Space Mindset Aim Knowledge pooling Knowledge exchange Knowledge capabilities Philosophy Collaboration Contactivity Consciousness 90   KM  Singapore  2015  -­‐  John  P.  Girard,  Ph.D.  -­‐  www.johngirard.net   EX  
  46. 46. www.sagology.com                                                                  info@sagology.com  46   Yu, shall I teach you what knowledge is? When you know a thing, to hold that you know it; and when you do not know a thing, to allow that you do not know it;—this is knowledge. —Confucius, The Analects, 2:17 CHAPTER 5 DO YOU REALLY? KM  Singapore  2015  -­‐  John  P.  Girard,  Ph.D.  -­‐  www.johngirard.net   91   Close  Your  Book!   92   KM  Singapore  2015  -­‐  John  P.  Girard,  Ph.D.  -­‐  www.johngirard.net  
  47. 47. www.sagology.com                                                                  info@sagology.com  47   Memory  Test*   — Bed   — Rest   — Pajamas   — Pillow   — Snore     — Slumber   — Night   — Awake   — Blanket   — Dream   * Developed by Nancy Dixon 93   KM  Singapore  2015  -­‐  John  P.  Girard,  Ph.D.  -­‐  www.johngirard.net   KM  Singapore  2015  -­‐  John  P.  Girard,  Ph.D.  -­‐  www.johngirard.net   94   Organiza�onal  Forge�ng  (de  Holan  et  al.)   SourceofKnowledge From Existing Stock Memory Decay Unlearning Newly Innovated Failure to Capture Avoiding Bad Habits Accidental Intentional Mode of Forgetting Figure 7. Forms of Organizational Forgetting (Adapted from de Holan et al.)
  48. 48. www.sagology.com                                                                  info@sagology.com  48   KM  Singapore  2015  -­‐  John  P.  Girard,  Ph.D.  -­‐  www.johngirard.net   95   Energizing  a  Na�on   KM  Singapore  2015  -­‐  John  P.  Girard,  Ph.D.  -­‐  www.johngirard.net   96   What  do  we  know  40  years  later?  
  49. 49. www.sagology.com                                                                  info@sagology.com  49   KM  Singapore  2015  -­‐  John  P.  Girard,  Ph.D.  -­‐  www.johngirard.net   97   What  do  we  know  40  years  later?   98   Forge�ng?   KM  Singapore  2015  -­‐  John  P.  Girard,  Ph.D.  -­‐  www.johngirard.net  
  50. 50. www.sagology.com                                                                  info@sagology.com  50   KM  Singapore  2015  -­‐  John  P.  Girard,  Ph.D.  -­‐  www.johngirard.net   99   Organiza�onal  Memory   Organiza�onal  memory  is  the  body  of   knowledge,  past,  present,  and  future,   necessary  to  achieve  the  strategic   objec�ves  of  an  organiza�on.    Enabled  by   technology,  leadership,  and  culture,   organiza�onal  memories  include   repositories  of  ar�facts,  communi�es  of   people,  and  organiza�onal  knowledge   sharing  processes,  which  focus  on   achieving  the  organiza�onal  vision.            Girard,  2009   KM  Singapore  2015  -­‐  John  P.  Girard,  Ph.D.  -­‐  www.johngirard.net   100   Organiza�onal  Forge�ng  (de  Holan  et  al.)   SourceofKnowledge From Existing Stock Memory Decay Unlearning Newly Innovated Failure to Capture Avoiding Bad Habits Accidental Intentional Mode of Forgetting Figure 7. Forms of Organizational Forgetting (Adapted from de Holan et al.)
  51. 51. www.sagology.com                                                                  info@sagology.com  51   Something  to  consider  .  .  .   “. . . there are known knowns; there are things we know that we know. There are known unknowns; that is to say there are things that we now know we don’t know. But there are also unknown unknowns — there are things that we do not know we don't know.” 101   KM  Singapore  2015  -­‐  John  P.  Girard,  Ph.D.  -­‐  www.johngirard.net   Knowns  and  Unknowns   Unknown Knowns Unknown Unknowns Known Knowns Known Unknowns 102   KM  Singapore  2015  -­‐  John  P.  Girard,  Ph.D.  -­‐  www.johngirard.net  
  52. 52. www.sagology.com                                                                  info@sagology.com  52   Knowns  and  Unknowns   103   KM  Singapore  2015  -­‐  John  P.  Girard,  Ph.D.  -­‐  www.johngirard.net   KM  Singapore  2015  -­‐  John  P.  Girard,  Ph.D.  -­‐  www.johngirard.net   104   Knowns  and  Unknowns  Exercise   Unknown Knowns Unknown Unknowns Known Knowns Known Unknowns 1. Printer/Scanner 2. 3. 1. Data Mining 2. 3. 1. Competitive Intell 2. 3. EX  
  53. 53. www.sagology.com                                                                  info@sagology.com  53   Well that didn’t actually happen, but . . . it could have! —Geena Davis, Actor and Raconteur CHAPTER 7 FUTURE TALES KM  Singapore  2015  -­‐  John  P.  Girard,  Ph.D.  -­‐  www.johngirard.net   105   Knowledge Management Information Management Data Management Artificial Intelligence Expertise Locator Records Management Document Management Database Management Data Warehouse Data Integration Virtual Collaboration Group Ware Taxonomies Ontologies Enterprise Portal Content Management After Action Review Forms Management Search Engine Web Portal Storytelling Subject Classification Communities of Practice * Developed by Denise Charbonneau (TBS) and Dr. John Girard Interrela�onship  of  DM,  IM,  KM*   106   KM  Singapore  2015  -­‐  John  P.  Girard,  Ph.D.  -­‐  www.johngirard.net  
  54. 54. www.sagology.com                                                                  info@sagology.com  54   Stonecu�er  or  Cathedral  Builder?   KM  Singapore  2015  -­‐  John  P.  Girard,  Ph.D.  -­‐  www.johngirard.net   107   John Constable. Salisbury Cathedral, from the Meadows. 1831. Oil on canvas. Private collection, on loan to the National Gallery, London, UK. Storytelling  by  Steve  Denning   Purpose  of  Story   —  Sparking  ac�on   —  Communica�ng  who  you  are   —  Transmi�ng  values   —  Fostering  collabora�on   —  Taming  the  grapevine   —  Sharing  knowledge   —  Leading  people  into  the  future   www.stevedenning.com/SIN-136-HBR-publishes-Telling-Tales.html 108   KM  Singapore  2015  -­‐  John  P.  Girard,  Ph.D.  -­‐  www.johngirard.net  
  55. 55. www.sagology.com                                                                  info@sagology.com  55   HBR  May  2004   In  June  of  1995,  a  health  worker  in  a   �ny  town  in  Zambia  went  to  the  Web   site  of  the  Centers  for  Disease  Control   and  got  the  answer  to  a  ques�on  about   the  treatment  for  malaria.  Remember   that  this  was  in  Zambia,  one  of  the   poorest  countries  in  the  world,  and  it   happened  in  a  �ny  place  600  kilometers   from  the  capital  city.  But  the  most   striking  thing  about  this  picture,  at  least   for  us,  is  that  the  World  Bank  isn't  in  it.   Despite  our  know-­‐how  on  all  kinds  of   poverty  related  issues,  that  knowledge   isn‘t  available  to  the  millions  of  people   who  could  use  It.  Imagine  if  it  were.   Think  what  an  organiza�on  we  could   become.   109   KM  Singapore  2015  -­‐  John  P.  Girard,  Ph.D.  -­‐  www.johngirard.net   Wri�ng  the  Future   —  Snowden’s  (2002:  3)  ‘we  can  always  know  more  than  we  can  tell,   and  we  will  always  tell  more  than  we  can  write  down.’     However,  Snowden  (2002:3)  suggests:     —  I  can  speak  in  five  minutes  what  it  will  otherwise  take  me  two   weeks  to  get  round  to  spend  a  couple  of  hours  wri�ng  it  down.   The  process  of  wri�ng  something  down  is  reflec�ve  knowledge;  it   involves  both  adding  and  taking  away  from  the  actual  experience   or  original  thought.  Reflec�ve  knowledge  has  high  value,  but  is   �me  consuming  and  involves  loss  of  control  over  its  subsequent   use.   110   KM  Singapore  2015  -­‐  John  P.  Girard,  Ph.D.  -­‐  www.johngirard.net  
  56. 56. www.sagology.com                                                                  info@sagology.com  56   The  Right  Message   h�p://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Hzgzim5m7oU   KM  Singapore  2015  -­‐  John  P.  Girard,  Ph.D.  -­‐  www.johngirard.net   111   KM  Singapore  2015  -­‐  John  P.  Girard,  Ph.D.  -­‐  www.johngirard.net   Guiding  Government  Leaders  into  the  Future     Ø  excite  change  in  a  very  large   bureaucra�c  organiza�on     Ø  Five  years  in  the  future   Ø  Balance  of  real  and   imaginary   Cri�cal  Success  Factors:   Ø  Look  of  the  story   Ø  Believable   Ø  Execu�ve  Support   For complete stories see: www.johngirard.net 112  
  57. 57. www.sagology.com                                                                  info@sagology.com  57   KM  Singapore  2015  -­‐  John  P.  Girard,  Ph.D.  -­‐  www.johngirard.net   113   Guiding  Faculty  into  the  Future     Ø  excite  change  in  a  small   mid-­‐west  university   Ø  Mock  interview  with  Dean   Ø  Balance  of  real  and   imaginary   Cri�cal  Success  Factors:   Ø  Real  Dean   Ø  Realis�c  Journal   Ø  “Now  I  get  it”   For complete stories see: www.johngirard.net Powerful  Messages   KM  Singapore  2015  -­‐  John  P.  Girard,  Ph.D.  -­‐  www.johngirard.net   114  
  58. 58. www.sagology.com                                                                  info@sagology.com  58   Micro  Stories   1.  Deal  out  cards  (six  to  eight)   2.  Spend  15  minutes   reviewing  the  cards,   drawing  and  discarding  as   you  wish   3.  Iden�fy  the  three  quotes   that  are  most  meaningful   to  you  (or  your   organiza�on)   4.  explain  you  reasoning  to   the  group   115   KM  Singapore  2015  -­‐  John  P.  Girard,  Ph.D.  -­‐  www.johngirard.net   The best thing about the future is that it comes only one day at a time. —Abraham Lincoln CHAPTER 8 THE FUTURE KM  Singapore  2015  -­‐  John  P.  Girard,  Ph.D.  -­‐  www.johngirard.net   116  
  59. 59. www.sagology.com                                                                  info@sagology.com  59   The  Genera�on  Game   KM  Singapore  2015  -­‐  John  P.  Girard,  Ph.D.  -­‐  www.johngirard.net   117   Digital  Na�ve  or  Digital  Immigrant?   KM  Singapore  2015  -­‐  John  P.  Girard,  Ph.D.  -­‐  www.johngirard.net   118  
  60. 60. www.sagology.com                                                                  info@sagology.com  60   Genera�on  Z   KM  Singapore  2015  -­‐  John  P.  Girard,  Ph.D.  -­‐  www.johngirard.net   119   Are  we  ready  for  them?   Are  You  Ready?   h�p://socialnomics.net/   KM  Singapore  2015  -­‐  John  P.  Girard,  Ph.D.  -­‐  www.johngirard.net   120  
  61. 61. www.sagology.com                                                                  info@sagology.com  61   121   Marshmallow  Challenge   KM  Singapore  2015  -­‐  John  P.  Girard,  Ph.D.  -­‐  www.johngirard.net   122   KM  Singapore  2015  -­‐  John  P.  Girard,  Ph.D.  -­‐  www.johngirard.net   h�p://wearesocial.sg/blog/2015/01/digital-­‐social-­‐mobile-­‐2015/  
  62. 62. www.sagology.com                                                                  info@sagology.com  62   123   KM  Singapore  2015  -­‐  John  P.  Girard,  Ph.D.  -­‐  www.johngirard.net   124   KM  Singapore  2015  -­‐  John  P.  Girard,  Ph.D.  -­‐  www.johngirard.net  
  63. 63. www.sagology.com                                                                  info@sagology.com  63   125   KM  Singapore  2015  -­‐  John  P.  Girard,  Ph.D.  -­‐  www.johngirard.net   126   KM  Singapore  2015  -­‐  John  P.  Girard,  Ph.D.  -­‐  www.johngirard.net  
  64. 64. www.sagology.com                                                                  info@sagology.com  64   127   KM  Singapore  2015  -­‐  John  P.  Girard,  Ph.D.  -­‐  www.johngirard.net   128   KM  Singapore  2015  -­‐  John  P.  Girard,  Ph.D.  -­‐  www.johngirard.net  
  65. 65. www.sagology.com                                                                  info@sagology.com  65   129   KM  Singapore  2015  -­‐  John  P.  Girard,  Ph.D.  -­‐  www.johngirard.net   130   KM  Singapore  2015  -­‐  John  P.  Girard,  Ph.D.  -­‐  www.johngirard.net  
  66. 66. www.sagology.com                                                                  info@sagology.com  66   131   KM  Singapore  2015  -­‐  John  P.  Girard,  Ph.D.  -­‐  www.johngirard.net  

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