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Its give the details information & idea about the Ecosystem.

Its give the details information & idea about the Ecosystem.

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    • The term ‘ ecosystem ’ was described by Tansley in 1935 .
    • An ecosystem is a self-regulating group of biotic communities of species interacting with their non-living environment exchanging energy and matter .
    • Now ecology is often defined as “the study of ecosystem” .
  • 3. Characteristics of Ecosystem
    • It is a major structural and functional unit of Ecology.
    • Its structure is related to its species diversity ; the more complex ecosystem have
    • species diversity and vice versa.
    • The relative amount of energy needed to maintain an ecosystem depend on its structure . The more complex the structure, the lesser the energy it needs to maintain itself.
  • 4. Characteristics of Ecosystem
    • It matures by passing from less complex to more complex states.
  • 5. Structural features
    • Biotic structure
    • The plants, animals and microorganism present in an ecosystem form the biotic component.
    • Producers: They are mainly the green plants, which can synthesize their food themselves by making use of carbon dioxide present in the air and water through the process ‘photo autographs’ (auto=self; troph=food; photo=light) .
  • 6.
    • b) Consumers: all organisms which get their organic food by feeding upon other organism are called consumers, which are following types:
    • Herbivores (plant eaters): e.g. Rabbit, insect, man.
    • Carnivores (meat eaters): e.g. snake, big fish
    • Omnivores: e.g. humans, rat, fox etc.
    • Detritivores: (Detritus feeders or saprotrophs)
  • 7.
    • c) Decomposers: They derive their nutrition by breaking down the complex organic molecules to simpler organic compound and ultimately into inorganic nutrients.
    • e.g. bacteria, fungi etc.
  • 8.
    • Abiotic structure
    • The physical and chemical component of an ecosystem constitute its abiotic structure .
    • E.g.; climatic factors edaphic (soil) factors, geographical factor, and toxic substances.
    • Factors:
    • Physical factors: e.g. Sunlight and shades, solar flux, temperature, maximum minimum temperature, annual rainfall, wind, latitude altitude, water etc.
  • 9.
    • Chemical factors: e.g. essential nutrients like- carbon, nitrogen, phosphorus, hydrogen, oxygen and sulphur, level of toxic substances and organic substances etc.
  • 10. Functional Attributes
    • The major functional attributes of an ecosystem are as follows:
    • Trophic structure, Food chain, and Food webs
    • Energy flow
    • Cycling of nutrients (biogeochemical cycles)
    • Primary and secondary production
    • Ecosystem development and regulation
  • 11. Trophic structure
    • The producers and consumers are arranged in the ecosystem in a definite manner and their inter-action along with population size are expressed together as “ Trophic structure ”.
    • each food levels is known as trophic level and the amount of living matter at each trophic level is known as sanding mass.
  • 12. Food chain
    • The sequence of eating and being eaten in an ecosystem is known as “food chain” .
    • e.g. Grass grasshopper frog snake
    • Hawk
  • 13. Types of food chain
    • Grazing food chain: It starts with green plants and culminates in carnivores.
    • e.g. Grass rabbit fox
    • Detritus food chain: It starts with dead organic matter which the detritivores and decomposers consume.
    • e.g. detritus food chain
  • 14. Food web
    • Food web is a network of food chain where different types of organism are connected at different trophic levels , so that there are a number of option of eating and being eaten at each trophic levels.
  • 15. Significance of food chain and food web
    • Its play an important role in the “ecosystem” because the most important function of energy flow and nutrient cycling take place through them.
    • Food chain help in maintaining and regulating the population size of different animal .
    • Food chain shows a unique property of biological magnification of some chemical.
  • 16. Ecological Pyramids
    • Graphic representation of trophic structure and function of an ecosystem, starting with producers at the base and successive trophic levels forming the apex is known as an “ ecological pyramid”.
  • 17.  
  • 18. There are three main types of ecological pyramids.
    • Pyramid of numbers
    • Pyramid of biomass
    • Pyramid of energy
  • 19.
    • Pyramid of numbers : They show the relationship between producers, herbivores and carnivores at successive trophic levels in the terms of their number.
  • 20.
    • In grassland ‘grasses’ are maximum in no.
    • It shows the a decrease toward apex,
    • as the primary consumers Herbivores (rabbit, mice) are lesser in no. than the grasses
    • Secondary consumers (snakes and lizards) are less in no. than the Herbivores
    • finally tertiary consumers (hawks, other birds) are less in no. than the S.C.
    • Pyramid becomes ‘upright’ .
  • 21.
    • Pyramid of biomass: It’s show the quantitative relationship of the standing crops.
    • Pyramid of energy: It’s give best picture of overall nature of the ecosystem.
    • The Forest ecosystem
    • The Grassland ecosystem
    • The Desert ecosystem
    • Aquatic ecosystems
  • 23. The Forest ecosystem
    • In India , the forest occupies roughly 19% of the total land area.
    • Indian forest are of 11 types and are classified on the basis of physiology, & habitat.
    • Components of forest ecosystem:
    • Abiotic ( organic and inorganic substances such as- temperature, rainfall, soil (minerals) ).
    • Biotic ( herbivores like ants, beetles, bugs, spiders etc.).
  • 24. The Grassland ecosystem
    • It occupy about 24% of the earth’s surface.
    • Grassland are of 8 types that classified on the basis of the floral characteristics.
    • Components of Grassland ecosystem:
    • Abiotic ( Nutrients present in soil and atmosphere Like element (C,H,O,N,P,S, etc) ).
    • Biotic ( herbivores like ants, beetles, bugs, spiders etc.).
  • 25. The Desert ecosystem
    • They occupy about 17%of land area.
    • Desert has poor vegetation with a very low amount of dead organic matter.
  • 26. Aquatic ecosystems
    • A pond is a good example of a small self-sufficient and self-regulating ecosystem.
    • Location, size, depth and substratum of a pond influence the biology of pond ecosystem.
    • Components of aquatic ecosystem:
    • Abiotic ( organic (C,H,O,N,P,Ca&S) and inorganic substances such as- temperature, light, water, soil ).
    • Biotic ( herbivores like ants, beetles, bugs, spiders etc.).
  • 27.
    • The Marine ecosystem
    • It cover about the three quarters of our planet.
    • The marine regions are divided between coral reefs, estuaries and oceans.
    • Ocean represent the largest and most divers of the ecosystem.
  • 28.
    • SONY