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  2. 2. ECOSYSTEM <ul><li>The term ‘ ecosystem ’ was described by Tansley in 1935 . </li></ul><ul><li>An ecosystem is a self-regulating group of biotic communities of species interacting with their non-living environment exchanging energy and matter . </li></ul><ul><li>Now ecology is often defined as “the study of ecosystem” . </li></ul>
  3. 3. Characteristics of Ecosystem <ul><li>It is a major structural and functional unit of Ecology. </li></ul><ul><li>Its structure is related to its species diversity ; the more complex ecosystem have </li></ul><ul><li>species diversity and vice versa. </li></ul><ul><li>The relative amount of energy needed to maintain an ecosystem depend on its structure . The more complex the structure, the lesser the energy it needs to maintain itself. </li></ul>
  4. 4. Characteristics of Ecosystem <ul><li>It matures by passing from less complex to more complex states. </li></ul>
  5. 5. Structural features <ul><li>Biotic structure </li></ul><ul><li>The plants, animals and microorganism present in an ecosystem form the biotic component. </li></ul><ul><li>Producers: They are mainly the green plants, which can synthesize their food themselves by making use of carbon dioxide present in the air and water through the process ‘photo autographs’ (auto=self; troph=food; photo=light) . </li></ul>
  6. 6. <ul><li>b) Consumers: all organisms which get their organic food by feeding upon other organism are called consumers, which are following types: </li></ul><ul><li>Herbivores (plant eaters): e.g. Rabbit, insect, man. </li></ul><ul><li>Carnivores (meat eaters): e.g. snake, big fish </li></ul><ul><li>Omnivores: e.g. humans, rat, fox etc. </li></ul><ul><li>Detritivores: (Detritus feeders or saprotrophs) </li></ul>
  7. 7. <ul><li>c) Decomposers: They derive their nutrition by breaking down the complex organic molecules to simpler organic compound and ultimately into inorganic nutrients. </li></ul><ul><li>e.g. bacteria, fungi etc. </li></ul>
  8. 8. <ul><li>Abiotic structure </li></ul><ul><li>The physical and chemical component of an ecosystem constitute its abiotic structure . </li></ul><ul><li>E.g.; climatic factors edaphic (soil) factors, geographical factor, and toxic substances. </li></ul><ul><li>Factors: </li></ul><ul><li>Physical factors: e.g. Sunlight and shades, solar flux, temperature, maximum minimum temperature, annual rainfall, wind, latitude altitude, water etc. </li></ul>
  9. 9. <ul><li>Chemical factors: e.g. essential nutrients like- carbon, nitrogen, phosphorus, hydrogen, oxygen and sulphur, level of toxic substances and organic substances etc. </li></ul>
  10. 10. Functional Attributes <ul><li>The major functional attributes of an ecosystem are as follows: </li></ul><ul><li>Trophic structure, Food chain, and Food webs </li></ul><ul><li>Energy flow </li></ul><ul><li>Cycling of nutrients (biogeochemical cycles) </li></ul><ul><li>Primary and secondary production </li></ul><ul><li>Ecosystem development and regulation </li></ul>
  11. 11. Trophic structure <ul><li>The producers and consumers are arranged in the ecosystem in a definite manner and their inter-action along with population size are expressed together as “ Trophic structure ”. </li></ul><ul><li>each food levels is known as trophic level and the amount of living matter at each trophic level is known as sanding mass. </li></ul>
  12. 12. Food chain <ul><li>The sequence of eating and being eaten in an ecosystem is known as “food chain” . </li></ul><ul><li>e.g. Grass grasshopper frog snake </li></ul><ul><li>Hawk </li></ul>
  13. 13. Types of food chain <ul><li>Grazing food chain: It starts with green plants and culminates in carnivores. </li></ul><ul><li>e.g. Grass rabbit fox </li></ul><ul><li>Detritus food chain: It starts with dead organic matter which the detritivores and decomposers consume. </li></ul><ul><li>e.g. detritus food chain </li></ul>
  14. 14. Food web <ul><li>Food web is a network of food chain where different types of organism are connected at different trophic levels , so that there are a number of option of eating and being eaten at each trophic levels. </li></ul>
  15. 15. Significance of food chain and food web <ul><li>Its play an important role in the “ecosystem” because the most important function of energy flow and nutrient cycling take place through them. </li></ul><ul><li>Food chain help in maintaining and regulating the population size of different animal . </li></ul><ul><li>Food chain shows a unique property of biological magnification of some chemical. </li></ul>
  16. 16. Ecological Pyramids <ul><li>Graphic representation of trophic structure and function of an ecosystem, starting with producers at the base and successive trophic levels forming the apex is known as an “ ecological pyramid”. </li></ul>
  17. 18. There are three main types of ecological pyramids. <ul><li>Pyramid of numbers </li></ul><ul><li>Pyramid of biomass </li></ul><ul><li>Pyramid of energy </li></ul>
  18. 19. <ul><li>Pyramid of numbers : They show the relationship between producers, herbivores and carnivores at successive trophic levels in the terms of their number. </li></ul>
  19. 20. <ul><li>In grassland ‘grasses’ are maximum in no. </li></ul><ul><li>It shows the a decrease toward apex, </li></ul><ul><li>as the primary consumers Herbivores (rabbit, mice) are lesser in no. than the grasses </li></ul><ul><li>Secondary consumers (snakes and lizards) are less in no. than the Herbivores </li></ul><ul><li>finally tertiary consumers (hawks, other birds) are less in no. than the S.C. </li></ul><ul><li>Pyramid becomes ‘upright’ . </li></ul>
  20. 21. <ul><li>Pyramid of biomass: It’s show the quantitative relationship of the standing crops. </li></ul><ul><li>Pyramid of energy: It’s give best picture of overall nature of the ecosystem. </li></ul>
  21. 22. TYPES OF ECOSYSTEM <ul><li>ON THE BASIS OF ORGANIZATION PATTERN THESE ARE CLASSIFIED BELOW – </li></ul><ul><li>The Forest ecosystem </li></ul><ul><li>The Grassland ecosystem </li></ul><ul><li>The Desert ecosystem </li></ul><ul><li>Aquatic ecosystems </li></ul>
  22. 23. The Forest ecosystem <ul><li>In India , the forest occupies roughly 19% of the total land area. </li></ul><ul><li>Indian forest are of 11 types and are classified on the basis of physiology, & habitat. </li></ul><ul><li>Components of forest ecosystem: </li></ul><ul><li>Abiotic ( organic and inorganic substances such as- temperature, rainfall, soil (minerals) ). </li></ul><ul><li>Biotic ( herbivores like ants, beetles, bugs, spiders etc.). </li></ul>
  23. 24. The Grassland ecosystem <ul><li>It occupy about 24% of the earth’s surface. </li></ul><ul><li>Grassland are of 8 types that classified on the basis of the floral characteristics. </li></ul><ul><li>Components of Grassland ecosystem: </li></ul><ul><li>Abiotic ( Nutrients present in soil and atmosphere Like element (C,H,O,N,P,S, etc) ). </li></ul><ul><li>Biotic ( herbivores like ants, beetles, bugs, spiders etc.). </li></ul>
  24. 25. The Desert ecosystem <ul><li>They occupy about 17%of land area. </li></ul><ul><li>Desert has poor vegetation with a very low amount of dead organic matter. </li></ul>
  25. 26. Aquatic ecosystems <ul><li>A pond is a good example of a small self-sufficient and self-regulating ecosystem. </li></ul><ul><li>Location, size, depth and substratum of a pond influence the biology of pond ecosystem. </li></ul><ul><li>Components of aquatic ecosystem: </li></ul><ul><li>Abiotic ( organic (C,H,O,N,P,Ca&S) and inorganic substances such as- temperature, light, water, soil ). </li></ul><ul><li>Biotic ( herbivores like ants, beetles, bugs, spiders etc.). </li></ul>
  26. 27. <ul><li>The Marine ecosystem </li></ul><ul><li>It cover about the three quarters of our planet. </li></ul><ul><li>The marine regions are divided between coral reefs, estuaries and oceans. </li></ul><ul><li>Ocean represent the largest and most divers of the ecosystem. </li></ul>
  27. 28. <ul><li>PRESENTED BY </li></ul><ul><li>SONY </li></ul>