CREATING AND IMPLEMENTING NATIONAL GREEN PLANS New Zealand Case Study Tom W. Fookes Director twfookes consulting limited
NZ RESOURCE MANAGEMENT ACT (RMA): GREEN PLAN AS LEGISLATION <ul><li>Law relating to the use of land, air, and water </li><...
SUSTAINABLE MANAGEMENT <ul><li>Managing the use, development, and protection of natural and physical resources... </li></u...
Provisos for Sustainable Management <ul><li>While – </li></ul><ul><li>Sustaining the potential of natural and physical res...
Environment  defined <ul><li>Inclusive definition </li></ul><ul><li>- ecosystems and their constituent parts, including pe...
THE  PLAN  IN GREEN  PLAN <ul><li>Central government </li></ul><ul><li>National Policy Statements  </li></ul><ul><li>Natio...
Adverse Effects <ul><li>Duty to avoid, remedy, or mitigate adverse effects </li></ul><ul><li>Abatement and enforcement ord...
Content of Plans (General) <ul><li>Policy Statements and District Plans </li></ul><ul><li>Hierarchy of... </li></ul><ul><u...
KEY AGENCIES: REGIONAL AND TERRITORIAL LOCAL AUTHORITIES...1  <ul><li>Regional Councils </li></ul><ul><li>regional policy ...
KEY AGENCIES: REGIONAL AND TERRITORIAL LOCAL AUTHORITIES...2 <ul><li>Territorial Local Authorities </li></ul><ul><li>Objec...
RMA: WHY DID IT HAPPEN? <ul><li>Too many overlapping laws and regulations – need for rationalisation & integration (whole ...
RMA: HOW DID IT HAPPEN? <ul><li>Public – private sector - community collaboration: </li></ul><ul><li>- identification of p...
RMA: HOW HAS IT WORKED? <ul><li>IMPLEMENTATION...1 </li></ul><ul><li>The law versus its application  </li></ul><ul><li>- o...
IMPLEMENTATION...2 <ul><li>Effect of Market-based  policy </li></ul><ul><li>- reliance on market processes to achieve purp...
IMPLEMENTATION...3 <ul><li>Role of Environment Court and Higher Courts </li></ul>
SUMMING UP: IS GREEN PLAN LAW WORTH THE EFFORT? <ul><li>Plus side... </li></ul><ul><li>Minus side... </li></ul><ul><li>In ...
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Creating and Implementing National Green Plans: New Zealand Case Study

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New Zealand environmental judge and policy maker tells the story of his nation's environmental recovery.

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Creating and Implementing National Green Plans: New Zealand Case Study

  1. 1. CREATING AND IMPLEMENTING NATIONAL GREEN PLANS New Zealand Case Study Tom W. Fookes Director twfookes consulting limited
  2. 2. NZ RESOURCE MANAGEMENT ACT (RMA): GREEN PLAN AS LEGISLATION <ul><li>Law relating to the use of land, air, and water </li></ul><ul><li>Purpose: promote sustainable management – natural & physical resources </li></ul><ul><li>Applies to government and private actions </li></ul><ul><li>Considers ‘use’ in terms of effects – positive or adverse; temporary or permanent; past, present or future; cumulative (time & other effects); high probability; low probability & high potential impact </li></ul>
  3. 3. SUSTAINABLE MANAGEMENT <ul><li>Managing the use, development, and protection of natural and physical resources... </li></ul><ul><li>in a way, or at a rate, ... </li></ul><ul><li>which enables people and communities... </li></ul><ul><li>to provide for their social, economic, and cultural wellbeing, and... </li></ul><ul><li>for their health and safety... </li></ul><ul><li>while... </li></ul>
  4. 4. Provisos for Sustainable Management <ul><li>While – </li></ul><ul><li>Sustaining the potential of natural and physical resources... </li></ul><ul><li>To meet reasonably foreseeable needs of future generations, and... </li></ul><ul><li>Safeguarding the life-supporting capacity of air, water, soil, and ecosystems, and... </li></ul><ul><li>Avoiding, remedying, or mitigating any adverse effects of adverse effects on the environment </li></ul>
  5. 5. Environment defined <ul><li>Inclusive definition </li></ul><ul><li>- ecosystems and their constituent parts, including people and communities </li></ul><ul><li>- all natural and physical resources </li></ul><ul><li>- amenity values </li></ul><ul><li>- social, economic, aesthetic and cultural conditions (as affect or are affected by the above) </li></ul>
  6. 6. THE PLAN IN GREEN PLAN <ul><li>Central government </li></ul><ul><li>National Policy Statements </li></ul><ul><li>National Environmental Standards </li></ul><ul><li>Local government </li></ul><ul><li>Regional Policy Statements – regional councils </li></ul><ul><li>District Plans – city and towns and rural districts </li></ul>
  7. 7. Adverse Effects <ul><li>Duty to avoid, remedy, or mitigate adverse effects </li></ul><ul><li>Abatement and enforcement order </li></ul><ul><li>Recognised Customary Activities </li></ul><ul><li>Express provisions subject to other government controls </li></ul>
  8. 8. Content of Plans (General) <ul><li>Policy Statements and District Plans </li></ul><ul><li>Hierarchy of... </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Issues </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Objectives sought to be achieved </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Policies for the issues and objectives </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Methods to implement the policies </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Anticipated Environmental Results </li></ul></ul></ul>
  9. 9. KEY AGENCIES: REGIONAL AND TERRITORIAL LOCAL AUTHORITIES...1 <ul><li>Regional Councils </li></ul><ul><li>regional policy </li></ul><ul><li>consents/permits for: </li></ul><ul><li>- use of coastal marine area </li></ul><ul><li>- use of beds of lakes and rivers </li></ul><ul><li>- water: taking, damming, or diverting (includes geothermal) </li></ul><ul><li>- discharge of contaminants into environment (water and air) </li></ul><ul><li>- noise </li></ul>
  10. 10. KEY AGENCIES: REGIONAL AND TERRITORIAL LOCAL AUTHORITIES...2 <ul><li>Territorial Local Authorities </li></ul><ul><li>Objectives, Policies and Rules in a District Plan – restrictions on: </li></ul><ul><li>- use of land </li></ul><ul><li>- building bulk and location </li></ul><ul><li>- noise </li></ul><ul><li>- other adverse effects of use (e.g. Traffic) </li></ul>
  11. 11. RMA: WHY DID IT HAPPEN? <ul><li>Too many overlapping laws and regulations – need for rationalisation & integration (whole of environment approach) </li></ul><ul><li>Political acceptance there was a problem </li></ul><ul><li>Ministerial leadership </li></ul><ul><li>Imaginative law review and policy-making process – public buy-in achieved </li></ul><ul><li>Recognised importance of regional & local level identification of issues – objectives – policies – methods </li></ul><ul><li>Open public participation in all aspects of the Act </li></ul>
  12. 12. RMA: HOW DID IT HAPPEN? <ul><li>Public – private sector - community collaboration: </li></ul><ul><li>- identification of problems with status quo – free telephone calling + written submissions </li></ul><ul><li>- cross-interests working groups for major issues (e.g. Public participation, EIA, Consent process) </li></ul><ul><li>Cross-government agency collaboration – starting at Minister level + Core Group </li></ul>
  13. 13. RMA: HOW HAS IT WORKED? <ul><li>IMPLEMENTATION...1 </li></ul><ul><li>The law versus its application </li></ul><ul><li>- over 17 years amendments to Act but overall thrust unchanged </li></ul><ul><li>- Local government practice fallen short – - * issues of capacity and commitment </li></ul><ul><li>* mismatch between issues - objectives - policies – methods </li></ul><ul><li>* rule-based - reluctance to apply other methods </li></ul><ul><li>* poor quality policy statements & plans </li></ul>
  14. 14. IMPLEMENTATION...2 <ul><li>Effect of Market-based policy </li></ul><ul><li>- reliance on market processes to achieve purpose of RMA – failed </li></ul><ul><li>Original vision of RMA being undermined </li></ul><ul><li>- Reluctance to use NPS’s </li></ul><ul><li>- Dependence on rules </li></ul><ul><li>- Disenchantment – businesses </li></ul><ul><li>- Bi-partisan political support weakened </li></ul><ul><li>- Return to separate issue-based law (e.g. Climate change) </li></ul><ul><li>- EPA proposal </li></ul>
  15. 15. IMPLEMENTATION...3 <ul><li>Role of Environment Court and Higher Courts </li></ul>
  16. 16. SUMMING UP: IS GREEN PLAN LAW WORTH THE EFFORT? <ul><li>Plus side... </li></ul><ul><li>Minus side... </li></ul><ul><li>In conclusion... </li></ul>

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