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Training anddevelopmenT
TrainingDefinition: “ Training is the organized procedure in which  the people learn knowledge and/or skill for  definite ...
Development        Development refers to the learning opportunities designed to help employee grow.Education    It is theo...
Inputs in training and development1.   Skills2.   Education3.   Development4.   Ethics5.   Attitudinal Changes
Needs assessmentb)Organizationalsupport.c)Organizational                        Training processanalysis.d)Task and KSAana...
Needs assessment•   Organisation Support•   Organisational Analysis•   Task and KSA Analysis•   Person Analysis.
Designing Training andDevelopment Programme            Who are the trainees?            Who are the trainers?        What ...
Methods and techniques of trainingTraining methods are categorized into two   groups:(ii)On-the-job.(iii)Off-the-job.
On-the-job training1.   Orientation training.2.   Job-instruction.3.   Apprentice training.4.   Internships and assistants...
Off-the-job training•   Lecture.•   Films.•   Television.•   Conference or discussion.•   Case study.•   Role playing.•   ...
WHAT SHOULD BE THE LEVEL OF           LEARNING?• There are 3 basic levels at which inputs can be  taught-o Fundamental kno...
Learning Principles1.   Employee motivation2.   Recognition of individual differences3.   Practice opportunities4.   Reinf...
IMPLEMENTATION OF THE TRAINING             PROGRAMME•    Programme implementation involves action     on the following lin...
EVALUATION OF THE PROGRAMMENeed for Evaluation:Correcting performance deficiencies.To determine the cost effectiveness o...
Criteria for Evaluation1.   Training validity2.   Transfer validity3.   Intra-organisational validity4.   Inter-organisati...
Techniques of Evaluation1. Use experimental and control groups2. Time-series analysis3. Questionnaire
Levels of Evaluation•    Evaluation of training can take place at four     levels:2.   Reaction3.   Learning4.   Behaviour...
ResultBehaviorLearningReaction
IMPEDIMENTS TO EFFECTIVE            TRAINING• Management commitment is lacking and  uneven.• Aggregate spending on trainin...
HOW TO MAKE TRAINING EFFECIVE?• Allocation of major resources and adequate  time to training.• Ensure that training contri...
HOW TO MAKE TRAINING EFFECIVE?• Ensure that there is a proper linkage between  organizational, operational and individual ...
BENEFITS OF EMPLOYEE TRAINING• Benefits to the organisations.• Benefits to the individual.• Benefits In HR.
Benefits to the OrganisationsImproves the morale of the workforce.Improves the job knowledge and skills at all levels of...
Benefits to the IndividualHelps the individual in making better decisions and effective problem solving.Aids in encourag...
Benefits in HRImproves communication between groups and individuals.Aids in orientation of new employees and those being...
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  1. 1. Training anddevelopmenT
  2. 2. TrainingDefinition: “ Training is the organized procedure in which the people learn knowledge and/or skill for definite purpose. ” - Dale S. Training = standard - actual Need performance performance
  3. 3. Development Development refers to the learning opportunities designed to help employee grow.Education It is theoretical learning in classrooms.
  4. 4. Inputs in training and development1. Skills2. Education3. Development4. Ethics5. Attitudinal Changes
  5. 5. Needs assessmentb)Organizationalsupport.c)Organizational Training processanalysis.d)Task and KSAanalysis. Training validitye) person analysis. Development of criteria Instructional objectives Transfer validity Selection and design of instructional programs. Intra-organizational Use of validity evaluation Training models. Inter-organizational validity
  6. 6. Needs assessment• Organisation Support• Organisational Analysis• Task and KSA Analysis• Person Analysis.
  7. 7. Designing Training andDevelopment Programme Who are the trainees? Who are the trainers? What methods and techniques? What should be the level of learning? What principles of learning? Where to conduct the programme?
  8. 8. Methods and techniques of trainingTraining methods are categorized into two groups:(ii)On-the-job.(iii)Off-the-job.
  9. 9. On-the-job training1. Orientation training.2. Job-instruction.3. Apprentice training.4. Internships and assistantships.5. Job rotation.
  10. 10. Off-the-job training• Lecture.• Films.• Television.• Conference or discussion.• Case study.• Role playing.• Simulation.• Programmed instruction.
  11. 11. WHAT SHOULD BE THE LEVEL OF LEARNING?• There are 3 basic levels at which inputs can be taught-o Fundamental knowledgeo Skills developmento Increased operational efficiency
  12. 12. Learning Principles1. Employee motivation2. Recognition of individual differences3. Practice opportunities4. Reinforcement5. Knowledge of results (Feedback)6. Goals setting7. Schedules of learning8. Transfer of learning
  13. 13. IMPLEMENTATION OF THE TRAINING PROGRAMME• Programme implementation involves action on the following lines-2. Deciding the location and organizing training and other activities.3. Scheduling of training programme.4. Conducting the programme.5. Monitoring the progress of the trainees.
  14. 14. EVALUATION OF THE PROGRAMMENeed for Evaluation:Correcting performance deficiencies.To determine the cost effectiveness of the programme.Useful to explain programme failure, should it occur.
  15. 15. Criteria for Evaluation1. Training validity2. Transfer validity3. Intra-organisational validity4. Inter-organisational validity
  16. 16. Techniques of Evaluation1. Use experimental and control groups2. Time-series analysis3. Questionnaire
  17. 17. Levels of Evaluation• Evaluation of training can take place at four levels:2. Reaction3. Learning4. Behaviour5. Results• The four levels form a hierarchy.
  18. 18. ResultBehaviorLearningReaction
  19. 19. IMPEDIMENTS TO EFFECTIVE TRAINING• Management commitment is lacking and uneven.• Aggregate spending on training is inadequate.• Educational institutes award degree but graduates lack skills.• Organised labour can help.• Large-scale Poaching of trained workers.
  20. 20. HOW TO MAKE TRAINING EFFECIVE?• Allocation of major resources and adequate time to training.• Ensure that training contributes to competitive strategies of the firm.• Ensure that a comprehensive and systematic approach to training exists.• Training and retraining should be done on a continuous and ongoing basis• Make learning one of the fundamental values of the company.
  21. 21. HOW TO MAKE TRAINING EFFECIVE?• Ensure that there is a proper linkage between organizational, operational and individual training needs.• Create a system to evaluate the effectiveness of training.
  22. 22. BENEFITS OF EMPLOYEE TRAINING• Benefits to the organisations.• Benefits to the individual.• Benefits In HR.
  23. 23. Benefits to the OrganisationsImproves the morale of the workforce.Improves the job knowledge and skills at all levels of the organisations.Helps people identify with organisational goals.Leads to improved profitability.Aids in improving productivity and/or quality of work.
  24. 24. Benefits to the IndividualHelps the individual in making better decisions and effective problem solving.Aids in encouraging and achieving self- development and self-confidence.Provides information for improving leadership, knowledge, communication skills and attitudes.Increases job satisfaction.
  25. 25. Benefits in HRImproves communication between groups and individuals.Aids in orientation of new employees and those being transferred or promoted.Improves interpersonal skills.Provides a good climate for learning, growth and co-ordination.Makes the organization a better place to work and live.
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