TrainingDefinition: “ Training is the organized procedure in which the people learn knowledge and/or skill for definite purpose. ” - Dale S. Training = standard - actual Need performance performance
Development Development refers to the learning opportunities designed to help employee grow.Education It is theoretical learning in classrooms.
Inputs in training and development1. Skills2. Education3. Development4. Ethics5. Attitudinal Changes
Needs assessmentb)Organizationalsupport.c)Organizational Training processanalysis.d)Task and KSAanalysis. Training validitye) person analysis. Development of criteria Instructional objectives Transfer validity Selection and design of instructional programs. Intra-organizational Use of validity evaluation Training models. Inter-organizational validity
Needs assessment• Organisation Support• Organisational Analysis• Task and KSA Analysis• Person Analysis.
Designing Training andDevelopment Programme Who are the trainees? Who are the trainers? What methods and techniques? What should be the level of learning? What principles of learning? Where to conduct the programme?
Methods and techniques of trainingTraining methods are categorized into two groups:(ii)On-the-job.(iii)Off-the-job.
Off-the-job training• Lecture.• Films.• Television.• Conference or discussion.• Case study.• Role playing.• Simulation.• Programmed instruction.
WHAT SHOULD BE THE LEVEL OF LEARNING?• There are 3 basic levels at which inputs can be taught-o Fundamental knowledgeo Skills developmento Increased operational efficiency
Learning Principles1. Employee motivation2. Recognition of individual differences3. Practice opportunities4. Reinforcement5. Knowledge of results (Feedback)6. Goals setting7. Schedules of learning8. Transfer of learning
IMPLEMENTATION OF THE TRAINING PROGRAMME• Programme implementation involves action on the following lines-2. Deciding the location and organizing training and other activities.3. Scheduling of training programme.4. Conducting the programme.5. Monitoring the progress of the trainees.
EVALUATION OF THE PROGRAMMENeed for Evaluation:Correcting performance deficiencies.To determine the cost effectiveness of the programme.Useful to explain programme failure, should it occur.
Criteria for Evaluation1. Training validity2. Transfer validity3. Intra-organisational validity4. Inter-organisational validity
Techniques of Evaluation1. Use experimental and control groups2. Time-series analysis3. Questionnaire
Levels of Evaluation• Evaluation of training can take place at four levels:2. Reaction3. Learning4. Behaviour5. Results• The four levels form a hierarchy.
IMPEDIMENTS TO EFFECTIVE TRAINING• Management commitment is lacking and uneven.• Aggregate spending on training is inadequate.• Educational institutes award degree but graduates lack skills.• Organised labour can help.• Large-scale Poaching of trained workers.
HOW TO MAKE TRAINING EFFECIVE?• Allocation of major resources and adequate time to training.• Ensure that training contributes to competitive strategies of the firm.• Ensure that a comprehensive and systematic approach to training exists.• Training and retraining should be done on a continuous and ongoing basis• Make learning one of the fundamental values of the company.
HOW TO MAKE TRAINING EFFECIVE?• Ensure that there is a proper linkage between organizational, operational and individual training needs.• Create a system to evaluate the effectiveness of training.
BENEFITS OF EMPLOYEE TRAINING• Benefits to the organisations.• Benefits to the individual.• Benefits In HR.
Benefits to the OrganisationsImproves the morale of the workforce.Improves the job knowledge and skills at all levels of the organisations.Helps people identify with organisational goals.Leads to improved profitability.Aids in improving productivity and/or quality of work.
Benefits to the IndividualHelps the individual in making better decisions and effective problem solving.Aids in encouraging and achieving self- development and self-confidence.Provides information for improving leadership, knowledge, communication skills and attitudes.Increases job satisfaction.
Benefits in HRImproves communication between groups and individuals.Aids in orientation of new employees and those being transferred or promoted.Improves interpersonal skills.Provides a good climate for learning, growth and co-ordination.Makes the organization a better place to work and live.