What is training ?• Meaning – training is the systematic process of increasing the knowledge & skills of an employee for doing a specified job by providing a learning experience.• It helps the trainee acquire new skills, technical knowledge, problem- solving ability etc. thereby increasing the performance of the employees.• It also gives awareness of rules & procedures
DEFINITION OF TRAINING• Training is the continuous, systematic development among all levels of employees of that knowledge and those skills and attitudes which contribute to their welfare and that of the company. – Planty, Cord M.C and Efferson• “The process of aiding employees to gain effectiveness in their present and future work - Richard P. Calhoon
SCOPE OF TRAINING• A key tool for enhancing job-related performance and organizational effectiveness, its value is being increasingly acknowledged in engendering behavioural changes & in developing life skills leading to personal growth.• The scope has considerably widened. It equips an individual with competencies that help him/her cope with day-to-day problems of living & manage interpersonal relations and improving them.
TRAINING OBJECTIVES (TO)• Training needs training objectives• TO are tactical applications of strategic goals.• Written in clear, unambiguous, specific and precise terms.• They specify what learners will be able to do at the end of each stage of the training process.
TRAINING OBJECTIVES (TO)• TO are essential for evaluating the training• TO are to be specific to knowledge, skills or attitudes that the trainees are to gain as a result of the training activity and also measurable.
Importance of Training objectivesi. Articulate the goal of trainingii. Communicate intent to learneriii. Provide means of evaluationiv. Assists in selection of materials, content, methods.
Elements of Training objectives• Outcomes of training program: observable behaviours “by the end of the program participants will be able to …”• Conditions of the training program: circumstances in which the outcomes should take place “in a cohesive team situation”, without the use of instructional materials”• Standards of the training program: expected level of attainment in terms of quality “ to 100% accuracy (or some other level)”, “at the rate of 50 per hour”.
ASSUMPTIONS OF TRAININGAssumptions TruthParticipants knowledge Motivation & skills lead toacquisition means greater improved practice.competence Competence grows through practice.Participants learn what trainers Learning is a complex function.teach. Learning is a simple Participants’ motivation andfunction of their capacity to use of training varies withtake in and trainers teaching support I the organizationabilityIndividual improvement leads It is complex function ofto improvement in organization learning, norms of the group and the organizational climate. Individual learning if unused leads to frustrationTraining is the responsibility of Organization, participants andthe training establishment the trainers are all partners in the training process.
BASIC PURPOSES OF TRAINING1. Increasing productivity2. Improving quality3. To fulfill future personnel needs4. Improve organizational climate5. Improve health &safety6. Obsolescence prevention7. Personal growth
Need for Training• Increased use of technology• Labour turnover• Need for additional hands• New employees• Promotion, career development• Increasing the employee morale• For reducing grievances & minimizing accident rates• Refresher training for Old employees
FUNCTIONS OF TRAININGAccording to Miller five functions• Research – training systems• Analysis - identifying training needs• Development – teaching materials• Operation – training aids & methods• Evaluation – monitors the effectiveness of trainer I meeting goals, success of program and its impact on performance of employees.
Levels of training• Prof. John Mee – training is done at two levels Training dept & line supervisors• Training dept. – should assume primary responsibility for instruction of trainers in – Methods of teaching – Formal orientation – Training of supervisors in human relations – General education of employees
Levels of training• Prof. John Mee – training is done at two levels Training dept & line supervisors• Line supervisors should carry out the bulk of teaching in foll. Areas • On-the-job instruction • Technical & professional aspects • Daily development thro’ counseling • Departmental communication
BENEFITS OF TRAINING• Benefits to the business – Increase efficiency – Wastage eliminated – Less chances of accidents – Reduced supervisory need – Increase quality of goods• Benefits to the employees – More loyal ; increased morale & confidence – More efficient & effective – Produce more with minimum effort
Training & education Training EducationIncreasing the knowledge & Increasing generalskill for doing a particular knowledge &job understanding total environmentPractice based and job Person orientedspecificConducted by business Conducted in schools andorganization colleges Through both differ in nature and orientation they are complementary to each other. Both aims to enhance learning.
Training & Development• Training is a short-term process ; learn technical knowledge and skills for a definite purpose• Development is long-term educational process ‘ trainees learn conceptual and theoretical knowledge for general purpose.
Distinction between training &development Learning Training Development dimensions Who is Non-managerial Managerial learning ? personnel personnel What is to be Technical & Theoretical, learnt? mechanical conceptual ideas operations Why such Specific job-related General learning takes purpose knowledge place? When Short-term Long-term learning occurs ?