Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD)<br />Embargo until13 September11:00 Paris<br />Education at ...
Editorial<br />Progress in attainment over half a century<br />
Progress in attainment of upper secondary education over half a century<br />Editorial<br />
Progress in attainment of tertiary education over half a century<br />
Education in times of economic uncertainty<br />In the current economic environment…<br />…	Continued strong demand for ed...
Unabated educational expansion<br />
Unabated educational expansion<br />University graduation nearly doubled from an OECD average of 20% in 1995 to 38% in 200...
Pre-primary education<br />
Participation in early childhood education(2009)<br />
Primary and secondary education<br />
Growth in baseline qualifications (2009)Approximated by percentage of persons with upper secondary or equivalent qualifica...
Successful completion of upper secondary programmes (2009)<br />
Successful completion of upper secondary programmes, by gender (2009)<br />
Upper secondary graduation rate (2009)  Percentage, by age group<br />
Share of upper secondary graduates in 2009(all OECD and G20 countries)<br />Other<br />Belgium	0.4%<br />Portugal	0.4%<br ...
Difference in reading performance between students from differentsocio-economic backgrounds<br />%<br />TA5.1<br />
Reading performance, by immigrant status<br />
Relationship between enjoying reading and performance in reading<br />
Tertiary education<br />
A world of change – highereducation<br />United States<br />Cost per student<br />Finland<br />Japan<br />Graduate supply<...
A world of change – highereducation<br />United States<br />Japan<br />Tertiary-typeA graduation rate <br />
A world of change – highereducation<br />United States<br />Japan<br />Finland<br />Tertiary-typeA graduation rate <br />
A world of change – highereducation<br />Tertiary-typeA graduation rate <br />
A world of change – highereducation<br />Tertiary-typeA graduation rate <br />
A world of change – highereducation<br />Tertiary-typeA graduation rate <br />
A world of change – highereducation<br />Tertiary-typeA graduation rate <br />
A world of change – highereducation<br />Tertiary-typeA graduation rate <br />
A world of change – highereducation<br />Tertiary-typeA graduation rate <br />
A world of change – highereducation<br />Tertiary-typeA graduation rate <br />
A world of change – highereducation<br />Tertiary-typeA graduation rate <br />
Growth in university-level qualifications (2009)Approximated by the percentage of the population that has attained tertiar...
Countries’ share in the total 25-64 year-old population with tertiary education,percentage (2009)<br />Other<br />Belgium0...
Countries’ share in the population with tertiary education, for 25-34 and 55-64 year-old age groups, percentage (2009)<br ...
Share of new entrants into tertiary education in 2009 (all OECD and G20 countries)<br />Other<br />Portugal	0.5%<br />Czec...
Students are attracted to specific fields of education<br />
Percentage of tertiary degrees awarded to women, by field of education (2009) Only those fields in which fewer than 30% or...
Graduates in upper secondary vocational programmes, by field of education and gender (2009)<br />
Tertiary graduates in science-related fields among 25-34 year-olds in employment, by gender (2009)<br />
Impact on the future stock of skills<br />
Current and future stock of high qualification (2008)<br />OECD average<br />OECD average<br />High attainment; <br />Lowe...
Tertiary-type A graduation rates, by gender (2009)(first-time graduation)<br />TA3.1<br />
First-time graduation rates for tertiary-type A and type B programmes (1995 and 2009)<br />
Trends in graduation rates at tertiary-type A level <br />
The crisis hit the youngest hardest<br />The unemployment rate for 15-29 year-olds increased,<br />on average, from 10.2% ...
When the crisis hitPercentage-point change between 2008-09 in unemployment rate for 25-64 year-olds<br /> 2008           2...
When the crisis hit: Change between 2008-09 in unemployment rates for 25-64year-olds<br />Countries are ranked in descendi...
OECD average<br />Proportion of 15-29 year-olds unemployed (2009)<br />OECD average<br />In education<br />Not in educatio...
Proportion of 15-29 year-olds unemployed,by duration of unemployment (2009)<br />In education<br />Not in education<br />C...
Positive relation between education and employment Percentage of 25-64 year-olds in employment, by level of education (200...
Skills acquisition and use, 25-64 year-olds with a tertiary education (2009)<br />%<br />Employment rate of population wit...
Comparison of vocational attainment and unemployment rates between 25-34 and 25-64 year-olds (2009)<br />C3.1<br />
The increase in the number of knowledge workers has not led to a decrease in their pay<br />…which is what happened to low...
Relative earnings from employment By level of educational attainment for 25-to-64 year-olds (upper secondary and post-seco...
Relative earnings from employment for men By level of educational attainment for 25-to-64 year-old men(upper secondary and...
Relative earnings from employment for womenBy level of educational attainment for 25-to-64 year-old women(upper secondary ...
Components of the private net present value for a man with higher education (2007 or latest available year)<br />Net prese...
Components of the private net present value for a woman with higher education  (2007 or latest available year)<br />Net pr...
Public and private investment for a man obtaining higher education (2007 or latest available year)<br />Total investmentpr...
Distribution of public/private costs/benefitsfor a man obtaining higher education <br />(2007 or latest available year)<br />
Distribution of public/private costs/benefitsfor a woman obtaining higher education <br />(2007 or latest available year)<...
Percentage-point change in relative earnings 25-64 year-olds (1998-2008 or latest available years)<br />TA8.2a<br />* Limi...
Taxpayers are getting a good return too<br />
Private and public returns for a man obtaining an upper secondary education (ISCED 3/4) and a tertiary education (ISCED 5/...
Public cost and benefits for a man obtaining tertiary education (2007 or latest available year)<br />Net present value<br />
Public cost and benefits for a man obtaining upper secondary or post-secondary non-tertiary education (2007 or latest avai...
Proportion of adults satisfied with life, <br />by level of education (2008)<br />
Proportion of adults voting and volunteering, by level of education (2008)<br />
Civic engagement by student's level of civic knowledge (2009) <br />Meanscale of civic engagement among  grade 8 students<...
Women still earn less<br />but the gap is smaller for better-educated women<br />
Differences in full-time, full-year earnings between women and men (2008)Average annual full-time, full-year earnings of w...
Education and competitiveness<br />Using the skills potential<br />
Net income in USD for 25-64 year-olds with a tertiary education (2009 or latest year available)<br />
Labour costs for different qualificationsDeviation from the OECD mean in annual labour costs (in USD for 25-64 year-olds)<...
Deviation from the OECD mean annual labour costs of tertiary-educated individuals, by age groupsUSD 64 000 for 25-64 year-...
Skills supply and skills premium Labour cost ratio of tertiary-educated individuals (5/6) to below upper secondary individ...
Education and competitiveness<br />Student mobility<br />
An increasingly mobile student population<br />In 2009, over 3.7 million tertiary students were enrolled outside their cou...
Evolution by region of destination in the number of students enrolled outside their country of citizenship (2000 to 2009)<...
Distribution of foreign students in tertiary education, by country of destination (2009)Percentage of foreign tertiary stu...
Distribution of foreign students in tertiary education, by country of origin (2009)<br />
Trends in international education market shares Percentage of all foreign tertiary students enrolled by destination<br />M...
Student mobility in tertiary education (2009)Percentage of international students in tertiary enrolments<br />
Percentage of international students changing status and staying on in selected OECD countries, 2008 or 2009<br />Percenta...
University-levelgraduation rate (firstdegree): Impact of international/foreign students (2009)<br />%<br />
Who pays for what, when and how?<br />From primary to tertiary education<br />
Investment in education<br />OECD countries as a whole spend 6.1% of their GDP on education<br />Expenditure per student i...
Expenditure on educational institutions as a percentage of GDP, all levels of education (1995, 2000, 2008)<br />
Expenditure on educational institutions and GDP,  Index of change (2000, 2008)<br />
Total public expenditure on education as a percentage of total public expenditure (1995,2000, 2008)<br />
Annual expenditure per student by educational institutions from primary through tertiary education, by type of services (2...
Annual expenditure per student in primary, secondary and post-secondary non-tertiary education (2008)  in equivalent USD c...
Annual expenditure per student in tertiary education (2008)  in equivalent USD converted using purchasing power parities,b...
Expenditure on educational institutions per student at various levels of education for all services relative to primary ed...
Annual expenditure per primary student by educational institutions relative to GDP per capita (2008)<br />
Annual expenditure per secondary student by educational institutions relative to GDP per capita (2008)<br />
Changes in student numbers and expenditure for tertiary education<br />Index of change between 2000 and 2008 (2000=100, 20...
Expenditure on core services, R&D and ancillary services in tertiary educational institutions as a percentage of GDP (2008...
Share of private expenditure on educational institutions (2008)percentage, by level of education<br />
Share of private expenditure on tertiary educational institutions (2000, 2005, 2008)percentage, by level of education<br />
Average annual tuition fees charged by tertiary-type A public institutions for full-time national students (academic year ...
Public subsidies for education in tertiary education (2008)Public subsidies for education to households and other private ...
Average tuition fees and proportion of students who benefit from public loans and/or scholarships/grants Tertiary-type A, ...
Who pays for what, when and how?<br />School education<br />
Changes in student numbers and expenditurePrimary, secondary and post-secondary non-tertiary education<br />Index of chang...
Cumulative expenditure on educational institutions per student over primary and secondary studies (2008) Annual expenditur...
Distribution of current expenditure by educational institutionsfor primary, secondary and post-secondary non-tertiary educ...
Contribution (in USD) of various factors to salary cost per upper secondary student (2008)<br />
Contribution (in USD) of various factors to salary cost per lower secondary student (2008)<br />
Contribution (in USD) of various factors to salary cost per primary student (2008) <br />
Difference between the salary cost per student and the OECD average, by level of education (2008)<br />Luxembourg: More th...
Total number of intended instruction hours in public institutions between the ages of 7 and 14 (2009)<br />Students in OEC...
Relationships between performance in science and total science learning time (PISA 2006)<br />More total learning time doe...
Relationships between performance in science and relative learning time in regular school science lessons (PISA 2006)(Shar...
Average class size in primary education (2000, 2009)<br />
Average class size in lower secondary education (2000, 2009)<br />
Average class size in educational institutions,  by level of education (2009)<br />
Average class size in national language-of-instruction classes for 15-year-olds (2009)<br />Difference between smallest 10...
Teachers' salaries (minimum, after 10 years experience, 15 years experience, and maximum) in lower secondary education (20...
Teachers’ payRatio of salary after 15 years of experience/minimum training to earnings for full-time, full-year workers wi...
Changes in lower secondary teachers’ salaries after 15 years of experience/minimum training (1995, 2000, 2005, 2009)Index ...
Trends in the ratio of salaries after 15 years of experience/minimum training to GDP per capita (2000, 2005, 2009)<br />
Number of teaching hours per year, by level of education (2009)  Net statutory contact time in hours per year in public in...
Number of teaching hours per year in lower secondary education (2000, 2005 and 2009) Net statutory contact time in hours p...
Lifelong learning is becoming a reality……but not for all<br />Those who need it most get the least of it<br />
Participation of 25-64 year-olds in formal and/or non-formal education (2007)<br />Chart C5.4<br />
Expected hours over the working life in all  non-formal education and in job-related non-formal education (2007) <br />
Participation rate in all non-formal education and in job-related non-formal education, hours of instruction per participa...
Hours of instruction per employed participant in job-related non-formal education,by educational attainment (2007)<br />
Proportion of individuals who have looked for and found information, by educational attainment, 2007<br />
Participation in non-formal education, by force status, 2007<br />
Education and equity<br />
Relationship between student vulnerability and inequality associated with parents’ education (PISA 2009)<br />
School accountability<br />
Performance accountability in public schools (2009)<br />Chart D5.1<br />
Regulatory accountability in public schools (2009)<br />Chart D5.1<br />
Distribution of influence of school inspections, by domains (2009)<br />
Areas for school inspections and school self-evaluations at the lower secondary level (2009)<br />
www.oecd.org<br />All national and international publications<br />The complete micro-level database<br />Email: Andreas.S...
Access to tertiary-type A education for upper secondary and post-secondary non-tertiary graduates (2009)<br />
Entry rates intotertiary-type A education (2009 and 1995)<br />
Entry ratesintotertiary-type A: Impact of international students (2009)<br />
Tertiary-type A graduation rates in 2009, by gender (first-time graduation)  Percentage, by age group<br />Chart A3.1<br />
Enrolment rates of 20-29 year-olds (1995, 2002 and 2009)Full-time and part-time students in public and private institution...
Enrolment rates of 15-19 year-olds (1995, 2002 and 2009)Full-time and part-time students in public and private institution...
Education and employment among young people (2009)Distribution of 15-29 year-olds by education and work status<br />
Proportion of 15-29 year-olds unemployed in education and not in education, by duration of unemployment (2009)<br />
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Education at a Glance 2011 - Key Results

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A PowerPoint presentation by Andreas Schleicher, Head of the Indicators and Analysis Division, Directorate for Education, OECD.

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  • Net entry rate and expenditure per student (in USD) in tertiary-type A programmes are added next to country names.
  • Education at a Glance 2011 - Key Results

    1. 1. Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD)<br />Embargo until13 September11:00 Paris<br />Education at a Glance 2011Key results<br />13 September 2011<br />
    2. 2. Editorial<br />Progress in attainment over half a century<br />
    3. 3. Progress in attainment of upper secondary education over half a century<br />Editorial<br />
    4. 4. Progress in attainment of tertiary education over half a century<br />
    5. 5. Education in times of economic uncertainty<br />In the current economic environment…<br />… Continued strong demand for education <br />Poor labour markets and low opportunity costs for education<br />… Substantial public and private gains from education<br />Earnings premium for tertiary education remains large and continues to grow<br />- Public long-term gains from higher education are almost three times the size of the investments<br />… High-level skills key to competitiveness<br />… Comparative cost advantage across OECD countries varies with educational levels<br />… Labour-market entry becomes more difficult<br />Particularly for young lower educated individuals <br />… Education a good insurance against unemployment and to stay employed especially in weak labour markets<br />Educational attainment likely to rise further<br />Continuing education increasingly important.<br />
    6. 6. Unabated educational expansion<br />
    7. 7. Unabated educational expansion<br />University graduation nearly doubled from an OECD average of 20% in 1995 to 38% in 2009<br />Pace of change varied widely<br />The Slovak Republic improved its relative standing from Rank 15 to Rank 1<br />USA dropped from Rank 2 to Rank 14 (UK dropped from 2 in 2000 to 5)<br />Upper secondary is the norm among younger people<br />Significant expansion of early childhood education<br />Enrolment of 3-4-year-olds up from an average of 40% in 1998 to 70% in 2009<br />
    8. 8. Pre-primary education<br />
    9. 9. Participation in early childhood education(2009)<br />
    10. 10. Primary and secondary education<br />
    11. 11. Growth in baseline qualifications (2009)Approximated by percentage of persons with upper secondary or equivalent qualifications in the age groups 55-64, 45-55, 35-44 and 25-34 years<br />
    12. 12. Successful completion of upper secondary programmes (2009)<br />
    13. 13. Successful completion of upper secondary programmes, by gender (2009)<br />
    14. 14. Upper secondary graduation rate (2009) Percentage, by age group<br />
    15. 15. Share of upper secondary graduates in 2009(all OECD and G20 countries)<br />Other<br />Belgium 0.4%<br />Portugal 0.4%<br />Czech Republic 0.3%<br />Hungary 0.3%<br />Israel 0.3%<br />Sweden 0.3%<br />Austria 0.3%<br />Switzerland 0.2%<br />Slovak Republic 0.2%<br />Finland 0.2%<br />Norway 0.2%<br />New Zealand 0.2%<br />Denmark 0.2%<br />Ireland 0.2%<br />Slovenia 0.1%<br />Estonia 0.0%<br />Iceland 0.0%<br />Luxembourg 0.0%<br />
    16. 16. Difference in reading performance between students from differentsocio-economic backgrounds<br />%<br />TA5.1<br />
    17. 17. Reading performance, by immigrant status<br />
    18. 18. Relationship between enjoying reading and performance in reading<br />
    19. 19. Tertiary education<br />
    20. 20. A world of change – highereducation<br />United States<br />Cost per student<br />Finland<br />Japan<br />Graduate supply<br />Tertiary-typeA graduation rate <br />
    21. 21. A world of change – highereducation<br />United States<br />Japan<br />Tertiary-typeA graduation rate <br />
    22. 22. A world of change – highereducation<br />United States<br />Japan<br />Finland<br />Tertiary-typeA graduation rate <br />
    23. 23. A world of change – highereducation<br />Tertiary-typeA graduation rate <br />
    24. 24. A world of change – highereducation<br />Tertiary-typeA graduation rate <br />
    25. 25. A world of change – highereducation<br />Tertiary-typeA graduation rate <br />
    26. 26. A world of change – highereducation<br />Tertiary-typeA graduation rate <br />
    27. 27. A world of change – highereducation<br />Tertiary-typeA graduation rate <br />
    28. 28. A world of change – highereducation<br />Tertiary-typeA graduation rate <br />
    29. 29. A world of change – highereducation<br />Tertiary-typeA graduation rate <br />
    30. 30. A world of change – highereducation<br />Tertiary-typeA graduation rate <br />
    31. 31. Growth in university-level qualifications (2009)Approximated by the percentage of the population that has attained tertiary-type A education in the age groups 25-34 years and 55-64 years<br />
    32. 32. Countries’ share in the total 25-64 year-old population with tertiary education,percentage (2009)<br />Other<br />Belgium0.76<br />Chile0.71<br />Saudi Arabia0.62<br />Sweden0.62<br />Switzerland0.59<br />Israel0.59<br />Greece0.56<br />Hungary0.43<br />Finland0.42<br />South Africa0.40<br />Denmark0.38<br />Czech Republic0.37Norway0.36<br />Austria0.34<br />Portugal0.34<br />New Zealand0.33<br />Ireland0.33<br />Slovak Republic0.19Slovenia0.11<br />Estonia0.10<br />Luxembourg0.04<br />Iceland0.02<br />
    33. 33. Countries’ share in the population with tertiary education, for 25-34 and 55-64 year-old age groups, percentage (2009)<br />About 39 million people <br />who attained tertiary level<br />About 81 million people <br />who attained tertiary level<br />
    34. 34. Share of new entrants into tertiary education in 2009 (all OECD and G20 countries)<br />Other<br />Portugal 0.5%<br />Czech Republic 0.4%<br />Israel 0.4%<br />Sweden 0.4%<br />Belgium 0.4%<br />Hungary 0.4%<br />Austria 0.4%<br />New Zealand 0.3%<br />Switzerland 0.3%<br />Slovak Republic 0.3%<br />Denmark 0.2%<br />Norway 0.2%<br />Ireland 0.2%<br />Finland 0.2%<br />Slovenia 0.1%<br />Estonia 0.1%<br />Iceland 0.0%<br />
    35. 35. Students are attracted to specific fields of education<br />
    36. 36. Percentage of tertiary degrees awarded to women, by field of education (2009) Only those fields in which fewer than 30% or more than 70% of women graduated in 2009 are shown <br />
    37. 37. Graduates in upper secondary vocational programmes, by field of education and gender (2009)<br />
    38. 38. Tertiary graduates in science-related fields among 25-34 year-olds in employment, by gender (2009)<br />
    39. 39. Impact on the future stock of skills<br />
    40. 40. Current and future stock of high qualification (2008)<br />OECD average<br />OECD average<br />High attainment; <br />Lower attainment; <br />Increasing advantage<br />Catching up<br />Increasing advantage<br />Lower attainment; <br />High attainment; <br />Getting behind further<br />Decreasing advantage<br />Higher attainment<br />TA3.1a<br />
    41. 41. Tertiary-type A graduation rates, by gender (2009)(first-time graduation)<br />TA3.1<br />
    42. 42. First-time graduation rates for tertiary-type A and type B programmes (1995 and 2009)<br />
    43. 43. Trends in graduation rates at tertiary-type A level <br />
    44. 44. The crisis hit the youngest hardest<br />The unemployment rate for 15-29 year-olds increased,<br />on average, from 10.2% to 13.5%<br />Lack of relevant skills/experience brings higher unemployment risk for recent entrants <br />to the labour force<br />
    45. 45. When the crisis hitPercentage-point change between 2008-09 in unemployment rate for 25-64 year-olds<br /> 2008 2009<br />Below upper secondary education (%)<br />Upper secondary and post-secondary non-tertiary (%)<br /> Tertiary education (%) <br />Chart A7.2<br />C3.1<br />
    46. 46. When the crisis hit: Change between 2008-09 in unemployment rates for 25-64year-olds<br />Countries are ranked in descending order of the difference between 2009 and 2008 unemployment rates<br />
    47. 47. OECD average<br />Proportion of 15-29 year-olds unemployed (2009)<br />OECD average<br />In education<br />Not in education<br />Table C4.2a<br />
    48. 48. Proportion of 15-29 year-olds unemployed,by duration of unemployment (2009)<br />In education<br />Not in education<br />C3.1<br />
    49. 49. Positive relation between education and employment Percentage of 25-64 year-olds in employment, by level of education (2009)<br />
    50. 50. Skills acquisition and use, 25-64 year-olds with a tertiary education (2009)<br />%<br />Employment rate of population with tertiary education, %<br />Proportion of population with tertiary education, %<br />Chart A7.3<br />
    51. 51. Comparison of vocational attainment and unemployment rates between 25-34 and 25-64 year-olds (2009)<br />C3.1<br />
    52. 52. The increase in the number of knowledge workers has not led to a decrease in their pay<br />…which is what happened to low-skilled workers <br />
    53. 53. Relative earnings from employment By level of educational attainment for 25-to-64 year-olds (upper secondary and post-secondary non-tertiary education = 100) (2009 or latest available year)<br />
    54. 54. Relative earnings from employment for men By level of educational attainment for 25-to-64 year-old men(upper secondary and post-secondary non-tertiary education= 100) (2009 or latest available year)<br />Chart A8.2<br />
    55. 55. Relative earnings from employment for womenBy level of educational attainment for 25-to-64 year-old women(upper secondary and post-secondary non-tertiary education=100) (2009 or latest available year)<br />
    56. 56. Components of the private net present value for a man with higher education (2007 or latest available year)<br />Net present value in USD equ.<br />
    57. 57. Components of the private net present value for a woman with higher education (2007 or latest available year)<br />Net present value in USD equivalent<br />
    58. 58. Public and private investment for a man obtaining higher education (2007 or latest available year)<br />Total investmentprivate+public<br />
    59. 59. Distribution of public/private costs/benefitsfor a man obtaining higher education <br />(2007 or latest available year)<br />
    60. 60. Distribution of public/private costs/benefitsfor a woman obtaining higher education <br />(2007 or latest available year)<br />
    61. 61. Percentage-point change in relative earnings 25-64 year-olds (1998-2008 or latest available years)<br />TA8.2a<br />* Limited years; Other notes: Yellow within +/- 3%; Red > -3%; Green > +3%<br />
    62. 62. Taxpayers are getting a good return too<br />
    63. 63. Private and public returns for a man obtaining an upper secondary education (ISCED 3/4) and a tertiary education (ISCED 5/6); 3% real interest rate<br />
    64. 64. Public cost and benefits for a man obtaining tertiary education (2007 or latest available year)<br />Net present value<br />
    65. 65. Public cost and benefits for a man obtaining upper secondary or post-secondary non-tertiary education (2007 or latest available year)<br />Net present value<br />
    66. 66. Proportion of adults satisfied with life, <br />by level of education (2008)<br />
    67. 67. Proportion of adults voting and volunteering, by level of education (2008)<br />
    68. 68. Civic engagement by student's level of civic knowledge (2009) <br />Meanscale of civic engagement among grade 8 students<br />
    69. 69. Women still earn less<br />but the gap is smaller for better-educated women<br />
    70. 70. Differences in full-time, full-year earnings between women and men (2008)Average annual full-time, full-year earnings of women as a percentage of men’s earnings<br />
    71. 71. Education and competitiveness<br />Using the skills potential<br />
    72. 72. Net income in USD for 25-64 year-olds with a tertiary education (2009 or latest year available)<br />
    73. 73. Labour costs for different qualificationsDeviation from the OECD mean in annual labour costs (in USD for 25-64 year-olds)<br />
    74. 74. Deviation from the OECD mean annual labour costs of tertiary-educated individuals, by age groupsUSD 64 000 for 25-64 year-oldsand USD 50 000 for 25-34 year-olds<br />T A10.1 & A10.2<br />
    75. 75. Skills supply and skills premium Labour cost ratio of tertiary-educated individuals (5/6) to below upper secondary individuals (0/1/2) and attainment levels <br />Labour cost ratio ISCED 5/6 to 0/1/2 (45-54 years-old) <br />Chart A10.3<br />Proportion of 45-54 year-olds with tertiary education <br />(ISCED 5/6 ) <br />
    76. 76. Education and competitiveness<br />Student mobility<br />
    77. 77. An increasingly mobile student population<br />In 2009, over 3.7 million tertiary students were enrolled outside their country of citizenship<br />New players are emerging in an increasingly competitive market for international education<br />Australia and the Russian Federation expanded their market share by two percentage points over the past decade, and Korea, New Zealand and Spain by one percentage point each<br />Share of the USA dropped from 23% to 18%Germany, the UK and Belgium also lost ground<br />Largest numbers of international students are from China, India and Korea<br />
    78. 78. Evolution by region of destination in the number of students enrolled outside their country of citizenship (2000 to 2009)<br />
    79. 79. Distribution of foreign students in tertiary education, by country of destination (2009)Percentage of foreign tertiary students (reported to the OECD) who are enrolled in each country of destination<br />
    80. 80. Distribution of foreign students in tertiary education, by country of origin (2009)<br />
    81. 81. Trends in international education market shares Percentage of all foreign tertiary students enrolled by destination<br />Marketshare (%)<br />The figure for other non-OECD countries refers to the part of the total foreign students studying in other G20 and non-OECD countries and is obtained after subtracting China, South Africa and the Russian Federation from the total in non-OECD destinations as estimated from UNESCO data. <br />
    82. 82. Student mobility in tertiary education (2009)Percentage of international students in tertiary enrolments<br />
    83. 83. Percentage of international students changing status and staying on in selected OECD countries, 2008 or 2009<br />Percentage of students who have changed their status (whether for work, family or other reasons) among students who have not renewed their permits<br />
    84. 84. University-levelgraduation rate (firstdegree): Impact of international/foreign students (2009)<br />%<br />
    85. 85. Who pays for what, when and how?<br />From primary to tertiary education<br />
    86. 86. Investment in education<br />OECD countries as a whole spend 6.1% of their GDP on education<br />Expenditure per student increased by 54%, on average, between 1995 and 2008 <br />Mixed pattern in tertiary education<br />Countries vary significantly in how they spend their money, different priorities on…<br />… Salaries, learning time, teaching time, class size<br />Room for more effective cost-sharing between government and households <br />Even if household expenditure rose much faster than public spending in tertiary education <br />
    87. 87. Expenditure on educational institutions as a percentage of GDP, all levels of education (1995, 2000, 2008)<br />
    88. 88. Expenditure on educational institutions and GDP, Index of change (2000, 2008)<br />
    89. 89. Total public expenditure on education as a percentage of total public expenditure (1995,2000, 2008)<br />
    90. 90. Annual expenditure per student by educational institutions from primary through tertiary education, by type of services (2008) in equivalent USD converted using purchasing power parities, based on full-time equivalents<br />
    91. 91. Annual expenditure per student in primary, secondary and post-secondary non-tertiary education (2008) in equivalent USD converted using purchasing power parities,based on full-time equivalents<br />
    92. 92. Annual expenditure per student in tertiary education (2008) in equivalent USD converted using purchasing power parities,based on full-time equivalents<br />
    93. 93. Expenditure on educational institutions per student at various levels of education for all services relative to primary education (2008)Primary education = 100<br />Level of expenditurehigherthan for primaryeducation<br />Level of expenditurelowerthan for primaryeducation<br />
    94. 94. Annual expenditure per primary student by educational institutions relative to GDP per capita (2008)<br />
    95. 95. Annual expenditure per secondary student by educational institutions relative to GDP per capita (2008)<br />
    96. 96. Changes in student numbers and expenditure for tertiary education<br />Index of change between 2000 and 2008 (2000=100, 2008 constant prices)<br />
    97. 97. Expenditure on core services, R&D and ancillary services in tertiary educational institutions as a percentage of GDP (2008)<br />
    98. 98. Share of private expenditure on educational institutions (2008)percentage, by level of education<br />
    99. 99. Share of private expenditure on tertiary educational institutions (2000, 2005, 2008)percentage, by level of education<br />
    100. 100. Average annual tuition fees charged by tertiary-type A public institutions for full-time national students (academic year 2008-09)<br />USD<br />5000<br />4000<br />3000<br />2000<br />1000<br />500<br />0<br />United States (70%, 29 910)<br />6000<br />Korea (71%, 10 109)<br />United Kingdom1(61%, 15 314)<br />Japan (49%, 16 533), <br />Australia (94%, 16 297), <br />This chart does not take into account grants, subsidies or loans that partially or fully offset the students’ tuition fees<br />Canada (m, 24 384) <br />New Zealand (78%, 11 125)<br />Netherlands (63%, 17 245)<br />Portugal (84%, 10 373), Italy (50%, 9 556),Spain (46%, 13 928), <br />Austria (54%, 15 081), Switzerland (41%, 23 284)<br />Belgium (Fr. and Fl.) (m, m)<br />France (m, 14 945)<br />Chart B5.2<br />Czech Republic (59%, 8 738), Denmark (55%, 17 634), Finland (69%, 15 402), Ireland (51%, 16 284), Iceland (77%, 10 429), Mexico (35%, 7 504), Norway (77%, 18 942), Sweden (68%, 20 864)<br />1. Public institutions do not exist at this level of education and most students are enrolled in government-dependent private institutions.<br />
    101. 101. Public subsidies for education in tertiary education (2008)Public subsidies for education to households and other private entities as a percentage of total public expenditure on education, by type of subsidy<br />
    102. 102. Average tuition fees and proportion of students who benefit from public loans and/or scholarships/grants Tertiary-type A, public institutions, academic year 2008/09, national full-time students<br />Bubble size shows graduation rates<br />Group 2:Potentially high financial barriers for entry to tertiary-type A education, but also large public subsidies to students.<br />Group 3:Extensive and broadly uniform cost sharing across students, student support systems somewhat less developed. <br />Group 4:Relatively low financial barriers to entry to tertiary education and relatively low subsidies<br />Group 1:No (or low) financial barriers for tertiary studies due to tuition fees and still a high level of student aid. <br />
    103. 103. Who pays for what, when and how?<br />School education<br />
    104. 104. Changes in student numbers and expenditurePrimary, secondary and post-secondary non-tertiary education<br />Index of change between 2000 and 2008 (2000=100, 2008 constant prices)<br />
    105. 105. Cumulative expenditure on educational institutions per student over primary and secondary studies (2008) Annual expenditure on educational institutions per student multiplied by the theoretical duration of studies, in equivalent USD converted using PPPs<br />OECD average (primary and secondary)<br />
    106. 106. Distribution of current expenditure by educational institutionsfor primary, secondary and post-secondary non-tertiary education (2008)<br />
    107. 107. Contribution (in USD) of various factors to salary cost per upper secondary student (2008)<br />
    108. 108. Contribution (in USD) of various factors to salary cost per lower secondary student (2008)<br />
    109. 109. Contribution (in USD) of various factors to salary cost per primary student (2008) <br />
    110. 110. Difference between the salary cost per student and the OECD average, by level of education (2008)<br />Luxembourg: More than USD 7 000 in secondary education<br />
    111. 111. Total number of intended instruction hours in public institutions between the ages of 7 and 14 (2009)<br />Students in OECD countries are expected to receive, on average, 6 732 hours of instruction between the ages of 7 and 14, of which 1 550 between ages 7 and 8, <br />2 462 between ages 9 and 11, and 2 720 between ages 12 and 14. The large majority of intended hours of instruction is compulsory.<br />
    112. 112. Relationships between performance in science and total science learning time (PISA 2006)<br />More total learning time does not necessarily mean better performance …<br />
    113. 113. Relationships between performance in science and relative learning time in regular school science lessons (PISA 2006)(Share of learning hours in regular school lessons out of total science learning time)<br />…while the higher the percentage of students’ total learning time spent during normal school hours, the better countries perform.<br />
    114. 114. Average class size in primary education (2000, 2009)<br />
    115. 115. Average class size in lower secondary education (2000, 2009)<br />
    116. 116. Average class size in educational institutions, by level of education (2009)<br />
    117. 117. Average class size in national language-of-instruction classes for 15-year-olds (2009)<br />Difference between smallest 10% of classes and largest 10% of classes<br />
    118. 118. Teachers' salaries (minimum, after 10 years experience, 15 years experience, and maximum) in lower secondary education (2009)Annual statutory teachers’ salaries in public institutions in lower secondary education, in equivalent USD converted using PPPs<br />The annual statutory salaries of lower secondary teachers with 15 years of experience range from less than USD 15 000 in Hungary, the Slovak Republic and the partner country Indonesia to over USD 54 000 or more in Denmark, Germany, Ireland and the Netherlands, and more than USD 111 000 in Luxembourg.<br />
    119. 119. Teachers’ payRatio of salary after 15 years of experience/minimum training to earnings for full-time, full-year workers with tertiary education aged 25 to 64 (2009 or latest available year)<br />Teachers fare better than tertiary-educated workers<br />Teachers fare worse than tertiary-educated workers<br />
    120. 120. Changes in lower secondary teachers’ salaries after 15 years of experience/minimum training (1995, 2000, 2005, 2009)Index of change between 2005 and 1995, 2000 and 2009, (2005 = 100, constant prices)<br />
    121. 121. Trends in the ratio of salaries after 15 years of experience/minimum training to GDP per capita (2000, 2005, 2009)<br />
    122. 122. Number of teaching hours per year, by level of education (2009) Net statutory contact time in hours per year in public institutions<br />
    123. 123. Number of teaching hours per year in lower secondary education (2000, 2005 and 2009) Net statutory contact time in hours per year in public institutions<br />
    124. 124. Lifelong learning is becoming a reality……but not for all<br />Those who need it most get the least of it<br />
    125. 125. Participation of 25-64 year-olds in formal and/or non-formal education (2007)<br />Chart C5.4<br />
    126. 126. Expected hours over the working life in all non-formal education and in job-related non-formal education (2007) <br />
    127. 127. Participation rate in all non-formal education and in job-related non-formal education, hours of instruction per participant and per adult in job-related non-formal education, 2007<br />
    128. 128. Hours of instruction per employed participant in job-related non-formal education,by educational attainment (2007)<br />
    129. 129. Proportion of individuals who have looked for and found information, by educational attainment, 2007<br />
    130. 130. Participation in non-formal education, by force status, 2007<br />
    131. 131. Education and equity<br />
    132. 132. Relationship between student vulnerability and inequality associated with parents’ education (PISA 2009)<br />
    133. 133. School accountability<br />
    134. 134. Performance accountability in public schools (2009)<br />Chart D5.1<br />
    135. 135. Regulatory accountability in public schools (2009)<br />Chart D5.1<br />
    136. 136. Distribution of influence of school inspections, by domains (2009)<br />
    137. 137. Areas for school inspections and school self-evaluations at the lower secondary level (2009)<br />
    138. 138. www.oecd.org<br />All national and international publications<br />The complete micro-level database<br />Email: Andreas.Schleicher@OECD.org<br />… and remember:<br /> Without data, you are just another person with an opinion<br />Thank you !<br />
    139. 139. Access to tertiary-type A education for upper secondary and post-secondary non-tertiary graduates (2009)<br />
    140. 140. Entry rates intotertiary-type A education (2009 and 1995)<br />
    141. 141. Entry ratesintotertiary-type A: Impact of international students (2009)<br />
    142. 142. Tertiary-type A graduation rates in 2009, by gender (first-time graduation) Percentage, by age group<br />Chart A3.1<br />
    143. 143. Enrolment rates of 20-29 year-olds (1995, 2002 and 2009)Full-time and part-time students in public and private institutions<br />
    144. 144. Enrolment rates of 15-19 year-olds (1995, 2002 and 2009)Full-time and part-time students in public and private institutions<br />Chart C1.2<br />
    145. 145. Education and employment among young people (2009)Distribution of 15-29 year-olds by education and work status<br />
    146. 146. Proportion of 15-29 year-olds unemployed in education and not in education, by duration of unemployment (2009)<br />
    147. 147. Other findings from previous edition<br />(EAG 2010)<br />Slides not updated as data not available in EAG 2011<br />
    148. 148. Average annual growth in the population with tertiary education (1998-2008)<br />%<br />EAG 2010, <br />T A1.4<br />
    149. 149. Immigrants are equally represented among highly skilled…<br />…but dramatically over-represented among the low-skilled<br />
    150. 150. Proportion of 25-29 year-olds who either have a tertiary qualification or are currently enrolled in tertiary education<br />EAG 2010<br />T C3.5<br />
    151. 151. Proportion of 20-24 year-olds who are not in education and have no upper secondary qualification (2007)<br />
    152. 152. Educational attainment is positively associated with self-reported good health…<br />
    153. 153. Incrementaldifferences in self-reported good health and political interest associated with an increase in the level of educational attainment<br />Political interest<br />Movingfrombelowuppersecondary to uppersecondary<br />Health <br />Movingfromuppersecondary to tertiary<br />C A9.4 <br />C A9.5<br />
    154. 154. Proportion of adults reporting good health,by level of educational attainment (2008)<br />%<br />Chart A9.1<br />
    155. 155. Skilled occupations and mismatches…<br />
    156. 156. Most tertiary graduates work in skilled occupationsProportion of 25-29 year-olds with tertiary degree working in semi-skilled or elementary occupations<br />EAG 2010<br />Chart C3.5<br />
    157. 157. Education and occupational mismatches among 25-29 year-olds (2007) Proportion of 25-29 year-old workers not in education with a tertiary-level degree working in semi-skilled or elementary occupations (ISCO 4-9) to all 25-29 year-old workers not in education with a tertiary degree<br />
    158. 158. Parents’ voice and choice of schools…<br />
    159. 159. Opportunities for parents to exercise voice at the school level within the public-school sector<br />EAG 2010<br />D6<br />Green: Yes Yellow: No, although they might exist Red: No<br />
    160. 160. Public & private schools’ role in providing compulsory educationLegally permitted to operate and provide compulsory education<br />Yes<br />No<br />No for primary<br />Yes for lower secondary <br />Yes for primary No for lower secondary <br />EAG 2010<br />D5.2<br />
    161. 161. Freedom for parents to choose a public lower secondary school<br />Yes<br />No<br />EAG 2010<br />TD5.1<br />
    162. 162. And other findings<br />
    163. 163. Participation in formal and/or non-formal education, by occupation (2007)<br />EAG 2010<br />T A5.4a<br />
    164. 164. Upper secondary graduation rates (1995, 2008)Percentage of graduates to the population at the typical age of graduation (unduplicated count)<br />%<br />EAG 2010<br />Chart A2.2<br />
    165. 165. Proportion of students who enter tertiary education without graduating from at least a first degree at this level (2008)<br />EAG 2010<br />Chart A4.1<br />
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