Education at a Glance 2011 - Key Results
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A PowerPoint presentation by Andreas Schleicher, Head of the Indicators and Analysis Division, Directorate for Education, OECD.

A PowerPoint presentation by Andreas Schleicher, Head of the Indicators and Analysis Division, Directorate for Education, OECD.

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  • Net entry rate and expenditure per student (in USD) in tertiary-type A programmes are added next to country names.

Education at a Glance 2011 - Key Results Presentation Transcript

  • 1. Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD)
    Embargo until13 September11:00 Paris
    Education at a Glance 2011Key results
    13 September 2011
  • 2. Editorial
    Progress in attainment over half a century
  • 3. Progress in attainment of upper secondary education over half a century
    Editorial
  • 4. Progress in attainment of tertiary education over half a century
  • 5. Education in times of economic uncertainty
    In the current economic environment…
    … Continued strong demand for education
    Poor labour markets and low opportunity costs for education
    … Substantial public and private gains from education
    Earnings premium for tertiary education remains large and continues to grow
    - Public long-term gains from higher education are almost three times the size of the investments
    … High-level skills key to competitiveness
    … Comparative cost advantage across OECD countries varies with educational levels
    … Labour-market entry becomes more difficult
    Particularly for young lower educated individuals
    … Education a good insurance against unemployment and to stay employed especially in weak labour markets
    Educational attainment likely to rise further
    Continuing education increasingly important.
  • 6. Unabated educational expansion
  • 7. Unabated educational expansion
    University graduation nearly doubled from an OECD average of 20% in 1995 to 38% in 2009
    Pace of change varied widely
    The Slovak Republic improved its relative standing from Rank 15 to Rank 1
    USA dropped from Rank 2 to Rank 14 (UK dropped from 2 in 2000 to 5)
    Upper secondary is the norm among younger people
    Significant expansion of early childhood education
    Enrolment of 3-4-year-olds up from an average of 40% in 1998 to 70% in 2009
  • 8. Pre-primary education
  • 9. Participation in early childhood education(2009)
  • 10. Primary and secondary education
  • 11. Growth in baseline qualifications (2009)Approximated by percentage of persons with upper secondary or equivalent qualifications in the age groups 55-64, 45-55, 35-44 and 25-34 years
  • 12. Successful completion of upper secondary programmes (2009)
  • 13. Successful completion of upper secondary programmes, by gender (2009)
  • 14. Upper secondary graduation rate (2009) Percentage, by age group
  • 15. Share of upper secondary graduates in 2009(all OECD and G20 countries)
    Other
    Belgium 0.4%
    Portugal 0.4%
    Czech Republic 0.3%
    Hungary 0.3%
    Israel 0.3%
    Sweden 0.3%
    Austria 0.3%
    Switzerland 0.2%
    Slovak Republic 0.2%
    Finland 0.2%
    Norway 0.2%
    New Zealand 0.2%
    Denmark 0.2%
    Ireland 0.2%
    Slovenia 0.1%
    Estonia 0.0%
    Iceland 0.0%
    Luxembourg 0.0%
  • 16. Difference in reading performance between students from differentsocio-economic backgrounds
    %
    TA5.1
  • 17. Reading performance, by immigrant status
  • 18. Relationship between enjoying reading and performance in reading
  • 19. Tertiary education
  • 20. A world of change – highereducation
    United States
    Cost per student
    Finland
    Japan
    Graduate supply
    Tertiary-typeA graduation rate
  • 21. A world of change – highereducation
    United States
    Japan
    Tertiary-typeA graduation rate
  • 22. A world of change – highereducation
    United States
    Japan
    Finland
    Tertiary-typeA graduation rate
  • 23. A world of change – highereducation
    Tertiary-typeA graduation rate
  • 24. A world of change – highereducation
    Tertiary-typeA graduation rate
  • 25. A world of change – highereducation
    Tertiary-typeA graduation rate
  • 26. A world of change – highereducation
    Tertiary-typeA graduation rate
  • 27. A world of change – highereducation
    Tertiary-typeA graduation rate
  • 28. A world of change – highereducation
    Tertiary-typeA graduation rate
  • 29. A world of change – highereducation
    Tertiary-typeA graduation rate
  • 30. A world of change – highereducation
    Tertiary-typeA graduation rate
  • 31. Growth in university-level qualifications (2009)Approximated by the percentage of the population that has attained tertiary-type A education in the age groups 25-34 years and 55-64 years
  • 32. Countries’ share in the total 25-64 year-old population with tertiary education,percentage (2009)
    Other
    Belgium0.76
    Chile0.71
    Saudi Arabia0.62
    Sweden0.62
    Switzerland0.59
    Israel0.59
    Greece0.56
    Hungary0.43
    Finland0.42
    South Africa0.40
    Denmark0.38
    Czech Republic0.37Norway0.36
    Austria0.34
    Portugal0.34
    New Zealand0.33
    Ireland0.33
    Slovak Republic0.19Slovenia0.11
    Estonia0.10
    Luxembourg0.04
    Iceland0.02
  • 33. Countries’ share in the population with tertiary education, for 25-34 and 55-64 year-old age groups, percentage (2009)
    About 39 million people
    who attained tertiary level
    About 81 million people
    who attained tertiary level
  • 34. Share of new entrants into tertiary education in 2009 (all OECD and G20 countries)
    Other
    Portugal 0.5%
    Czech Republic 0.4%
    Israel 0.4%
    Sweden 0.4%
    Belgium 0.4%
    Hungary 0.4%
    Austria 0.4%
    New Zealand 0.3%
    Switzerland 0.3%
    Slovak Republic 0.3%
    Denmark 0.2%
    Norway 0.2%
    Ireland 0.2%
    Finland 0.2%
    Slovenia 0.1%
    Estonia 0.1%
    Iceland 0.0%
  • 35. Students are attracted to specific fields of education
  • 36. Percentage of tertiary degrees awarded to women, by field of education (2009) Only those fields in which fewer than 30% or more than 70% of women graduated in 2009 are shown
  • 37. Graduates in upper secondary vocational programmes, by field of education and gender (2009)
  • 38. Tertiary graduates in science-related fields among 25-34 year-olds in employment, by gender (2009)
  • 39. Impact on the future stock of skills
  • 40. Current and future stock of high qualification (2008)
    OECD average
    OECD average
    High attainment;
    Lower attainment;
    Increasing advantage
    Catching up
    Increasing advantage
    Lower attainment;
    High attainment;
    Getting behind further
    Decreasing advantage
    Higher attainment
    TA3.1a
  • 41. Tertiary-type A graduation rates, by gender (2009)(first-time graduation)
    TA3.1
  • 42. First-time graduation rates for tertiary-type A and type B programmes (1995 and 2009)
  • 43. Trends in graduation rates at tertiary-type A level
  • 44. The crisis hit the youngest hardest
    The unemployment rate for 15-29 year-olds increased,
    on average, from 10.2% to 13.5%
    Lack of relevant skills/experience brings higher unemployment risk for recent entrants
    to the labour force
  • 45. When the crisis hitPercentage-point change between 2008-09 in unemployment rate for 25-64 year-olds
    2008 2009
    Below upper secondary education (%)
    Upper secondary and post-secondary non-tertiary (%)
    Tertiary education (%)
    Chart A7.2
    C3.1
  • 46. When the crisis hit: Change between 2008-09 in unemployment rates for 25-64year-olds
    Countries are ranked in descending order of the difference between 2009 and 2008 unemployment rates
  • 47. OECD average
    Proportion of 15-29 year-olds unemployed (2009)
    OECD average
    In education
    Not in education
    Table C4.2a
  • 48. Proportion of 15-29 year-olds unemployed,by duration of unemployment (2009)
    In education
    Not in education
    C3.1
  • 49. Positive relation between education and employment Percentage of 25-64 year-olds in employment, by level of education (2009)
  • 50. Skills acquisition and use, 25-64 year-olds with a tertiary education (2009)
    %
    Employment rate of population with tertiary education, %
    Proportion of population with tertiary education, %
    Chart A7.3
  • 51. Comparison of vocational attainment and unemployment rates between 25-34 and 25-64 year-olds (2009)
    C3.1
  • 52. The increase in the number of knowledge workers has not led to a decrease in their pay
    …which is what happened to low-skilled workers
  • 53. Relative earnings from employment By level of educational attainment for 25-to-64 year-olds (upper secondary and post-secondary non-tertiary education = 100) (2009 or latest available year)
  • 54. Relative earnings from employment for men By level of educational attainment for 25-to-64 year-old men(upper secondary and post-secondary non-tertiary education= 100) (2009 or latest available year)
    Chart A8.2
  • 55. Relative earnings from employment for womenBy level of educational attainment for 25-to-64 year-old women(upper secondary and post-secondary non-tertiary education=100) (2009 or latest available year)
  • 56. Components of the private net present value for a man with higher education (2007 or latest available year)
    Net present value in USD equ.
  • 57. Components of the private net present value for a woman with higher education (2007 or latest available year)
    Net present value in USD equivalent
  • 58. Public and private investment for a man obtaining higher education (2007 or latest available year)
    Total investmentprivate+public
  • 59. Distribution of public/private costs/benefitsfor a man obtaining higher education
    (2007 or latest available year)
  • 60. Distribution of public/private costs/benefitsfor a woman obtaining higher education
    (2007 or latest available year)
  • 61. Percentage-point change in relative earnings 25-64 year-olds (1998-2008 or latest available years)
    TA8.2a
    * Limited years; Other notes: Yellow within +/- 3%; Red > -3%; Green > +3%
  • 62. Taxpayers are getting a good return too
  • 63. Private and public returns for a man obtaining an upper secondary education (ISCED 3/4) and a tertiary education (ISCED 5/6); 3% real interest rate
  • 64. Public cost and benefits for a man obtaining tertiary education (2007 or latest available year)
    Net present value
  • 65. Public cost and benefits for a man obtaining upper secondary or post-secondary non-tertiary education (2007 or latest available year)
    Net present value
  • 66. Proportion of adults satisfied with life,
    by level of education (2008)
  • 67. Proportion of adults voting and volunteering, by level of education (2008)
  • 68. Civic engagement by student's level of civic knowledge (2009)
    Meanscale of civic engagement among grade 8 students
  • 69. Women still earn less
    but the gap is smaller for better-educated women
  • 70. Differences in full-time, full-year earnings between women and men (2008)Average annual full-time, full-year earnings of women as a percentage of men’s earnings
  • 71. Education and competitiveness
    Using the skills potential
  • 72. Net income in USD for 25-64 year-olds with a tertiary education (2009 or latest year available)
  • 73. Labour costs for different qualificationsDeviation from the OECD mean in annual labour costs (in USD for 25-64 year-olds)
  • 74. Deviation from the OECD mean annual labour costs of tertiary-educated individuals, by age groupsUSD 64 000 for 25-64 year-oldsand USD 50 000 for 25-34 year-olds
    T A10.1 & A10.2
  • 75. Skills supply and skills premium Labour cost ratio of tertiary-educated individuals (5/6) to below upper secondary individuals (0/1/2) and attainment levels
    Labour cost ratio ISCED 5/6 to 0/1/2 (45-54 years-old)
    Chart A10.3
    Proportion of 45-54 year-olds with tertiary education
    (ISCED 5/6 )
  • 76. Education and competitiveness
    Student mobility
  • 77. An increasingly mobile student population
    In 2009, over 3.7 million tertiary students were enrolled outside their country of citizenship
    New players are emerging in an increasingly competitive market for international education
    Australia and the Russian Federation expanded their market share by two percentage points over the past decade, and Korea, New Zealand and Spain by one percentage point each
    Share of the USA dropped from 23% to 18%Germany, the UK and Belgium also lost ground
    Largest numbers of international students are from China, India and Korea
  • 78. Evolution by region of destination in the number of students enrolled outside their country of citizenship (2000 to 2009)
  • 79. Distribution of foreign students in tertiary education, by country of destination (2009)Percentage of foreign tertiary students (reported to the OECD) who are enrolled in each country of destination
  • 80. Distribution of foreign students in tertiary education, by country of origin (2009)
  • 81. Trends in international education market shares Percentage of all foreign tertiary students enrolled by destination
    Marketshare (%)
    The figure for other non-OECD countries refers to the part of the total foreign students studying in other G20 and non-OECD countries and is obtained after subtracting China, South Africa and the Russian Federation from the total in non-OECD destinations as estimated from UNESCO data.
  • 82. Student mobility in tertiary education (2009)Percentage of international students in tertiary enrolments
  • 83. Percentage of international students changing status and staying on in selected OECD countries, 2008 or 2009
    Percentage of students who have changed their status (whether for work, family or other reasons) among students who have not renewed their permits
  • 84. University-levelgraduation rate (firstdegree): Impact of international/foreign students (2009)
    %
  • 85. Who pays for what, when and how?
    From primary to tertiary education
  • 86. Investment in education
    OECD countries as a whole spend 6.1% of their GDP on education
    Expenditure per student increased by 54%, on average, between 1995 and 2008
    Mixed pattern in tertiary education
    Countries vary significantly in how they spend their money, different priorities on…
    … Salaries, learning time, teaching time, class size
    Room for more effective cost-sharing between government and households
    Even if household expenditure rose much faster than public spending in tertiary education
  • 87. Expenditure on educational institutions as a percentage of GDP, all levels of education (1995, 2000, 2008)
  • 88. Expenditure on educational institutions and GDP, Index of change (2000, 2008)
  • 89. Total public expenditure on education as a percentage of total public expenditure (1995,2000, 2008)
  • 90. Annual expenditure per student by educational institutions from primary through tertiary education, by type of services (2008) in equivalent USD converted using purchasing power parities, based on full-time equivalents
  • 91. Annual expenditure per student in primary, secondary and post-secondary non-tertiary education (2008) in equivalent USD converted using purchasing power parities,based on full-time equivalents
  • 92. Annual expenditure per student in tertiary education (2008) in equivalent USD converted using purchasing power parities,based on full-time equivalents
  • 93. Expenditure on educational institutions per student at various levels of education for all services relative to primary education (2008)Primary education = 100
    Level of expenditurehigherthan for primaryeducation
    Level of expenditurelowerthan for primaryeducation
  • 94. Annual expenditure per primary student by educational institutions relative to GDP per capita (2008)
  • 95. Annual expenditure per secondary student by educational institutions relative to GDP per capita (2008)
  • 96. Changes in student numbers and expenditure for tertiary education
    Index of change between 2000 and 2008 (2000=100, 2008 constant prices)
  • 97. Expenditure on core services, R&D and ancillary services in tertiary educational institutions as a percentage of GDP (2008)
  • 98. Share of private expenditure on educational institutions (2008)percentage, by level of education
  • 99. Share of private expenditure on tertiary educational institutions (2000, 2005, 2008)percentage, by level of education
  • 100. Average annual tuition fees charged by tertiary-type A public institutions for full-time national students (academic year 2008-09)
    USD
    5000
    4000
    3000
    2000
    1000
    500
    0
    United States (70%, 29 910)
    6000
    Korea (71%, 10 109)
    United Kingdom1(61%, 15 314)
    Japan (49%, 16 533),
    Australia (94%, 16 297),
    This chart does not take into account grants, subsidies or loans that partially or fully offset the students’ tuition fees
    Canada (m, 24 384)
    New Zealand (78%, 11 125)
    Netherlands (63%, 17 245)
    Portugal (84%, 10 373), Italy (50%, 9 556),Spain (46%, 13 928),
    Austria (54%, 15 081), Switzerland (41%, 23 284)
    Belgium (Fr. and Fl.) (m, m)
    France (m, 14 945)
    Chart B5.2
    Czech Republic (59%, 8 738), Denmark (55%, 17 634), Finland (69%, 15 402), Ireland (51%, 16 284), Iceland (77%, 10 429), Mexico (35%, 7 504), Norway (77%, 18 942), Sweden (68%, 20 864)
    1. Public institutions do not exist at this level of education and most students are enrolled in government-dependent private institutions.
  • 101. Public subsidies for education in tertiary education (2008)Public subsidies for education to households and other private entities as a percentage of total public expenditure on education, by type of subsidy
  • 102. Average tuition fees and proportion of students who benefit from public loans and/or scholarships/grants Tertiary-type A, public institutions, academic year 2008/09, national full-time students
    Bubble size shows graduation rates
    Group 2:Potentially high financial barriers for entry to tertiary-type A education, but also large public subsidies to students.
    Group 3:Extensive and broadly uniform cost sharing across students, student support systems somewhat less developed.
    Group 4:Relatively low financial barriers to entry to tertiary education and relatively low subsidies
    Group 1:No (or low) financial barriers for tertiary studies due to tuition fees and still a high level of student aid.
  • 103. Who pays for what, when and how?
    School education
  • 104. Changes in student numbers and expenditurePrimary, secondary and post-secondary non-tertiary education
    Index of change between 2000 and 2008 (2000=100, 2008 constant prices)
  • 105. Cumulative expenditure on educational institutions per student over primary and secondary studies (2008) Annual expenditure on educational institutions per student multiplied by the theoretical duration of studies, in equivalent USD converted using PPPs
    OECD average (primary and secondary)
  • 106. Distribution of current expenditure by educational institutionsfor primary, secondary and post-secondary non-tertiary education (2008)
  • 107. Contribution (in USD) of various factors to salary cost per upper secondary student (2008)
  • 108. Contribution (in USD) of various factors to salary cost per lower secondary student (2008)
  • 109. Contribution (in USD) of various factors to salary cost per primary student (2008)
  • 110. Difference between the salary cost per student and the OECD average, by level of education (2008)
    Luxembourg: More than USD 7 000 in secondary education
  • 111. Total number of intended instruction hours in public institutions between the ages of 7 and 14 (2009)
    Students in OECD countries are expected to receive, on average, 6 732 hours of instruction between the ages of 7 and 14, of which 1 550 between ages 7 and 8,
    2 462 between ages 9 and 11, and 2 720 between ages 12 and 14. The large majority of intended hours of instruction is compulsory.
  • 112. Relationships between performance in science and total science learning time (PISA 2006)
    More total learning time does not necessarily mean better performance …
  • 113. Relationships between performance in science and relative learning time in regular school science lessons (PISA 2006)(Share of learning hours in regular school lessons out of total science learning time)
    …while the higher the percentage of students’ total learning time spent during normal school hours, the better countries perform.
  • 114. Average class size in primary education (2000, 2009)
  • 115. Average class size in lower secondary education (2000, 2009)
  • 116. Average class size in educational institutions, by level of education (2009)
  • 117. Average class size in national language-of-instruction classes for 15-year-olds (2009)
    Difference between smallest 10% of classes and largest 10% of classes
  • 118. Teachers' salaries (minimum, after 10 years experience, 15 years experience, and maximum) in lower secondary education (2009)Annual statutory teachers’ salaries in public institutions in lower secondary education, in equivalent USD converted using PPPs
    The annual statutory salaries of lower secondary teachers with 15 years of experience range from less than USD 15 000 in Hungary, the Slovak Republic and the partner country Indonesia to over USD 54 000 or more in Denmark, Germany, Ireland and the Netherlands, and more than USD 111 000 in Luxembourg.
  • 119. Teachers’ payRatio of salary after 15 years of experience/minimum training to earnings for full-time, full-year workers with tertiary education aged 25 to 64 (2009 or latest available year)
    Teachers fare better than tertiary-educated workers
    Teachers fare worse than tertiary-educated workers
  • 120. Changes in lower secondary teachers’ salaries after 15 years of experience/minimum training (1995, 2000, 2005, 2009)Index of change between 2005 and 1995, 2000 and 2009, (2005 = 100, constant prices)
  • 121. Trends in the ratio of salaries after 15 years of experience/minimum training to GDP per capita (2000, 2005, 2009)
  • 122. Number of teaching hours per year, by level of education (2009) Net statutory contact time in hours per year in public institutions
  • 123. Number of teaching hours per year in lower secondary education (2000, 2005 and 2009) Net statutory contact time in hours per year in public institutions
  • 124. Lifelong learning is becoming a reality……but not for all
    Those who need it most get the least of it
  • 125. Participation of 25-64 year-olds in formal and/or non-formal education (2007)
    Chart C5.4
  • 126. Expected hours over the working life in all non-formal education and in job-related non-formal education (2007)
  • 127. Participation rate in all non-formal education and in job-related non-formal education, hours of instruction per participant and per adult in job-related non-formal education, 2007
  • 128. Hours of instruction per employed participant in job-related non-formal education,by educational attainment (2007)
  • 129. Proportion of individuals who have looked for and found information, by educational attainment, 2007
  • 130. Participation in non-formal education, by force status, 2007
  • 131. Education and equity
  • 132. Relationship between student vulnerability and inequality associated with parents’ education (PISA 2009)
  • 133. School accountability
  • 134. Performance accountability in public schools (2009)
    Chart D5.1
  • 135. Regulatory accountability in public schools (2009)
    Chart D5.1
  • 136. Distribution of influence of school inspections, by domains (2009)
  • 137. Areas for school inspections and school self-evaluations at the lower secondary level (2009)
  • 138. www.oecd.org
    All national and international publications
    The complete micro-level database
    Email: Andreas.Schleicher@OECD.org
    … and remember:
    Without data, you are just another person with an opinion
    Thank you !
  • 139. Access to tertiary-type A education for upper secondary and post-secondary non-tertiary graduates (2009)
  • 140. Entry rates intotertiary-type A education (2009 and 1995)
  • 141. Entry ratesintotertiary-type A: Impact of international students (2009)
  • 142. Tertiary-type A graduation rates in 2009, by gender (first-time graduation) Percentage, by age group
    Chart A3.1
  • 143. Enrolment rates of 20-29 year-olds (1995, 2002 and 2009)Full-time and part-time students in public and private institutions
  • 144. Enrolment rates of 15-19 year-olds (1995, 2002 and 2009)Full-time and part-time students in public and private institutions
    Chart C1.2
  • 145. Education and employment among young people (2009)Distribution of 15-29 year-olds by education and work status
  • 146. Proportion of 15-29 year-olds unemployed in education and not in education, by duration of unemployment (2009)
  • 147. Other findings from previous edition
    (EAG 2010)
    Slides not updated as data not available in EAG 2011
  • 148. Average annual growth in the population with tertiary education (1998-2008)
    %
    EAG 2010,
    T A1.4
  • 149. Immigrants are equally represented among highly skilled…
    …but dramatically over-represented among the low-skilled
  • 150. Proportion of 25-29 year-olds who either have a tertiary qualification or are currently enrolled in tertiary education
    EAG 2010
    T C3.5
  • 151. Proportion of 20-24 year-olds who are not in education and have no upper secondary qualification (2007)
  • 152. Educational attainment is positively associated with self-reported good health…
  • 153. Incrementaldifferences in self-reported good health and political interest associated with an increase in the level of educational attainment
    Political interest
    Movingfrombelowuppersecondary to uppersecondary
    Health
    Movingfromuppersecondary to tertiary
    C A9.4
    C A9.5
  • 154. Proportion of adults reporting good health,by level of educational attainment (2008)
    %
    Chart A9.1
  • 155. Skilled occupations and mismatches…
  • 156. Most tertiary graduates work in skilled occupationsProportion of 25-29 year-olds with tertiary degree working in semi-skilled or elementary occupations
    EAG 2010
    Chart C3.5
  • 157. Education and occupational mismatches among 25-29 year-olds (2007) Proportion of 25-29 year-old workers not in education with a tertiary-level degree working in semi-skilled or elementary occupations (ISCO 4-9) to all 25-29 year-old workers not in education with a tertiary degree
  • 158. Parents’ voice and choice of schools…
  • 159. Opportunities for parents to exercise voice at the school level within the public-school sector
    EAG 2010
    D6
    Green: Yes Yellow: No, although they might exist Red: No
  • 160. Public & private schools’ role in providing compulsory educationLegally permitted to operate and provide compulsory education
    Yes
    No
    No for primary
    Yes for lower secondary
    Yes for primary No for lower secondary
    EAG 2010
    D5.2
  • 161. Freedom for parents to choose a public lower secondary school
    Yes
    No
    EAG 2010
    TD5.1
  • 162. And other findings
  • 163. Participation in formal and/or non-formal education, by occupation (2007)
    EAG 2010
    T A5.4a
  • 164. Upper secondary graduation rates (1995, 2008)Percentage of graduates to the population at the typical age of graduation (unduplicated count)
    %
    EAG 2010
    Chart A2.2
  • 165. Proportion of students who enter tertiary education without graduating from at least a first degree at this level (2008)
    EAG 2010
    Chart A4.1