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Education at a Glance 2014 - United States

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While a large share of US adults have a university-level education, slow growth rates have let the US slip behind many other nations in college completion.

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Education at a Glance 2014 - United States

  1. 1. 1 Education at a Glance 2014 Presentation - press conference in the United States (September 9, 2014)
  2. 2. While a large share of US adults have a university-level education… …slow growth rates have let the US slip behind many other nations in college completion 2
  3. 3. Australia Austria Belgium Canada Chile Czech Republic Denmark Estonia Finland France Germany Greece Hungary Iceland Ireland Israel Italy Japan Korea Luxembourg Mexico Netherlands New Zealand Norway Poland Portugal Slovak Republic Slovenia Spain Sweden Switzerland Turkey United Kingdom United States A world of change – higher education 30,000 25,000 20,000 15,000 10,000 5,000 0 1995 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 Expenditure per student at tertiary level (USD) Tertiary-type A graduation rate (%) Cost per student Graduate supply
  4. 4. Australia Austria Belgium Canada Chile Czech Republic Denmark Estonia Finland France Germany Greece Hungary Iceland Ireland Israel Italy Japan Korea Luxembourg Mexico Netherlands New Zealand Norway Poland Portugal Slovak Republic Slovenia Spain Sweden Switzerland Turkey United Kingdom United States A world of change – higher education 30,000 25,000 20,000 15,000 10,000 5,000 0 1995 United States 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 Expenditure per student at tertiary level (USD) Tertiary-type A graduation rate (%) Cost per student Graduate supply
  5. 5. Australia Austria Belgium Canada Chile Czech Republic Denmark Estonia Finland France Germany Greece Hungary Iceland Ireland Israel Italy Japan Korea Luxembourg Mexico Netherlands New Zealand Norway Poland Portugal Slovak Republic Slovenia Spain Sweden Switzerland Turkey United Kingdom United States A world of change – higher education 30,000 25,000 20,000 15,000 10,000 5,000 0 2000 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 Expenditure per student at tertiary level (USD) Tertiary-type A graduation rate United Kingdom
  6. 6. Australia Austria Belgium Canada Chile Czech Republic Denmark Estonia Finland France Germany Greece Hungary Iceland Ireland Israel Italy Japan Korea Luxembourg Mexico Netherlands New Zealand Norway Poland Portugal Slovak Republic Slovenia Spain Sweden Switzerland Turkey United Kingdom United States A world of change – higher education 30,000 25,000 20,000 15,000 10,000 5,000 0 2001 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 Expenditure per student at tertiary level (USD) Tertiary-type A graduation rate
  7. 7. Australia Austria Belgium Canada Chile Czech Republic Denmark Estonia Finland France Germany Greece Hungary Iceland Ireland Israel Italy Japan Korea Luxembourg Mexico Netherlands New Zealand Norway Poland Portugal Slovak Republic Slovenia Spain Sweden Switzerland Turkey United Kingdom United States A world of change – higher education 30,000 25,000 20,000 15,000 10,000 5,000 0 2002 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 Expenditure per student at tertiary level (USD) Tertiary-type A graduation rate
  8. 8. Australia Austria Belgium Canada Chile Czech Republic Denmark Estonia Finland France Germany Greece Hungary Iceland Ireland Israel Italy Japan Korea Luxembourg Mexico Netherlands New Zealand Norway Poland Portugal Slovak Republic Slovenia Spain Sweden Switzerland Turkey United Kingdom United States A world of change – higher education 30,000 25,000 20,000 15,000 10,000 5,000 0 2003 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 Expenditure per student at tertiary level (USD) Tertiary-type A graduation rate
  9. 9. Australia Austria Belgium Canada Chile Czech Republic Denmark Estonia Finland France Germany Greece Hungary Iceland Ireland Israel Italy Japan Korea Luxembourg Mexico Netherlands New Zealand Norway Poland Portugal Slovak Republic Slovenia Spain Sweden Switzerland Turkey United Kingdom United States A world of change – higher education 30,000 25,000 20,000 15,000 10,000 5,000 0 2004 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 Expenditure per student at tertiary level (USD) Tertiary-type A graduation rate
  10. 10. Australia Austria Belgium Canada Chile Czech Republic Denmark Estonia Finland France Germany Greece Hungary Iceland Ireland Israel Italy Japan Korea Luxembourg Mexico Netherlands New Zealand Norway Poland Portugal Slovak Republic Slovenia Spain Sweden Switzerland Turkey United Kingdom United States A world of change – higher education 30,000 25,000 20,000 15,000 10,000 5,000 0 2005 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 Expenditure per student at tertiary level (USD) Tertiary-type A graduation rate
  11. 11. Australia Austria Belgium Canada Chile Czech Republic Denmark Estonia Finland France Germany Greece Hungary Iceland Ireland Israel Italy Japan Korea Luxembourg Mexico Netherlands New Zealand Norway Poland Portugal Slovak Republic Slovenia Spain Sweden Switzerland Turkey United Kingdom United States A world of change – higher education 30,000 25,000 20,000 15,000 10,000 5,000 0 2006 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 Expenditure per student at tertiary level (USD) Tertiary-type A graduation rate
  12. 12. Australia Austria Belgium Canada Chile Czech Republic Denmark Estonia Finland France Germany Greece Hungary Iceland Ireland Israel Italy Japan Korea Luxembourg Mexico Netherlands New Zealand Norway Poland Portugal Slovak Republic Slovenia Spain Sweden Switzerland Turkey United Kingdom United States A world of change – higher education 30,000 25,000 20,000 15,000 10,000 5,000 0 2007 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 Expenditure per student at tertiary level (USD) Tertiary-type A graduation rate
  13. 13. Australia Austria Belgium Canada Chile Czech Republic Denmark Estonia Finland France Germany Greece Hungary Iceland Ireland Israel Italy Japan Korea Luxembourg Mexico Netherlands New Zealand Norway Poland Portugal Slovak Republic Slovenia Spain Sweden Switzerland Turkey United Kingdom United States A world of change – higher education 30,000 25,000 20,000 15,000 10,000 5,000 0 2008 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 Expenditure per student at tertiary level (USD) Tertiary-type A graduation rate
  14. 14. Australia Austria Belgium Canada Chile Czech Republic Denmark Estonia Finland France Germany Greece Hungary Iceland Ireland Israel Italy Japan Korea Luxembourg Mexico Netherlands New Zealand Norway Poland Portugal Slovak Republic Slovenia Spain Sweden Switzerland Turkey United Kingdom United States A world of change – higher education 30,000 25,000 20,000 15,000 10,000 5,000 0 2009 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 Expenditure per student at tertiary level (USD) Tertiary-type A graduation rate
  15. 15. Australia Austria Belgium Canada Chile Czech Republic Denmark Estonia Finland France Germany Greece Hungary Iceland Ireland Israel Italy Japan Korea Luxembourg Mexico Netherlands New Zealand Norway Poland Portugal Slovak Republic Slovenia Spain Sweden Switzerland Turkey United Kingdom United States A world of change – higher education 30,000 25,000 20,000 15,000 10,000 5,000 0 2010 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 Expenditure per student at tertiary level (USD) Tertiary-type A graduation rate
  16. 16. Australia Austria Belgium Canada Chile Czech Republic Denmark Estonia Finland France Germany Greece Hungary Iceland Ireland Israel Italy Japan Korea Luxembourg Mexico Netherlands New Zealand Norway Poland Portugal Slovak Republic Slovenia Spain Sweden Switzerland Turkey United Kingdom United States A world of change – higher education 30,000 25,000 20,000 15,000 10,000 5,000 0 2011 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 Expenditure per student at tertiary level (USD) Tertiary-type A graduation rate
  17. 17. Australia Austria Belgium Canada Chile Czech Republic Denmark Estonia Finland France Germany Greece Hungary Iceland Ireland Israel Italy Japan Korea Luxembourg Mexico Netherlands New Zealand Norway Poland Portugal Slovak Republic Slovenia Spain Sweden Switzerland Turkey United Kingdom United States A world of change – higher education 30,000 25,000 20,000 15,000 10,000 5,000 0 2011 Australia Poland 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 Expenditure per student at tertiary level (USD) Tertiary-type A graduation rate Iceland UK New Zealand
  18. 18. Australia Austria Belgium Canada Chile Czech Republic Denmark Estonia Finland France Germany Greece Hungary Iceland Ireland Israel Italy Japan Korea Luxembourg Mexico Netherlands New Zealand Norway Poland Portugal Slovak Republic Slovenia Spain Sweden Switzerland Turkey United Kingdom United States A world of change – higher education 30,000 25,000 20,000 15,000 10,000 5,000 0 2011 US P 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 Expenditure per student at tertiary level (USD) Tertiary-type A graduation rate
  19. 19. More people benefit from education than ever before 25-34 and 55-64 year-olds, and percentage-point difference between these two groups Difference between the 25-34 and 55-64 year-old population with tertiary education (right axis) Proportion of the 25-34 year-old population with tertiary education (left axis) Proportion of the 55-64 year-old population with tertiary education (left axis) 70 60 50 40 30 20 10 0 -10 70 60 50 40 30 20 10 0 - 10 Israel United States Germany Brazil Estonia Austria Russian Federation Finland Chile Turkey Italy Denmark Mexico Switzerland New Zealand Canada Slovak Republic Iceland Australia Greece Sweden EU 21 Average OECD average Norway Hungary Netherlands Czech Republic United Kingdom Latvia Portugal Belgium Slovenia Spain France Luxembourg Ireland Japan Poland Korea % Chart A1.3 Percentage points
  20. 20. Many more people are expected to graduate from academically-oriented tertiary education First-time graduation rates in tertiary-type A education (1995 and 2012) 70 60 50 40 30 20 10 0 Iceland New Zealand Poland Australia Denmark Finland Ireland Netherlands Japan Slovak Republic Slovenia Norway Portugal Latvia Israel Czech Republic Austria Sweden United States EU21 average OECD average Canada Germany Switzerland Spain Turkey Italy Chile Hungary Mexico Tertiary-type A (2012) Tertiary-type A (1995) % Chart A3.2 - A
  21. 21. Women and men are differently represented in some fields of education Percentage of tertiary degrees awarded to women, by field of education (2012) Chart A.3 - Field Education Health and welfare Science Engineering, manufacturing and construction All fields 100 80 60 40 20 0 Poland Estonia Iceland Slovak Republic Slovenia Brazil Sweden Hungary Italy New Zealand Argentina Czech Republic Finland Norway Luxembourg Portugal Canada Denmark Israel OECD average United States Australia Spain Ireland Netherlands Chile France United Kingdom Austria Belgium Germany Mexico Switzerland Turkey Korea Japan
  22. 22. China has almost caught up with the US in terms of high-school completion Upper secondary graduation rates (2012) 100 90 80 70 60 50 40 30 20 10 0 Slovenia Iceland Germany Netherlands Hungary United Kingdom Ireland Japan Spain Finland Denmark Korea Norway Canada Israel Slovak Republic EU 21 average New Zealand Poland Chile Italy OECD average Czech Republic United States Sweden China Greece Luxembourg Austria Turkey Mexico Total <25 years old ≧25 years old Chart A2.1 %
  23. 23. Qualification don’t always translate into strong foundation skills 23
  24. 24. Literacy proficiency is determined by educational attainment but not in the same way across countries Mean literacy score, by educational attainment (2012) 320 300 280 260 240 220 200 Japan Netherlands Finland Sweden Australia Czech Republic Flanders (Belgium) Norway United States Average Poland Austria England/N. Ireland (UK) Slovak Republic France Germany Denmark Ireland Korea Canada Estonia Spain Italy Russian Federation Below upper secondary education Upper secondary or post-secondary non-tertiary education Tertiary education Chart A1.4
  25. 25. The shares of highly literate tertiary graduates are very different across countries Percentage of adults scoring at literacy proficiency Level 4/5, by educational attainment (2012) 40 35 30 25 20 15 10 5 0 Japan Finland Netherlands Sweden Australia Norway Flanders (Belgium) England/N. Ireland (UK) United States Czech Republic Average Poland Canada Austria Germany Ireland France Denmark Estonia Slovak Republic Korea Russian Federation Spain Italy Below upper secondary education Upper secondary or post-secondary non-tertiary education Tertiary education % Chart A1.5
  26. 26. The rising tide has not lifted all boats… …and in some countries educational mobility is slowing down 26
  27. 27. Between 20% and 60% of adults are more educated than their parents Percentage of 25-64 year-old non-students whose educational attainment is higher than (upward mobility) or lower than (downward mobility) that of their parents 100 90 80 70 60 50 40 30 20 10 0 Czech Republic Germany Austria United States Slovak Republic Italy Norway Denmark England/N. Ireland (UK) Spain Average Australia Japan Sweden Estonia Canada Netherlands Poland Ireland France Flanders (Belgium) Finland Korea Russian Federation Downward mobility Upward mobility % Chart A4.3 - Mob
  28. 28. In most countries, upward educational mobility tends to be lower in the younger generations Proportion of upward mobility across age groups 55 50 45 40 35 30 25 20 15 Average France Germany Italy Spain Sweden United States England/N. Ireland (UK) 55-64 45-54 35-44 25-34 Upward Mobility Age groups Graph Mobility A4
  29. 29. Equitable access to tertiary education and educational mobility are not the same thing Mobility Odds A4 Relationship between the share of upward mobility among 25-34 year-olds and the likelihood of participating in tertiary education (values in reverse order) less equitable access high educational mobility Italy Ireland France Finland Australia England/N. Ireland Flanders Average Austria Denmark Canada Estonia Japan Germany Korea Netherlands Norway Poland Spain US Sweden Upward mobility 70 60 50 40 30 20 10 10 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 0 Odds ratio less equitable access low educational mobility more equitable access high educational mobility more equitable access low educational mobility
  30. 30. Those who need lifelong learning most get the least of it Adult participation in formal and/or non-formal education, by employment status (2012) 100 90 80 70 60 50 40 30 20 10 0 Finland Denmark Netherlands Sweden Norway United States Canada England/N. Ireland (UK) Australia Ireland Estonia Czech Republic Average Germany Korea Flanders (Belgium) Austria Spain Japan Poland Slovak Republic France Italy Russian Federation % Employed Unemployed Inactive Chart C6.3
  31. 31. Education is internationalising rapidly… …the US accommodates a large but declining share of the market. 31
  32. 32. In 2012, more than 4.5 million students were enrolled in tertiary education outside their country of citizenship Chart C4.1 Evolution in the number of students enrolled outside their country of citizenship, by region of destination (2000 to 2012) Million students 5 4.5 4 3.5 3 2.5 2 1.5 1 0.5 0 Worldwide OECD G20 countries Europe North America Oceania 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012
  33. 33. In 2012, more than one in two foreign students were enrolled in Australia, Canada, France, Germany, the United Kingdom or the United States Distribution of foreign students in tertiary education, by country of destination (2012) United States¹ 16% United Kingdom¹ 13% Germany 6% Other OECD countries 8% Belgium 1% Korea 1% Netherlands 1% Switzerland 1% South Africa 2% New Zealand 2% Austria 2% Italy 2% China 2% Spain 2% Japan 3% Canada² 5% Australia¹,³ 6% France 6% Russian Federation 4% Other non-OECD countries 17% Chart C4.2
  34. 34. New players are emerging in the international education market Trends in international education market shares (2000, 2012). Percentage of all foreign tertiary students enrolled, by destination 25 20 15 10 5 0 United State United Kingdom Germany France Australia Canada Russian Federation Japan Spain China Italy Austria New Zealand South Africa Switzerland Netherlands Korea Belgium Other OECD Other G0 and non-OECD 2000 2012 Market share (%) OECD countries Other G20 and non-OECD countries 2000 2012 Chart C4.3
  35. 35. More than half of foreign students in tertiary education come from Asia Distribution of foreign students in tertiary education, by region of origin (2012) Asia 53% Europe 23% Not specified 3% Oceania 1% North America 3% Latin America and the Caribbean 6% Africa 12% Chart C4.5
  36. 36. Different from the majority of countries, spending per student in the US has suffered during the crisis… …but is still higher than anywhere else except Switzerland. 36
  37. 37. Between 2008 and 2011, only six countries cut public expenditure on educational institutions Impact of the economic crisis on public expenditure on education 130 125 120 115 110 105 100 95 90 85 80 United Kingdom Czech Republic New Zealand Change in public expenditure on educational institutions Change in Gross Domestic Product Change in expenditure on education institutions as a percentage of GDP Denmark Slovak Republic Brazil Finland Australia Ireland Netherlands Japan Switzerland Germany Slovenia Chile Canada Portugal Mexico Korea OECD average Austria Spain EU21 average Norway Belgium France Sweden Israel Iceland United States Russian Federation Poland Estonia Italy Hungary Index of change (2008=100) Chart B2.3 - T
  38. 38. OECD countries spend USD 9 252 per student per year from primary through tertiary education Annual expenditure per student by educational institutions, by type of service (2011) 18 000 16 000 14 000 12 000 10 000 8 000 6 000 4 000 2 000 0 Core services Ancillary services (transport, meals, housing provided by institutions) and R&D Total United States Austria Netherlands Belgium Ireland Sweden Germany Australia United Kingdom Finland France Slovenia Spain EU21 average OECD average Italy Korea Portugal Israel Poland Czech Republic Chile Slovak Republic Hungary Mexico Brazil Switzerland Norway Denmark Japan Iceland New Zealand Estonia Latvia Russian Federation Turkey Indonesia In equivalent USD converted using PPPs Chart B1.1
  39. 39. In 2011, OECD countries spent an average of 1.6% of their GDP on tertiary education Chart B2.2 - T Expenditure on educational institutions as a percentage of GDP (2011). From public and private sources, by level of education and source of funds 3 2.5 2 1.5 1 0.5 0 Finland Denmark Norway Canada Sweden Estonia Austria Switzerland Belgium Netherlands France EU21 average Argentina Ireland Czech Republic Slovenia Germany Iceland Spain Poland New Zealand Latvia Portugal Hungary United States Brazil Israel Mexico United Kingdom Russian Federation Colombia Slovak Republic Chile Italy Korea Australia Japan % of GDP Tertiary education Public expenditure on education institutions Private expenditure on education institutions OECD average (total expenditure)
  40. 40. About 31% of spending on tertiary education comes from private sources, on average Share of private expenditure on educational institutions (2011) 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 Chile Korea United Kingdom Japan United States Colombia Australia Israel Canada Latvia Russian Federation New Zealand Italy Mexico Portugal OECD average Indonesia Netherlands Poland Slovak Republic Argentina Spain EU21 average Estonia Ireland France Czech Republic Germany Slovenia Austria Sweden Belgium Iceland Denmark Finland Norway Turkey Switzerland Luxembourg % Primary, secondary and post-secondary non-tertiary education Tertiary education Chart B3.1
  41. 41. Nearly 22% of public spending on tertiary education is devoted to supporting students, households and other private entities Public support for tertiary education (2011) 75 70 65 60 55 50 45 40 35 30 25 20 15 10 5 0 United Kingdom United States Chart B5.3. Public subsidies for education in tertiary Slovenia Denmark Italy Chile Slovak Republic Austria Germany Portugal New Zealand Belgium Latvia Finland Australia OECD average Netherlands Ireland Hungary Poland Norway Israel Sweden Spain France Switzerland Canada Mexico Brazil Turkey Korea Estonia Indonesia Czech Republic Argentina Japan Iceland % of total public expenditure on tertiary education Student loans Transfers and payments to other private entities Scholarships/ other grants to households Chart B5.3
  42. 42. The net public return on investment for a man in tertiary education is over USD 100 000, while the net private return is over USD 180 000 Net private and public returns associated with a man attaining tertiary education (2010) 500 000 450 000 400 000 350 000 300 000 250 000 200 000 150 000 100 000 50 000 0 Turkey Denmark Spain Estonia Sweden New Zealand Greece Korea Japan Canada Slovak Republic Poland Norway Israel Czech Republic France Australia Finland OECD average Portugal EU21 average Austria United Kingdom Netherlands Italy Belgium Slovenia Germany United States Hungary Ireland Equivalent USD Private net returns Public net returns Chart A7.1
  43. 43. National income invested in early childhood education is low… …but since participation is low also, the US can afford favourable child/staff ratios 43
  44. 44. Expenditure on early childhood education accounts for 0.6% of GDP, on average Expenditure on early childhood educational institutions (2011) as a percentage of GDP, by funding source 1.4 1.2 1 0.8 0.6 0.4 0.2 0 Denmark Iceland Spain Latvia Russian Federation Slovenia Luxembourg Chile Sweden Poland France Israel Argentina Belgium Mexico New Zealand Austria Germany EU21 average OECD average Norway Czech Republic Colombia Italy Slovak Republic United States Finland Netherlands Estonia United Kingdom Korea Japan Australia Hungary Brazil Portugal Switzerland Private expenditure on educational institutions in percentage of GDP Public expenditure on educational institutions in percentage of GDP % of GDP Chart C2.3
  45. 45. Some 70% of 3-year-olds are enrolled in early childhood education Enrolment rates at age 3 in early childhood education (2005 and 2012) 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100 Belgium France Denmark Iceland Spain Norway United Kingdom Sweden Italy Germany Estonia New Zealand Israel Korea Slovenia Netherlands Latvia EU21 average Portugal Japan Hungary Luxembourg OECD average Russian Federation Austria Slovak Republic Czech Republic Poland Finland Chile Ireland Mexico United States Argentina Brazil Australia Colombia Indonesia Turkey Switzerland % 2012 2005 Chart C2.1
  46. 46. The ratio of pupils to teaching staff also indicates the level of resources devoted to pre-primary education Ratio of pupils to teaching staff in early childhood education (2012). Public and private institutions, calculation based on full-time equivalents 28 26 24 22 20 18 16 14 12 10 8 6 4 2 0 Israel Indonesia Mexico Chile France Turkey United Kingdom Brazil Poland Belgium Portugal Korea Netherlands Japan OECD average Austria Czech Republic EU21 average Spain Slovak Republic Germany United States Italy Luxembourg Hungary Finland Slovenia Estonia New Zealand Sweden Iceland Student to teaching staff ratio Chart C2.4
  47. 47. Countries spend their money differently on schools… …and many high-performing school systems prioritise the quality of teachers over the size of classes. 47
  48. 48. The salary cost of teachers per student varies widely across countries and depends on salary, class size, and teaching time Chart B7.4 Contribution of various factors to salary cost of teachers per student, in upper secondary education (2012) in USD 3 200 2 200 1 200 200 - 800 -1 800 -2 800 -3 800 Belgium (Fl.) Germany Austria Spain Portugal Australia Norway Canada France Ireland Netherlands United States Korea Italy Finland England Slovenia Israel Poland Czech Republic Turkey Hungary Chile Slovak Republic Estonia USD Contribution of teachers' salary Contribution of instruction time Contribution of teaching time Contribution of estimated class size difference with OECD average
  49. 49. Students in OECD countries receive an average of 7 475 compulsory hours of instruction during their primary and lower secondary education Compulsory instruction time in general education (2014) 0 2 000 4 000 6 000 8 000 10 000 12 000 Hungary 8 Latvia 9 China1 9 Poland 9 Turkey 8 Slovenia 9 Finland 9 Korea 9 Austria 8 Estonia 9 Belgium (Fl.) 8 Sweden 9 Slovak Republic 9 Czech Republic 9 Belgium (Fr.) 8 Greece 9 Germany 9 EU21 average 9 Japan 9 Italy 8 OECD average 9 Portugal 9 Iceland 10 Norway 10 England 9 Denmark 10 Luxembourg 9 Canada 9 France 9 Ireland 9 Mexico 9 Chile 8 Netherlands7 9 Israel 9 United States 9 Spain 10 Colombia1 9 Australia 10 Primary education Lower secondary education Duration of primary and lower secondary education, in years Chart D1.1 Total number of compulsory instruction hours
  50. 50. Only in 7 countries were relative salaries for teachers higher than those of comparably educated workers Teachers' salaries relative to earnings for tertiary-educated workers aged 25-64 (2012 or latest available year). Lower secondary teachers' salaries, in public institutions 1.5 1 0.5 0 Korea Spain Luxembourg Portugal Turkey New Zealand Canada Finland Germany England Australia Greece Denmark OECD average Belgium (Fl.) France EU21 average Israel Estonia Poland Scotland Sweden Belgium (Fr.) Netherlands Ireland Slovenia Chile Norway United States Italy Austria Czech Republic Hungary Slovak Republic Ratio Chart D3.1
  51. 51. Between 2009 and 2012, teachers’ salaries fell, for the first time since 2000, by around 5% at all levels of education OECD average, for countries with available data for all reference years, of the index of change between 2005 and 2012 (2005 = 100, constant p rices), for teachers with 15 years of experience and minimum training. 107 106 105 104 103 102 101 100 99 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012 Primary education Lower secondary education Upper secondary education Chart Box D.3.2 Equivalent USD converted using PPPs
  52. 52. Rising benefits for those who are well educated… …growing costs for those who are not. 52
  53. 53. The employment benefit of tertiary education is significant, but varies across countries Employment rates among 25-64 year-olds, by educational attainment (2012) 100 90 80 70 60 50 40 30 20 Iceland Norway Switzerland Sweden Germany Netherlands Austria Denmark Latvia Brazil Slovenia Israel Luxembourg Poland Belgium Australia France Finland Chile United Kingdom New Zealand Czech Republic OECD average EU 21 average Russian Federation Estonia Portugal Canada Mexico United States Slovak Republic Chart A5.1 Ireland Japan Hungary Italy Spain Korea Turkey Greece % Below upper secondary education Upper secondary or post-secondary non-tertiary education Tertiary education
  54. 54. Adults with a tertiary degree will earn 75% more than those with only upper secondary education Relative earnings of workers, by educational attainment and gender (2012); upper secondary education = 100 240 220 200 180 160 140 120 100 Hungary Greece Slovenia Turkey Ireland Czech Republic Austria Poland United States France Slovak Republic Germany EU 21 average Luxembourg OECD average Portugal Israel Finland Canada Italy Switzerland Netherlands United Kingdom Spain Korea Australia Japan Sweden Denmark Belgium Estonia Norway New Zealand Men Women Tertiary-type A or advanced research programmes Index Chart A6.1 - T
  55. 55. Adults with below upper secondary education will earn around 22% less than those with upper secondary education Relative earnings of workers, by educational attainment and gender (2012); upper secondary education = 100 0 - 10 - 20 - 30 - 40 - 50 - 60 Belgium Finland Estonia France Germany Canada Poland Australia Netherlands Sweden Greece Hungary EU21 average Switzerland Ireland Spain Slovenia Denmark New Zealand Norway OECD average Italy Korea Czech Republic Japan Austria Luxembourg Slovak Republic United Kingdom Portugal Turkey Israel Chile United States Brazil Men Women Below upper secondary education Index Chart A6.1 - B
  56. 56. …and its about more than money. 56
  57. 57. Education and skills both contribute to better social outcomes Proportion of adults reporting that they are in good health 100 90 80 70 60 50 Level 1 or below Level 2 Level 3 Level 4 or 5 Below upper secondary education Upper secondary or post-secondary non-tertiary education Tertiary education All Chart A8.1 - H % Proportion of adults reporting that they believe they have a say in government Level 1 % or below Level 2 Level 3 Level 4 or 5 60 50 40 30 20 10 Below upper secondary education Upper secondary or post-secondary non-tertiary education Tertiary education All 30 25 20 15 10 5 Level 1 or below Level 2 Level 3 Level 4 or 5 Below upper secondary education Upper secondary or post-secondary non-tertiary education Tertiary education All % 30 25 20 15 10 5 Level 1 or below Level 2 Level 3 Level 4 or 5 Below upper secondary education Upper secondary or post-secondary non-tertiary education Tertiary education All % Proportion of adults reporting that they volunteer at least once a month Proportion of adults reporting that they can trust others
  58. 58. 58 58 Thank you Find out more about our work at www.oecd.org/eag/eag2014 – The publication – The methodologies – The complete database Email: Andreas.Schleicher@OECD.org Twitter: SchleicherEDU and remember: Without data, you are just another person with an opinion

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