Education at a Glance 2012 - Key findings


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The talent pool is growing…

And its distribution across countries is changing

A significant proportion of student have a higher level of education than their parents

Where do individuals from low educational backgrounds succeed?

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Education at a Glance 2012 - Key findings

  1. 1. Education at a Glance 2012 Key findings EDU FORUM 14 September 2012Etienne Albiser et Corinne Heckmann
  2. 2. Unabatededucational expansion
  3. 3. 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 % Korea Japan Canada Ireland Chart A1.1 Norway New Zealand United Kingdom Australia Luxembourg Israel Belgium France United States Sweden Netherlands Switzerland 25-34 year-olds Finland Spain Chile Estonia OECD average education Denmark Poland Iceland 55-64 year-olds Slovenia Greece Germany Hungary Portugal Slovak Republic Czech Republic The talent pool is growing… Mexico AustriaEducation at a Glance Italy Turkey Percentage of the 25-34 year-old and 55-64 year-old population that has attained tertiary-type A Brazil 2012
  4. 4. And its distribution across countries is changing Proportion of populations with tertiary education and potential growth (2010) 30 Lower attainment; High attainment;Difference between the 25-34 and 25-64 year-old catching up increasing advantage KOR 25 populations with tertiary education Increasing advantage 20 15 POL BEL FRA LUX JPN CHL IRL 10 PRT NOR ESP NLD SVN SVK SWE UKM ITA HUN OECD AUS CAN 5 GRC NZL CZE DNK TUR CHE MEX ISL EST RUS AUT 0 BRA FIN USA DEU ISR Lower attainment; High attainment; -5 getting further Higher attainment decreasing 0 behind 10 20 30 40 advantage 50 60 Proportion of the 25-64 year-old population with tertiary education Chart A1.3 Education at a Glance 2012
  5. 5. A significant proportion of student have a higher level of education than their parents Percentage of 25-34 year-old non-students whose educational attainment is higher than their parents’ (upward mobility), lower (downward mobility) or the same (status quo), by parents educational level (low, medium, high) Downward mobility Upward mobility 80 70 60 50 40 30 20 10 0 United… OECD… Czech… Slovak… Turkey Greece Italy Luxembourg Hungary Denmark Germany Poland Spain Netherlands Estonia Ireland Portugal Canada Finland Norway United States Australia Iceland Slovenia France Austria New Zealand Sweden Belgium Switzerland Status quo: same level of education than their parents100%80%60%40%20% 0% Chart High Medium Low A6.5 Education at a Glance 2012
  6. 6. Where do individuals from low educational backgrounds succeed? Educational achievement among 25-34 year-old non-students with parents who have low educational attainment (2009) 45% Australia 40% average OECD 35% Iceland Ireland Spain Sweden Netherlands Canada 30% Denmark Finland United Kingdom 25% France New Zealand Belgium OECD average Luxembourg 20% Portugal OECD average Norway Slovenia 15% United States Switzerland Greece Poland Turkey Austria Hungary 10% Italy Germany Czech Republic 5% 0%80% 70% 60% 50% 40% 30% 20% 10% 0% Proportion of non-students from low educational backgrounds who have not attained an upper secondary education (%) Chart A6.4 Education at a Glance 2012
  7. 7. Tertiary student become more mobile Number of students enrolled outside their country of citizenship, by region of destination (2000 to 2010) Number of foreign students4 500 0004 000 0003 500 000 Worldwide3 000 000 In OECD2 500 0002 000 000 In EU countries1 500 000 In G20 countries1 000 000 In North America 500 000 0 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 Chart C4.1 Education at a Glance 2012
  8. 8. … and impact on international education market shares of countries Percentage of all foreign tertiary students enrolled, by destinationMarket share (%) 25 “Other G20 and non-OECD countries” refers to the portion of total foreign students studying in other G20 and non- 20 OECD countries and is obtained after subtracting China, South Africa and the Russian Federation from the 15 total in non-OECD destinations, as estimated from UNESCO data. 2010 10 2000 5 0 Netherlands New Zealand Italy South Africa Germany Japan Spain United States Austria Australia Canada Other G20 and non-OECD China France Korea Sweden Other OECD Russian Federation Belgium Switzerland United Kingdom Chart C4.3 Education at a Glance 2012
  9. 9. 0 100 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 % France Netherlands Spain Chart C2.1 Mexico Belgium Denmark Japan Norway United Kingdom Italy Luxembourg Iceland Germany New Zealand Sweden Hungary Estonia Austria 2010 Slovenia Israel Portugal 2005 Czech Republic OECD average Korea Chile Argentina Russian Federation Slovak Republic United States Ireland Poland Finland Brazil Greece AustraliaEducation at a Glance Canada Enrolment rates in early childhood and primary education among 4-year-olds (2005 and 2010) Switzerland Indonesia Turkey 2012 Education begins well before the age of 5
  10. 10. The labour-market continues to signal strong demand for tertiary graduates...- There is a positive relationship between education and employment:Individuals without an upper secondary qualification saw a marked dropin the employment rate- The earnings advantage of tertiary graduates is high and has grownfurther over recent years.
  11. 11. 0 100 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 % Norway Iceland Switzerland Sweden Netherlands Chart A7.1 Slovenia Germany Denmark Austria Brazil Portugal United Kingdom Luxembourg Poland Finland Australia Belgium Tertiary education New Zealand France Below upper secondary Czech Republic OECD average Israel Slovak Republic Canada of education Ireland Mexico United States Upper secondary and post-secondary non-tertiary Estonia Greece Spain Japan Chile Percentage of 25-64 year-olds in employment, by level of education (2010) HungaryEducation at a Glance Italy Korea Turkey Employment prospects increase with the level 2012
  12. 12. Tertiary education brings substantial earning premiums Relative earnings from employment by level of educational attainment for 25-to-64 year-olds in 2010 (upper secondary education = 100) Below upper secondary educationIndex Tertiary education 280 260 240 220 200 180 160 140 120 100 80 60 40 Germany Turkey Slovak Republic Canada Italy Finland Estonia Hungary Netherlands Austria Japan Israel Brazil Spain Australia Norway Ireland Portugal Belgium Greece Slovenia United Kingdom France New Zealand Poland Switzerland Korea Sweden United States Luxembourg Czech Republic Denmark OECD average Chart A8.1 Education at a Glance 2012
  13. 13. More than half of the GDP growth in OECD countries is related to income growth among tertiary-educated individuals GDP growth and labour income growth by educational categories (2000-10) GDP Growth ISCED 5B/5A/6 ISCED 3/4 ISCED 0/1/25%4%3%2%1%0%-1% Germany Israel Hungary Austria Canada Finland Norway Ireland Korea New Zealand Sweden United Kingdom France Switzerland United States Czech Republic Denmark Country average Chart A10.1 Education at a Glance 2012
  14. 14. The crisis hit the least educated hardest- Lack of relevant skills/experience brings higher unemployment risk forrecent entrants to the labour force
  15. 15. Unemployment rates increased the most for the least qualified Change between 2008 and 2010 in unemployment rates for 25-64 year-olds, by level of education (2008, 2009, 2010)Over 35% each year for the Slovak Republic 2009 2008 2010 Below upper secondary education (%) 30 25 20 15 10 5 0 OE… ITA BRA FRA USA EST SVK TUR ISR NLD ESP IRL POR FIN SVN DEU SWE JPN POL UKM ISL CHL NZL CHE MEX GRC KOR NOR HUN BEL CZE DNK LUX CAN AUT AUS Tertiary education (%) 30 25 20 15 10 5 0 FRA BRA USA ITA MEX EST POR POL OECD ISR ISL CZE SWE CHE ESP GRC DEU LUX KOR NOR FIN IRL BEL JPN NLD SVK TUR SVN UKM NZL HUN CHL DNK CAN AUT AUS Chart A7.2 Education at a Glance 2012
  16. 16. 15-19 year-olds not in education (employed, unemployed or not in the labour force) Distribution of 15-19 year-olds by education and work status (2010, 2008) % 15-19 year-olds not in education605040 201030 20082010 0 OE… ITA BRA FRA USA EST ISR NLD SWE ESP DEU FIN IRL MEX TUR UKM SVN SVK KOR GRC PRT BEL CHE ISL NOR NZL POL HUN CZE LUX DNK CAN AUT AUS % 15-19 year-olds not in education, by work status100 Inactive80 Unemployed60 Employed40 Employed (2008)20 0 T C5.2a Education at a Glance 2012
  17. 17. RESOURCE CHALLENGES- To achieve higher levels of educational attainment, countries have made a significant effort to increase investment in education
  18. 18. 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 Iceland Korea % of GDP Denmark % of GDP New Zealand Chart B2.1 United States Israel Argentina Chile Sweden Belgium Finland Ireland France Estonia Mexico 2009 OECD average Netherlands Norway Canada United Kingdom 2000 Australia Slovenia Switzerland Portugal Austria Poland 1995 Spain significantly… Brazil Russian Federation Germany Japan Italy Hungary Czech Republic Expenditure on educational institutions as a percentage of GDP,(2000, 2009) South AfricaEducation at a Glance Slovak Republic Investment in education increased Indonesia India 2012
  19. 19. The share of GDP devoted to education continues to grow between 2008 and 2009 Index of change in expenditure on educational institutions and GDP (2008, 2009) Change in expenditureIndex of change Change in gross domestic product (2008=100) Change in expenditure on educational institutions as a percentage of GDP125120115110105100 95 90 85 80 Germany Spain Slovenia Japan Estonia Italy Israel Netherlands Finland Austria Canada Portugal Iceland Norway Ireland Australia New Zealand United Kingdom France Belgium Slovak Republic Sweden Korea Poland Switzerland Chile Mexico United States Denmark Russian Federation Czech Republic OECD average Chart B2 Box 1 Education at a Glance 2012
  20. 20. Tertiary education Education at a Glance 2012
  21. 21. At tertiary level, expenditure did not keep up with expanding enrolments in some countries Index of change in student numbers and expenditure between 2000 and 2009 (2000=100, 2009 constant prices) Change in expenditureIndex of change Change in the number of students (in full-time equivalents)(2000 = 100) Change in expenditure per student220210200190180170160150140130120110100 90 80 70 United States Italy Hungary Korea Portugal Poland Germany Iceland United Kingdom France Ireland Belgium Estonia Switzerland Austria Japan Sweden Israel Finland Netherlands Brazil Denmark Spain Norway Slovak Republic Mexico Czech Republic OECD average Chart B1.6 Education at a Glance 2012
  22. 22. Average annual tuition fees Tuition fees charged by public institutions of university-level education for full-time national students (academic year 2008-09) Tertiary-type A public institutions USD United States (70%, 29 910) 00 United States (74%, 29 201) 6000 Korea (71%, 10 499) 5000 United Kingdom1 (63%, 16 338) Japan (51%, 17 511), Australia (96%, 17 460), 4000 Canada (m, 25 341) This chart does notEducation at a Glance 2012 take into account New Zealand (80%, 11 185) grants, subsidies or 3000 loans that partially or fully offset the students’ tuition fees 2000 Netherlands (65%, 17 854) Portugal (89%, 10 481), Italy (49%, 9 562), 1000 Spain (52%, 14 191), Austria (63%, 14 258), Switzerland (44%, 23 111) Belgium (Fr. and Fl.) (m, m) 500 France (m, 15 494) Chart 0 Czech Republic (60%, 8 615), Denmark (65%, 18 556), Finland (68%, 16 569), Ireland B5.2 (56%, 16 420), Iceland (93%, 9 939), Mexico (33%, 8 020), Norway (76%, 19 269), Sweden (76%, 21 144)1. Public institutions do not exist at this level of education and most students are enrolled in government-dependent private institutions. Education at a Glance 2012
  23. 23. Primary, secondary and post-secondary non-tertiary education Education at a Glance 2012
  24. 24. Increase in the share of GDP devoted to education translates into large increase in expenditure per student between 2000 and 2009 Primary, secondary and post-secondary non-tertiary education Index of changes in student numbers and expenditure between 2000 and 2009 (2000=100, 2009 constant prices)Index of change Change in expenditure(2000 = 100) Change in the number of students (in full-time equivalents) Change in expenditure per student240220200180160140120100 80 60 Italy Austria Estonia Hungary Ireland Czech Republic Australia Iceland Portugal Germany Belgium Korea Poland United Kingdom Spain France OECD average Switzerland Israel Brazil Netherlands United States Japan Canada Denmark Finland Norway Sweden Mexico Slovak Republic Chart B1.6 Education at a Glance 2012
  25. 25. … partly as a result of increased teachers’ salaries Lower secondary teachers’ statutory salaries after 15 years of experience/minimum training, index of change between 2000 and 2010 (2000 = 100, constant pricesIndex of change 2000=100 2010 2005220210200190180170160150140130120110100 90 80 Hungary Italy Iceland Scotland Australia Ireland Portugal Greece France Estonia Korea Switzerland Austria Japan Finland Israel Spain England Belgium (Fr.) United States Denmark New Zealand Sweden Mexico Belgium (Fl.) Czech Republic OECD average Chart D3.3 Education at a Glance 2012
  26. 26. But other factors have an impact on expenditure Contribution (in USD) of various factors to this change at the lower secondary level (2000, 2010) Contribution of teachers salary Contribution of instruction time Contribution of teaching time In equivalent USD using PPPs Contribution of estimated class size3000 Change in salary cost between 2000 and 20102500200015001000 500 0 -500-1000 Italy Hungary Austria Denmark Finland Japan United States Spain Portugal Iceland Australia Ireland France Korea Mexico Czech Republic Chart B7.5 Education at a Glance 2012
  27. 27. Age distribution of teachers may raise question of the need to train new teachers Age distribution in secondary education (2010) Aged less than 30 Aged 30-39 Aged 40-49 Aged 50 or older Indonesia Brazil PolandUnited Kingdom Luxembourg Canada Portugal Chile Korea United States Ireland Belgium Slovak… France Israel Switzerland Slovenia HungaryOECD average Spain Japan New Zealand Iceland Sweden Finland Norway NetherlandsCzech Republic Estonia Germany Austria Italy % 0 20 40 60 80 100 Chart D5.1 Education at a Glance 2012
  28. 28. Education at a Glance 2012
  29. 29. What is new in EAG 2012 ? Chapter A  What is the difference between the career aspirations of boys and girls and the fields of study they pursue as young adults? (A4)  How well do immigrant students perform in school? (A5)  To what extent does parents’ education influence access to tertiary education? (A6)  How does education influence economic growth, labour costs and earning power (A10) Chapter B  Changes in the salary cost of teachers per student between 2000 and 2010 (B7) Chapter C  How do early childhood education systems differ around the world? (C2) Chapter D  Who are the teachers? (D5)  Who makes key decisions in education systems? (D6)  What are the pathways and gateways to gain access to secondary and tertiary education? (D7) Education at a Glance 2012
  30. 30. How to use EAG 2012 ? As a printed book  Available in English, French,  but also translated into Spanish, German, Japanese, Chinese As an electronic source of information  Pdf version of the book  Excel files for all tables and charts  OECD.stat database with most of the raw data  Country notes for 17 countries  Highlights of EAG 2012 Further dissemination  Education in Focus Series: monthly… Education at a Glance 2012
  31. 31. Thank you ! Education at a Glance 2012