5.3 Science helps people prevent and treat diseases.
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5.3 Science helps people prevent and treat diseases.






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5.3 Science helps people prevent and treat diseases. 5.3 Science helps people prevent and treat diseases. Presentation Transcript

  • Introduction: Flu , influenza, chicken pox and hepatitis are all kinds of diseases. DISEASE is a change that disturbs the normal functioning of your body. Diseases are caused by MICROORGANISMS . Microorganisms cant be seen by our nacked eye.
  • 1-So the discovery of the microscope was a great event in science. It helped scientists to detect the cause of diseases.FIRST MICROSCOPE
  • second Understanding diseases and studying them helped in PREVENTION and TREATMENT of many illnesses….
  • SCIENCE The effort done by many scientists lead them reach the theory which says “Infectious diseases are caused by germs.”Food decay was a clear view to study the presence of germs.
  • GERMS could be: A- Bacteria B- Viruses C- Fungi D- Protists
  • BACTERIA Deff: are single celled organisms that can live every where
  • Bacteria growing in agar an seenunder microscope
  • Bacteria Some bacteria like that found in the normal flora of our intestine can be helpful , it helps in certain food digestion. Other bacteria are harmful causing diseases like : pneumonia , ear infection and strep throat.
  • Dividing Bacteria
  •  In the previous centuries people used to die from diseases considered nowadays as very easy curable ones,, Also they used to die after successful surgeries due to simple infections.. Later on doctors understood the germ theory of PASTUER which is “Diseases are caused by GERMS”
  •  Nowadays infections due to bacteria are treated ay ANTIBIOTICS . Which was a major turnpoint in medicine..
  • Other facts Other than medicines people are getting use of bacteria in industry by producing dairy products, vinegar , and in sewage disposal to clean up organic wastes.. Biologists are also using bacteria to perform their experiments and produce certain useful proteins using the bacteria’s body and viruses them selves. eg : production of insulin for diabetic people.
  • VIRUSES Cant be considered as living things since it must enter living cells and get use of its DNA in order to reproduce. Example: stomach flu and colds.
  • VIRUSES forms
  • Dividing viruses
  • Viruses could also infect:computers
  • And….. cellphones
  • TREATING INFECTIOUSdiseases ALEXANDER FLEMING was growing bacteria in agar plates where he saw clear area around a mold. So by accident Fleming discovered the cure against bacterial infections which is now known as “ANTIBIOTICS’’ …
  • SO Penicillin is a substance produced by molds (kind of fungus) and serves as antibiotic which is a cure for bacterial infections not viral ones.
  • How does infectious diseasesspread? Food, air and water. Contact with animals Person-to-person contact
  • Food, air and water Pathogens could be found any where so people must take the correct precautions to prevent the spread of bacteria and viruses especially those responsible of contagious diseases.. Precautions to take::::::::::::::;
  • Cover your mouth when youcough or sneeze. To prevent the spread of viruses to the surrounding air
  • Wash fruits and vegetables verywell
  • Since high temperature kills germs Cook the meat and egg
  • Purify the water Either by adding chlorine or by boiling the water or simply by using filters.
  • Contact with animals Animals’ fur, breath and saliva could carry millions of bacteria.example: 1- rabies “ a deadly central nervous system disease” it’s a disease that inhabits the saliva of infected animals like raccoon or opossum.. The veterinarian can give your pet injections to prevent rabies. 2-worms also could pass from animals through our mouth or nose and enter to live in lour intestine. 3-fungus could cause us ringworms infection
  • Different types of animalcontact
  • Person-to-person contact People are another area for pathogens to pass through so whenever you touch someone a pathogen is transmitted either through skin, mouth nose eyes or cuts. Simplest way to avoid receiving these pathogens is to wash your hands often and very well.. A daily bath and wash well your clothes.
  • Some examples aboutpathogens and diseases E .coli it’s a bacteria causing E coli poisoning. Prevention: Wash well fruits ,vegetables and cook meat.
  • How is E coli transmitted
  • giardiasis Caused by giardia lamblia which is a protozoa, caused by contaminated water and close contact with infected people
  • It seems to have a smileyface 
  • The deer tick It a bacteria that causes the LYME disease coming from a tick bite. Use repellents containing DEET.(it’s a yellow oil which repels ticks)
  • LYME disease
  • Noninfectious diseases are notcontagious. These diseases do not spread by pathogens, some exist at birth while others develop during life. Therefore some are INHERETED diseases while others are LIFESTYLE diseases.
  • Diseases present at birth These diseases are transmitted from parents to their children through GENES. Defected genes code for cells that do not function properly. Usually genetic disorders come from recessive forms, which means the parents are normal while their kids hold the defected trait.eg: cystic fibrosis and sickle cell anemia.
  • Cystic fibrosis: viscous secretionin the lungs.
  • Sickle cell anemia: poor oxygensupply
  • Huntington disease Its symptoms are not immediately present after birth but at adulthood stage: it affect muscle coordination.
  • TALIPES or CLUB FOOT Is due to the improper development of bones of the leg and foot. Its fixed through a surgery after birth.
  • Disease in later life Environmental conditions as well as our lifestyle both play a great role in the quality of our health and life length. so we must maintain a proper healthy life style including good nutriton,exercise and escape from harmful material , in order to avoid chronic diseases such as heart, lung diseases and cancer. People with family histories of cancer must be highly aware of environmental conditions like tar and other chemicals that could increase their risk of initiating cancer.
  • Scientists continue efforts toprevent and treat diseases.Even though scientists reached a great effort in understanding and treating diseases yet diseases are still a problem all over the world.We have many progressive achievementsLike:Antibiotics and vaccinations BUTOn the other hand new illnesses and viruses are appearing with no known
  • Example: AIDS :loss of immunity and eventually death.
  • Nile virus Transmitted through a mosquito bite and causes the brain inflammation.
  • Other problems The excessive use of antibiotics to a certain type of bacteria will develop “RESISTANCE” which means that the bacteria strain is no longer affected by this drug. This resistance is passed to the next generations.