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Prevention Of Communicable Diseases.....

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Prevention Of Communicable Diseases.....

  1. 1. PREVENTION OF COMMUNICABLE DISEASES Dr Soumar Dutta CDMO Guwahati Refinery Hospital
  2. 2. COMMUNICABLE DISEASES An illness due to a specific infectious agent or its toxic products capable of being directly or indirectly transmitted from man to man,animal to animal or from the environment (air,dust,soil,water,food) to man or animal.
  3. 3. EPIDEMIOLOGY EPIDEMIOLOGICAL TRIAD
  4. 4. DYNAMICS OF DISEASE TRANSMISSION
  5. 5. MODES OF TRANSMISSION
  6. 6. MODES OF TRANSMISSION <ul><li> </li></ul><ul><li>DIRECT TRANSMISSION </li></ul><ul><li>INDIRECT TRANSMISSION </li></ul>
  7. 7. MODES OF TRANSMISSION <ul><li>DIRECT TRANSMISSION </li></ul>
  8. 8. MODES OF TRANSMISSION <ul><li>DIRECT TRANSMISSION </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Direct Contact </li></ul></ul>
  9. 9. MODES OF TRANSMISSION <ul><li>DIRECT TRANSMISSION </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Direct Contact </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Skin to Skin. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Mucosa to Mucosa. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Mucosa to Skin. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Of the same person or different Person . </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Eg-STD, AIDS, leprosy, skin and eye infections. </li></ul></ul></ul>
  10. 10. MODES OF TRANSMISSION <ul><li>DIRECT TRANSMISSION </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Direct Contact </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Droplet Infection </li></ul></ul>
  11. 11. MODES OF TRANSMISSION <ul><li>DIRECT TRANSMISSION </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Direct Contact </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Droplet Infection </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Direct Projection of a spray of droplets of saliva and naso-pharyngeal secretions during coughing, sneezing or speaking </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>to the surrounding atmosphere. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Eg: Respiratory infections, diphtheria, whooping cough, TB, Meningococcal meningitis. </li></ul></ul></ul>
  12. 12. Droplet Sprayed into the Air from a Sneeze
  13. 13. MODES OF TRANSMISSION <ul><li>DIRECT TRANSMISSION </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Direct Contact </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Droplet Infection </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Contact with Soil </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Eg: Hookworm larva, Tetanus. </li></ul></ul>
  14. 14. MODES OF TRANSMISSION <ul><li>DIRECT TRANSMISSION </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Direct Contact </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Droplet Infection </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Contact with Soil </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Inoculation into skin or mucosa </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Eg: Rabies, infected needles. </li></ul></ul>
  15. 15. MODES OF TRANSMISSION <ul><li>DIRECT TRANSMISSION </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Direct Contact </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Droplet Infection </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Contact with Soil </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Inoculation into skin or mucosa </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Transplacental (vertical) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Eg: TORCH agents, syphilis, HBV, AIDS </li></ul></ul>
  16. 16. <ul><ul><li>INDIRECT TRANSMISSION </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Traditionally 5F’s </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Flies </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Finger </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Fomite </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Food </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Fluids </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul>
  17. 17. <ul><ul><li>INDIRECT TRANSMISSION </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Vehicle-borne. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Water (MC) </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Food </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Ice </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Blood, Serum, Plasma </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Tissues and organs </li></ul></ul></ul></ul>
  18. 18. <ul><ul><li>INDIRECT TRANSMISSION </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Vehicle-borne. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Vector-borne. </li></ul></ul>
  19. 19. <ul><ul><li>INDIRECT TRANSMISSION </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Vehicle-borne. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Vector-borne. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Air-borne. </li></ul></ul>
  20. 20. <ul><ul><li>INDIRECT TRANSMISSION </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Vehicle-borne. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Vector-borne. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Air-borne. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Fomite-borne. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Inanimate article or substances other than water or food contaminated by infectious agents </li></ul></ul>
  21. 21. <ul><ul><li>INDIRECT TRANSMISSION </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Vehicle-borne. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Vector-borne. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Air-borne. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Fomite-borne. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Unclean hand and finger. </li></ul></ul>
  22. 22. COMMUNICABLE DISEASES PREVALENT IN INDIA <ul><li>Respiratory infections : </li></ul><ul><li>Chicken pox. </li></ul><ul><li>Measles. </li></ul><ul><li>Mumps. </li></ul><ul><li>Rubella. </li></ul><ul><li>Influenza . </li></ul><ul><li>Diphtheria. </li></ul><ul><li>Meningitis. </li></ul><ul><li>Whooping Cough. </li></ul><ul><li>ARI. </li></ul><ul><li>TB. </li></ul>
  23. 23. COMMUNICABLE DISEASES PREVALENT IN INDIA <ul><li>Intestinal Infections: </li></ul><ul><li>Poliomyelitis. </li></ul><ul><li>Viral hepatitis. </li></ul><ul><li>Acute diarrhoeal </li></ul><ul><li>disease. </li></ul><ul><li>Typhoid fever. </li></ul><ul><li>Cholera. </li></ul><ul><li>Food poisoning. </li></ul><ul><li>Amoebiasis. </li></ul><ul><li>Taeniasis. </li></ul><ul><li>Ascarasis. </li></ul><ul><li>Hookworm infestation. </li></ul>
  24. 24. COMMUNICABLE DISEASES PREVALENT IN INDIA <ul><li>Arthropod-borne Diseases </li></ul><ul><li>Malaria </li></ul><ul><li>Dengue. </li></ul><ul><li>Filariasis. </li></ul><ul><li>Zoonosis: </li></ul><ul><li>Viral </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Rabies. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>JE. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Avian flu. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Bacterial </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Leptospirosis. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Brucellosis. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Human salmonellosis . </li></ul></ul>
  25. 25. COMMUNICABLE DISEASES PREVALENT IN INDIA <ul><li>Surface Infections: </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Trachoma </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Tetanus </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Leprosy </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>AIDS </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>STD </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Hospital Acquired Infections. </li></ul></ul>
  26. 26. <ul><li>Decrease your risk of infectious diseases by understanding how they spread and how you can protect yourself. </li></ul>Disease Prevention And Control
  27. 27. <ul><li>Wash your hands often: </li></ul>Disease Prevention And Control
  28. 28. Disease Prevention And Control <ul><li>Wash your hands often: </li></ul><ul><li>This is especially important before and after preparing food, before eating and after using the toilet. </li></ul>
  29. 29. Disease Prevention And Control <ul><li>Wash your hands often. </li></ul><ul><li>Get vaccinated. </li></ul>
  30. 30. Disease Prevention And Control <ul><li>Wash your hands often. </li></ul><ul><li>Get vaccinated. </li></ul><ul><li>Immunization can drastically reduce the chances of contracting many diseases. </li></ul>
  31. 31. Disease Prevention And Control <ul><li>Wash your hands often. </li></ul><ul><li>Get vaccinated. </li></ul><ul><li>Use antibiotics sensibly. </li></ul>
  32. 32. <ul><li>Only take antibiotics when necessary. </li></ul><ul><li>If they're prescribed, take them exactly as directed — don't stop taking them early because your symptoms have gone away. </li></ul>
  33. 33. Disease Prevention And Control <ul><li>Wash your hands often. </li></ul><ul><li>Get vaccinated. </li></ul><ul><li>Use antibiotics sensibly. </li></ul><ul><li>Stay at home if you have signs and symptoms of an infection. </li></ul>
  34. 34. Disease Prevention And Control <ul><li>Wash your hands often. </li></ul><ul><li>Get vaccinated. </li></ul><ul><li>Use antibiotics sensibly. </li></ul><ul><li>Stay at home if you have signs and symptoms of an infection. </li></ul><ul><li>Be smart about food preparation. </li></ul>
  35. 35. Disease Prevention And Control <ul><li>Wash your hands often. </li></ul><ul><li>Get vaccinated. </li></ul><ul><li>Use antibiotics sensibly. </li></ul><ul><li>Stay at home if you have signs and symptoms of an infection. </li></ul><ul><li>Be smart about food preparation. </li></ul><ul><li>Pay special attention to cleaning the 'hot zones' in your home. </li></ul>
  36. 36. Disease Prevention And Control <ul><li>Don't share personal items. </li></ul>
  37. 37. Disease Prevention And Control <ul><li>Don't share personal items. </li></ul><ul><li>Use your own </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Toothbrush </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Comb </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Razor blade. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Avoid sharing drinking glasses or dining utensils . </li></ul></ul>
  38. 38. Disease Prevention And Control <ul><li>Don't share personal items. </li></ul><ul><li>Travel wisely. </li></ul>
  39. 39. Disease Prevention And Control <ul><li>Don't share personal items. </li></ul><ul><li>Travel wisely. </li></ul><ul><li>Keep your pets healthy. </li></ul>
  40. 40. ROLE OF DOCTORS IN PREVENTING COMMUNICABLE DISEASES <ul><li>a) Controlling the reservoir </li></ul><ul><li>a. Early Diagnosis </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Precise treatment </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Epidemiological Investigation- study time place & person distribution of the disease and </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>For institution of prevention and control measures. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>b.Notification </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>c. Isolation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>d. Quarantine </li></ul></ul>
  41. 41. ROLE OF DOCTORS IN PREVENTING COMMUNICABLE DISEASES <ul><li>b) Interruption of transmission </li></ul><ul><li>“ Breaking the chain of Transmission” </li></ul><ul><li>c) Susceptible Host </li></ul><ul><li>a. Active immunization. </li></ul><ul><li>b. Passive Immunization </li></ul><ul><li>c. Combined Active and passive immunization. </li></ul><ul><li>d) Non-specific measures </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Better housing, water-supply, sanitation. nutrition and education. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Legislative measures- to formulate and effective implementation of measures. </li></ul></ul>

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