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Testing and Evaluation
Testing and Evaluation
Testing and Evaluation
Testing and Evaluation
Testing and Evaluation
Testing and Evaluation
Testing and Evaluation
Testing and Evaluation
Testing and Evaluation
Testing and Evaluation
Testing and Evaluation
Testing and Evaluation
Testing and Evaluation
Testing and Evaluation
Testing and Evaluation
Testing and Evaluation
Testing and Evaluation
Testing and Evaluation
Testing and Evaluation
Testing and Evaluation
Testing and Evaluation
Testing and Evaluation
Testing and Evaluation
Testing and Evaluation
Testing and Evaluation
Testing and Evaluation
Testing and Evaluation
Testing and Evaluation
Testing and Evaluation
Testing and Evaluation
Testing and Evaluation
Testing and Evaluation
Testing and Evaluation
Testing and Evaluation
Testing and Evaluation
Testing and Evaluation
Testing and Evaluation
Testing and Evaluation
Testing and Evaluation
Testing and Evaluation
Testing and Evaluation
Testing and Evaluation
Testing and Evaluation
Testing and Evaluation
Testing and Evaluation
Testing and Evaluation
Testing and Evaluation
Testing and Evaluation
Testing and Evaluation
Testing and Evaluation
Testing and Evaluation
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Testing and Evaluation

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  • 1. Testing and Evaluation of Grammar  How to teach and asses  Parts of Speech  (Articles, Prepositions and Pronouns)  How to teach and asses  Sentence Structure
  • 2.  Resource Person:  Mam Salma Khan  Presented by:  Maqsood Ahmad  ID# 090418002 (MSc Applied Linguistics)  University of Management and Technology Johar Town, Lahore.
  • 3. Article  An article is a kind of an adjective  Like adjectives, articles modify nouns.  Always used with and gives some information about a noun.  There are only two articles ‘a’ and ‘the’  They are used very often  Important for using English accurately
  • 4.  The word ‘a’ is called the indefinite article because the noun it goes with is indefinite or general.  The word ‘a’ becomes ‘an’ when the next word begins with a vowel (a, e, i, o, u)
  • 5.  The word ‘the’ is known as the definite article  Indicates a specific thing  Difference between the two sentences  I sat on ‘a’ chair  I sat on ‘the’ chair  Second sentence refers to a particular, specific chair, not just any chair.
  • 6.  Many nouns, especially singular forms of countable nouns must have an article.  In English, it is not possible to say I sat on chair without an article  A demonstrative or possessive adjective can be used instead of an article  As in the sentences  I sat on that chair  I sat on his chair.
  • 7.  Whenever there is an article  you will find a noun with it.  The noun may be the next word  The man  Or there may be adjectives and perhaps adverbs  between the article and the noun  The very angry, young man.
  • 8. (1) How many kinds of articles are there in English? 1 2 3 4 5 (2) An article always comes with a pronoun adjective noun verb preposition. (3) An article is a kind of pronoun conjunction noun adjective adverb. (4) Which is not correct? a ant the dog an elephant the monkey a cat (5) Which is not correct? a shirt an hat the necktie the pajamas a shoe
  • 9. (6) Which is not correct? a mile a kilometer a inch a foot a meter (7) Which is not correct? an article an object an adverb an adjective an noun (8) Which is not correct? I see a cat. I see her cat. I see cat. I see the cat. I see that cat. 9) How many articles are in the sentence? That was the best movie I have seen in a year. 0 1 2 3 4 10) How many articles are in the sentence? I saw a monkey and an elephant at the zoo. 0 1 2 3 4
  • 10.  Read the following description  and pick out definite and indefinite articles "A, An, The"  I am from Winchester Hampshire. Winchester is a city in the United Kingdom. I live in a town called Taunton which is on the River Tone. I live in a house in a quiet street in the countryside. The street is called "Hudson Street" and the house is old - more than 100 years old! I am an English lecturer at a college near the centre of the town. I like books, music and taking photographs. I usually have lunch at college. I usually go home by car. We have all kinds of food in England. I like Polish food very much. Sometimes, I go to a Polish restaurant in Bath. The restaurant is called "Magda's". Polish food is delicious!
  • 11. Prepositions A preposition describes a relationship between other words in a sentence.  A word like "in" or "after" is rather meaningless and hard to define in mere words.  When you do try to define a preposition like "in" or "between" or "on," you invariably use your hands to show how something is situated in relationship to something else.
  • 12.  Prepositions are nearly always combined with other words in structures called prepositional phrases  Prepositional phrases can be made up of a million different words, but they tend to be built the same  A preposition followed by a determiner and an adjective or two, followed by a pronoun or noun (called the object of the preposition)
  • 13.  Whole phrase, takes on a modifying role.  Acting as an adjective or an adverb.  Locating something in time and space.  Modifying a noun.  Telling when or where or under what conditions something happened.
  • 14.  Let's meet seven o'clock. (at, in, to, for)  He was born July. (in, to, at, for)  I went there 1998. (in, for, to, at)  She'll be at work Thursday. (on, in, for, at)  We met Christmas day. (on, for, at, in)  They drove to Barlinek September 15th. (on, at, for, in)  We arrived in this country September. (in, for, on, at)
  • 15.  I love to go shopping Christmas time. (at, in, to, for)  We get up early the morning. (in, to, for, at)  Do you dream night? (at, in, to, for)  What do you like doing weekends? (at, to, for, in)  He's working on his homework the moment. (at, for, in)  I lived in Holland the 1990s. (in, at, for, on)  I'll see you a few weeks. (in, at, to, for)  We like going to the cinema Fridays. (on, at, to, for)
  • 16. Pronouns  What is a Pronoun?  A Pronoun is a word used in place of a noun.  Usually pronouns refer to something that was already mentioned in previous sentence or understood by the listener or reader.  They are very useful words because when you use them, you do not need to repeat nouns all the time.  When a pronoun replaces a word (or a group of words), the word being replaced is called an antecedent.  I wrote a letter to the president, who responded quickly.  In the sentence above, president is antecedent of the pronoun who.
  • 17. Types of pronoun  Now we are going to learn types of pronouns: -  Demonstrative Pronouns: - point out specific persons, animals, places, things or ideas. For example: - this, those  Personal Pronouns: – stands for people, places, things and ideas. For example: - I/me, he/him  Indefinite Pronouns: – replace nouns without specifying which noun they replace. For example: - Someone, no one
  • 18. Continue: -  Intensive Pronouns: - A reflexive used to add emphasis to a noun is called an intensive pronoun. For example: - Marsha, herself, is an actor.  Interrogative Pronouns: - used to begin or introduce interrogative sentences. For example: - who, what  possessive pronoun: - substitutes for a noun phrase that begins with a possessive determiner (also known as a possessive adjective). For example: - mine, yours, his, hers, its, ours, theirs & whose
  • 19. Continue: -  Reciprocal Pronouns: - show a mutual relationship. For example: - one another, each other  Reflexive Pronouns: - point back to the subject of the sentence.  For example: - myself, themselves  Relative Pronouns: - begin a subordinate clause and connect it to another noun that precedes it. For example: - which, that
  • 20. Exercise to asses to pronouns:-  Choose the right answer from the given options: -  The noun, which the pronoun replaces, is called its antecedent. 1) Relative, 2) Intensive, 3) Indefinite  They themselves completed the exercise. 1) Demonstrative, 2)Intensive, 3) Relative  What do you know about pronouns? 1) Demonstrative, 2)Reflexive, 3)Interrogative  Everybody can learn English Grammar. 1) Relative, 2)Reciprocal, 3)Indefinite  This is a quiz for students of English as a Second Language. 1) Demonstrative, 2)Interrogative, 3)Reflexive,
  • 21. Continue: -  Ask yourself, what is a pronoun? 1)Reflexive, 2) personal, 3)Intensive  We did all the work ourselves. 1)Reflexive, 2)Indefinite, 3)personal  We are commanded to love one another. 1)Intensive, 2) personal, 3)Demonstrative  All my customers are asking for these. 1)Indefinite, 2) Reciprocal, 3)Demonstrative  I bought myself a new car. 1)Relative, 2)Reflexive 3)Reciprocal
  • 22. Continue: -  We are commanded to love one another. 1)Reflexive, 2)Reciprocal, 3)Demonstrative  His record speaks for itself. 1)Reflexive, 2)Relative, 3) Personal  Marsha, herself, is an actor. 1)Personal, 2)Intensive, 3)Demonstrative  The man whom you referred will do a good job. 1)Relative, 2)Personal, 3)Indefinite  On their wedding day they gave each other gold rings. 1)Intensive, 2)Indefinite, 3)Personal
  • 23. Continue: -  Does anybody know who she is? 1)Indefinite, 2) Demonstrative, 3)Personal  They want to know who did that! 1)Relative, 2)Personal, 3) Reflexive  What did they find there? 1)Demonstrative, 2)Personal, 3)Interrogative  She wants to exchange this for that and these for those. 1)Reflexive, 2)Reciprocal, 3)Demonstrative  I forgot whose book it was. 1)Indefinite, 2)Personal, 3)Reciprocal,
  • 24. Continue: -  You take these books and I'll take those. 1)Reflexive, 2)Relative, 3)Demonstrative  John built the boat himself. 1)Reciprocal, 2)Intensive, 3)Personal  I will consider renting or buying, whichever works out best. 1)Indefinite, 2)Intensive, 3)Relative  Put yourselves in our shoes. 1)Intensive, 2)Reflexive, 3)Personal  On their wedding day they gave each other gold rings. 1)Reciprocal, 2)Demonstrative, 3)Interrogative
  • 25. Continue: -  She wants to exchange this for that and these for those. 1)Personal, 2)Intensive, 3)Indefinite  I know that she came over last night to see him. 1) Indefinite, 2)Personal, 3)Relative  Instructor himself ordered this product. 1)Indefinite, 2)Relative, 3)Intensive  I asked myself why I had emailed that to everyone. 1)Demonstrative, 2)Indefinite, 3)Personal  It is a book that is difficult to ignore. 1)Personal, 2) Reflexive, 3)Relative
  • 26. Continue: -  I myself prefer apples. 1)Demonstrative, 2)Intensive, 3)Personal  What did you say? 1)Personal, 2)Indefinite, 3)Interrogative  Which is better? 1)Interrogative, 2)Demonstrative, 3)Personal  Many were invited by her but none showed up. 1)Demonstrative, 2)Indefinite, 3)Personal  I told myself this would not happen if I listened to you. 1)Personal, 2)Intensive, 3)Indefinite
  • 27. Continue: -  He wanted to kick himself for even making that comment. 1)Personal, 2)Intensive, 3)Indefinite  Each is responsible for his or her own books. 1)Indefinite, 2)Personal, 3)Intensive  Do you know who did that? 1)Reflexive, 2)Relative, 3)Interrogative
  • 28. Exercise # 2  "Is she writing to her ex-boyfriend?" "Yes, she is still in love with ___!" a. her b. him c. his  "Arek is making a lot of noise!" "I'll ask ___ to be quiet." a. him b. it c. its  "Please tell Mrs. Jones to come in." "Sorry, I don't know ___." a. her b. him c. she  "I can't find my glasses!" "You are wearing ___!" a. them b. there c. they
  • 29. Continue: -  "Do you like peaches?" "I love ___ !" a. hers b. its c. them  "Why is he always talking about Joanna?" "He obviously likes ___ !" a. her b. him c. she  "Where is my book? Oh, dear! I've lost ___!" a. him b. it c. its  "Is that Magda's new boyfriend?" "Don't ask me, ask ___!" a. her b. his c. it  "What is the title of that song?" "I'm afraid I can't remember ___." a. him b. it c. them
  • 30. Continue: -  "Why is Peter so happy?” His friends gave ___a guitar for his birthday!" a. him b. it c. them  "What are you going to do with those empty bottles?" "I'm going to recycle ___." a. their b. them c. they  "Let's see the latest Ken Loach film!" "I have seen ___ already!" a. him b. it c. there  "How are your parents? I haven't seen ___ for some time now!" a. them b. there c. they  "Have you met Kasia and Jacek?" "No, I have never met ___." a. its b. the c. them
  • 31. Sentence  A series of signs or symbols  Expressing a proposition in an artificial or logical language  The largest independent unit of grammar  It begins with a capital letter and ends with a period, question mark, or exclamation point.  A set of words that is complete in itself  Containing a subject and predicate  Conveying a statement, question, exclamation, or command  Consisting of a main clause and sometimes one or more subordinate clauses  The sentence is traditionally and inadequately defined as a word or group of words  Expresses a complete idea and that includes a subject and a verb.
  • 32. Sentence Patterns  There are 7 basic sentence patterns:  S-V Angry customers complain.  S-V-O The manager helped us gladly.  S-LV-N Her decision was a mistake.  S-LV-Adj My friend looked pale.  S-V-IO-O Her cousin showed visitors the capital.  S-V-O-OC They called the anonymous benefactor a saint.  S-V-O-Adj We painted the house green.
  • 33. Sentence Structures  There are four basic sentence structures: -  Simple sentence  Compound sentence  Complex sentence  Compound-complex sentence
  • 34. Simple sentence  A sentence consisting of only one clause, with a single subject and predicate.  A sentence structure that contains one independent clause and no dependent clauses.  Examples: -  The runner jumped.  One independent clause  Contains one subject runner, and one predicate jumped.  The singer bowed.  One independent clause  Contains one subject singer, and one predicate bowed.
  • 35. Continue: -  The baby cried.  One independent clause  Contains one subject baby, and one predicate cried.  The girl ran into her bedroom.  One independent clause  Contains one subject girl, and one predicate ran into her bedroom. This example is distinct from the previous three in that its verb phrase consists of more than one word.  In the backyard, the dog barked and howled at the cat.  This simple sentence has one independent clause which contains one subject dog, and one predicate barked and howled at the cat.  This predicate has two verbs, known as a compound predicate: barked and howled. This compound verb should not be confused with a compound sentence.  In the backyard and at the cat are prepositional phrases.
  • 36. Compound sentence  A compound sentence is composed of at least two independent clauses.  It does not require a dependent clause.  The clauses are joined by coordinating or correlative conjunctions (with or without comma) a semicolon that functions as a conjunction or a conjunctive adverb preceded by a semicolon.  A conjunction can be used to make a compound sentence.  The use of a comma to separate two independent clauses is called a comma splice and is generally considered an error (when used in the English language).  Examples  My friend invited me to a tea party, but my parents didn't let me go.  Do you want to stay here, or would you like to go shopping with me?  I have a lot of work to finish, so I will be up all night.
  • 37. Complex sentence  A complex sentence contains one independent clause and at least one dependent clause. Unlike a compound sentence, however, a complex sentence contains clauses which are not equal. Consider the following examples:  Simple  My friend invited me to a party. I do not want to go.  Compound  My friend invited me to a party but I do not want to go.  Complex  Although my friend invited me to a party, I do not want to go.
  • 38.  In the first example,  There are two separate simple sentences: "My friend invited me to a party" and "I do not want to go."  The second example,  Joins them together into a single sentence with the coordinating conjunction "but," but both parts could still stand as independent sentences -- they are entirely equal and the reader cannot tell which is most important.  In the third example,  However, the sentence has changed quite a bit: The first clause, "Although my friend invited me to a party," has become incomplete, or a dependent clause.
  • 39. Example of a Complex Sentence  A complex sentence from Henry David Thoreau,  “If a man does not keep pace with his companions, perhaps it is because he hears a different drummer.”
  • 40. Compound-complex sentence  A compound-complex sentence is made from two independent clauses and one or more dependent clauses.  Example 1: -  Although I like to go camping, I haven't had the time to go lately, and I haven't found anyone to go with.  Independent clause: "I haven't had the time to go lately"  Independent clause: "I haven't found anyone to go with"  Dependent clause: "Although I like to go camping... "
  • 41. Continue: -  Example 2:-  We decided that the movie was too violent, but our children, who like to watch scary movies, thought that we were wrong.  Independent clause: "We decided that the movie was too violent"  Independent clause: "(but) our children thought that we were wrong"  Dependent clause: who like to watch scary movies
  • 42. Functional types of a sentence  There are four functional types of a sentence: -  Assertive or Declarative sentence (a statement)  Interrogative sentence (a question)  Imperative sentence (a command)  Exclamatory sentence (an exclamation)
  • 43. Assertive or Declarative Sentence:-  A sentence in the form of a simple statement or fact.  The subject normally precedes the predicate.  A declarative sentence ends with a period.  They state, assert, or declare something.  Jan is a student. She lives in a big city.  you said something.  I’m going to make him an offer, he can’t refuse.
  • 44. Interrogative Sentence: -  A type of sentence that asks a question.  In interrogative sentences, the subject is sometimes located in the predicate half of the sentence.  An interrogative sentence ends with a question mark.  What is your name?  Where do you live?  What did you say?
  • 45. Imperative Sentence: -  A type of sentence that gives advice, instructions or that expresses a request or command or express a wish.  An imperative sentence typically begins with the base form of a verb, as in Go now! The implied subject you is said to be "understood" or (You) go now!  Go to your room. (an order)  Please lend me your book. (a request)  Have a good time at the picnic. (a wish).  Tell me what you said. (a request)
  • 46. Exclamatory Sentence: -  A type of sentence that expresses sudden and strong feelings, such as surprise, wonder, pity, sympathy, happiness, or gratitude by making an exclamation with the appropriate intonation.  Other sentence types (especially declarative sentences) can be used to form exclamatives.  An exclamatory sentence ends with an exclamation point.  What a shame!  Boy, am I tired!  Tell me now!
  • 47. Assessment of Sentences 1: Harry, try the other door. Interrogative Assertive or Declarative Exclamatory Imperative 2: Stay in your seat. Assertive or Declarative Exclamatory Interrogative Imperative
  • 48. 3: Please pass the salt. Assertive or Declarative Imperative Exclamatory Interrogative 4: I am ten years old. Exclamatory Interrogative Imperative Assertive or Declarative
  • 49. 5: Why didn't you come to school today? Assertive or Declarative Exclamatory Imperative Interrogative 6: Wow! Those fireworks are beautiful! Interrogative Exclamatory Imperative Assertive or Declarative
  • 50. 7: I didn't have time to finish my homework last night. Interrogative Imperative Exclamatory Assertive or Declarative 8: Do you want to play? Exclamatory Assertive or Declarative Interrogative Imperative
  • 51. This is all from my side. Thank you very much. Have a nice day.

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