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Testing and Evaluation of
Grammar
 How to teach and asses
 Parts of Speech
 (Articles, Prepositions and Pronouns)
 How to teach and asses
 Sentence Structure
 Resource Person:
 Mam Salma Khan
 Presented by:
 Maqsood Ahmad
 ID# 090418002 (MSc Applied Linguistics)
 University of Management and Technology
Johar Town, Lahore.
Article
 An article is a kind of an adjective
 Like adjectives, articles modify nouns.
 Always used with and gives some information about a
noun.
 There are only two articles ‘a’ and ‘the’
 They are used very often
 Important for using English accurately
 The word ‘a’ is called the indefinite article
because the noun it goes with is indefinite or
general.
 The word ‘a’ becomes ‘an’ when the next word
begins with a vowel (a, e, i, o, u)
 The word ‘the’ is known as the definite article
 Indicates a specific thing
 Difference between the two sentences
 I sat on ‘a’ chair
 I sat on ‘the’ chair
 Second sentence refers to a particular, specific chair,
not just any chair.
 Many nouns, especially singular forms of countable
nouns must have an article.
 In English, it is not possible to say I sat on chair
without an article
 A demonstrative or possessive adjective can be used
instead of an article
 As in the sentences
 I sat on that chair
 I sat on his chair.
 Whenever there is an article
 you will find a noun with it.
 The noun may be the next word
 The man
 Or there may be adjectives and perhaps adverbs
 between the article and the noun
 The very angry, young man.
(1) How many kinds of articles are there in English?
1 2 3 4 5
(2) An article always comes with a
pronoun adjective noun verb preposition.
(3) An article is a kind of
pronoun conjunction noun adjective adverb.
(4) Which is not correct?
a ant the dog an elephant the monkey a cat
(5) Which is not correct?
a shirt an hat the necktie the pajamas a shoe
(6) Which is not correct?
a mile a kilometer a inch a foot a meter
(7) Which is not correct?
an article an object an adverb an adjective an noun
(8) Which is not correct?
I see a cat. I see her cat. I see cat. I see the cat. I see that cat.
9) How many articles are in the sentence?
That was the best movie I have seen in a year.
0 1 2 3 4
10) How many articles are in the sentence?
I saw a monkey and an elephant at the zoo.
0 1 2 3 4
 Read the following description
 and pick out definite and indefinite articles "A, An, The"
 I am from Winchester Hampshire. Winchester is a city in
the United Kingdom. I live in a town called Taunton which
is on the River Tone. I live in a house in a quiet street in
the countryside. The street is called "Hudson Street" and
the house is old - more than 100 years old! I am an English
lecturer at a college near the centre of the town. I like
books, music and taking photographs. I usually have lunch
at college. I usually go home by car. We have all kinds of
food in England. I like Polish food very much. Sometimes,
I go to a Polish restaurant in Bath. The restaurant is called
"Magda's". Polish food is delicious!
Prepositions
A preposition describes a relationship between other
words in a sentence.
 A word like "in" or "after" is rather meaningless and
hard to define in mere words.
 When you do try to define a preposition like "in" or
"between" or "on," you invariably use your hands to
show how something is situated in relationship to
something else.
 Prepositions are nearly always combined with other
words in structures called prepositional phrases
 Prepositional phrases can be made up of a million
different words, but they tend to be built the same
 A preposition followed by a determiner and an
adjective or two, followed by a pronoun or noun
(called the object of the preposition)
 Whole phrase, takes on a modifying role.
 Acting as an adjective or an adverb.
 Locating something in time and space.
 Modifying a noun.
 Telling when or where or under what conditions
something happened.
 Let's meet seven o'clock. (at, in, to, for)
 He was born July. (in, to, at, for)
 I went there 1998. (in, for, to, at)
 She'll be at work Thursday. (on, in, for, at)
 We met Christmas day. (on, for, at, in)
 They drove to Barlinek September 15th. (on, at, for, in)
 We arrived in this country September. (in, for, on, at)
 I love to go shopping Christmas time. (at, in, to, for)
 We get up early the morning. (in, to, for, at)
 Do you dream night? (at, in, to, for)
 What do you like doing weekends? (at, to, for, in)
 He's working on his homework the moment. (at, for, in)
 I lived in Holland the 1990s. (in, at, for, on)
 I'll see you a few weeks. (in, at, to, for)
 We like going to the cinema Fridays. (on, at, to, for)
Pronouns
 What is a Pronoun?
 A Pronoun is a word used in place of a noun.
 Usually pronouns refer to something that was already mentioned in
previous sentence or understood by the listener or reader.
 They are very useful words because when you use them, you do not
need to repeat nouns all the time.
 When a pronoun replaces a word (or a group of words), the word being
replaced is called an antecedent.
 I wrote a letter to the president, who responded quickly.
 In the sentence above, president is antecedent of the pronoun who.
Types of pronoun
 Now we are going to learn types of pronouns: -
 Demonstrative Pronouns: - point out specific persons,
animals, places, things or ideas.
For example: - this, those
 Personal Pronouns: – stands for people, places, things
and ideas.
For example: - I/me, he/him
 Indefinite Pronouns: – replace nouns without specifying
which noun they replace.
For example: - Someone, no one
Continue: -
 Intensive Pronouns: - A reflexive used to add emphasis
to a noun is called an intensive pronoun.
For example: - Marsha, herself, is an actor.
 Interrogative Pronouns: - used to begin or introduce
interrogative sentences.
For example: - who, what
 possessive pronoun: - substitutes for a noun phrase that
begins with a possessive determiner (also known as a
possessive adjective).
For example: - mine, yours, his, hers, its, ours, theirs &
whose
Continue: -
 Reciprocal Pronouns: - show a mutual relationship.
For example: - one another, each other
 Reflexive Pronouns: - point back to the subject of the
sentence.
 For example: - myself, themselves
 Relative Pronouns: - begin a subordinate clause and
connect it to another noun that precedes it.
For example: - which, that
Exercise to asses to pronouns:-
 Choose the right answer from the given options: -
 The noun, which the pronoun replaces, is called its antecedent.
1) Relative, 2) Intensive, 3) Indefinite
 They themselves completed the exercise.
1) Demonstrative, 2)Intensive, 3) Relative
 What do you know about pronouns?
1) Demonstrative, 2)Reflexive, 3)Interrogative
 Everybody can learn English Grammar.
1) Relative, 2)Reciprocal, 3)Indefinite
 This is a quiz for students of English as a Second Language.
1) Demonstrative, 2)Interrogative, 3)Reflexive,
Continue: -
 Ask yourself, what is a pronoun?
1)Reflexive, 2) personal, 3)Intensive
 We did all the work ourselves.
1)Reflexive, 2)Indefinite, 3)personal
 We are commanded to love one another.
1)Intensive, 2) personal, 3)Demonstrative
 All my customers are asking for these.
1)Indefinite, 2) Reciprocal, 3)Demonstrative
 I bought myself a new car.
1)Relative, 2)Reflexive 3)Reciprocal
Continue: -
 We are commanded to love one another.
1)Reflexive, 2)Reciprocal, 3)Demonstrative
 His record speaks for itself.
1)Reflexive, 2)Relative, 3) Personal
 Marsha, herself, is an actor.
1)Personal, 2)Intensive, 3)Demonstrative
 The man whom you referred will do a good job.
1)Relative, 2)Personal, 3)Indefinite
 On their wedding day they gave each other gold rings.
1)Intensive, 2)Indefinite, 3)Personal
Continue: -
 Does anybody know who she is?
1)Indefinite, 2) Demonstrative, 3)Personal
 They want to know who did that!
1)Relative, 2)Personal, 3) Reflexive
 What did they find there?
1)Demonstrative, 2)Personal, 3)Interrogative
 She wants to exchange this for that and these for those.
1)Reflexive, 2)Reciprocal, 3)Demonstrative
 I forgot whose book it was.
1)Indefinite, 2)Personal, 3)Reciprocal,
Continue: -
 You take these books and I'll take those.
1)Reflexive, 2)Relative, 3)Demonstrative
 John built the boat himself.
1)Reciprocal, 2)Intensive, 3)Personal
 I will consider renting or buying, whichever works out best.
1)Indefinite, 2)Intensive, 3)Relative
 Put yourselves in our shoes.
1)Intensive, 2)Reflexive, 3)Personal
 On their wedding day they gave each other gold rings.
1)Reciprocal, 2)Demonstrative, 3)Interrogative
Continue: -
 She wants to exchange this for that and these for those.
1)Personal, 2)Intensive, 3)Indefinite
 I know that she came over last night to see him.
1) Indefinite, 2)Personal, 3)Relative
 Instructor himself ordered this product.
1)Indefinite, 2)Relative, 3)Intensive
 I asked myself why I had emailed that to everyone.
1)Demonstrative, 2)Indefinite, 3)Personal
 It is a book that is difficult to ignore.
1)Personal, 2) Reflexive, 3)Relative
Continue: -
 I myself prefer apples.
1)Demonstrative, 2)Intensive, 3)Personal
 What did you say?
1)Personal, 2)Indefinite, 3)Interrogative
 Which is better?
1)Interrogative, 2)Demonstrative, 3)Personal
 Many were invited by her but none showed up.
1)Demonstrative, 2)Indefinite, 3)Personal
 I told myself this would not happen if I listened to you.
1)Personal, 2)Intensive, 3)Indefinite
Continue: -
 He wanted to kick himself for even making that comment.
1)Personal, 2)Intensive, 3)Indefinite
 Each is responsible for his or her own books.
1)Indefinite, 2)Personal, 3)Intensive
 Do you know who did that?
1)Reflexive, 2)Relative, 3)Interrogative
Exercise # 2
 "Is she writing to her ex-boyfriend?" "Yes, she is still
in love with ___!"
a. her b. him c. his
 "Arek is making a lot of noise!" "I'll ask ___ to be
quiet."
a. him b. it c. its
 "Please tell Mrs. Jones to come in." "Sorry, I don't
know ___."
a. her b. him c. she
 "I can't find my glasses!" "You are wearing ___!"
a. them b. there c. they
Continue: -
 "Do you like peaches?" "I love ___ !"
a. hers b. its c. them
 "Why is he always talking about Joanna?" "He
obviously likes ___ !"
a. her b. him c. she
 "Where is my book? Oh, dear! I've lost ___!"
a. him b. it c. its
 "Is that Magda's new boyfriend?" "Don't ask me, ask
___!"
a. her b. his c. it
 "What is the title of that song?" "I'm afraid I can't
remember ___."
a. him b. it c. them
Continue: -
 "Why is Peter so happy?”
His friends gave ___a guitar for his birthday!"
a. him b. it c. them
 "What are you going to do with those empty bottles?" "I'm
going to recycle ___."
a. their b. them c. they
 "Let's see the latest Ken Loach film!" "I have seen ___
already!"
a. him b. it c. there
 "How are your parents? I haven't seen ___ for some time now!"
a. them b. there c. they
 "Have you met Kasia and Jacek?" "No, I have never met ___."
a. its b. the c. them
Sentence
 A series of signs or symbols
 Expressing a proposition in an artificial or logical language
 The largest independent unit of grammar
 It begins with a capital letter and ends with a period, question mark, or
exclamation point.
 A set of words that is complete in itself
 Containing a subject and predicate
 Conveying a statement, question, exclamation, or command
 Consisting of a main clause and sometimes one or more subordinate
clauses
 The sentence is traditionally and inadequately defined as a word or
group of words
 Expresses a complete idea and that includes a subject and a verb.
Sentence Patterns
 There are 7 basic sentence patterns:
 S-V Angry customers complain.
 S-V-O The manager helped us gladly.
 S-LV-N Her decision was a mistake.
 S-LV-Adj My friend looked pale.
 S-V-IO-O Her cousin showed visitors the capital.
 S-V-O-OC They called the anonymous benefactor a saint.
 S-V-O-Adj We painted the house green.
Sentence Structures
 There are four basic sentence structures: -
 Simple sentence
 Compound sentence
 Complex sentence
 Compound-complex sentence
Simple sentence
 A sentence consisting of only one clause, with a single
subject and predicate.
 A sentence structure that contains one independent clause and
no dependent clauses.
 Examples: -
 The runner jumped.
 One independent clause
 Contains one subject runner, and one predicate jumped.
 The singer bowed.
 One independent clause
 Contains one subject singer, and one predicate bowed.
Continue: -
 The baby cried.
 One independent clause
 Contains one subject baby, and one predicate cried.
 The girl ran into her bedroom.
 One independent clause
 Contains one subject girl, and one predicate ran into her bedroom.
This example is distinct from the previous three in that its verb phrase
consists of more than one word.
 In the backyard, the dog barked and howled at the cat.
 This simple sentence has one independent clause which contains one
subject dog, and one predicate barked and howled at the cat.
 This predicate has two verbs, known as a compound predicate:
barked and howled. This compound verb should not be confused with
a compound sentence.
 In the backyard and at the cat are prepositional phrases.
Compound sentence
 A compound sentence is composed of at least two independent clauses.
 It does not require a dependent clause.
 The clauses are joined by coordinating or correlative conjunctions (with or
without comma) a semicolon that functions as a conjunction or a conjunctive
adverb preceded by a semicolon.
 A conjunction can be used to make a compound sentence.
 The use of a comma to separate two independent clauses is called a comma
splice and is generally considered an error (when used in the English
language).
 Examples
 My friend invited me to a tea party, but my parents didn't let me go.
 Do you want to stay here, or would you like to go shopping with me?
 I have a lot of work to finish, so I will be up all night.
Complex sentence
 A complex sentence contains one independent clause and at
least one dependent clause. Unlike a compound sentence,
however, a complex sentence contains clauses which are not
equal. Consider the following examples:
 Simple
 My friend invited me to a party. I do not want to go.
 Compound
 My friend invited me to a party but I do not want to go.
 Complex
 Although my friend invited me to a party, I do not want to go.
 In the first example,
 There are two separate simple sentences: "My friend
invited me to a party" and "I do not want to go."
 The second example,
 Joins them together into a single sentence with the
coordinating conjunction "but," but both parts could still
stand as independent sentences -- they are entirely equal
and the reader cannot tell which is most important.
 In the third example,
 However, the sentence has changed quite a bit: The
first clause, "Although my friend invited me to a party," has
become incomplete, or a dependent clause.
Example of a Complex Sentence
 A complex sentence from Henry David Thoreau,
 “If a man does not keep pace with his companions,
perhaps it is because he hears a different
drummer.”
Compound-complex sentence
 A compound-complex sentence is made from two independent
clauses and one or more dependent clauses.
 Example 1: -
 Although I like to go camping, I haven't had the time to go
lately, and I haven't found anyone to go with.
 Independent clause: "I haven't had the time to go lately"
 Independent clause: "I haven't found anyone to go with"
 Dependent clause: "Although I like to go camping... "
Continue: -
 Example 2:-
 We decided that the movie was too violent, but our
children, who like to watch scary movies, thought that we
were wrong.
 Independent clause: "We decided that the movie was too
violent"
 Independent clause: "(but) our children thought that we
were wrong"
 Dependent clause: who like to watch scary movies
Functional types of a sentence
 There are four functional types of a sentence: -
 Assertive or Declarative sentence (a statement)
 Interrogative sentence (a question)
 Imperative sentence (a command)
 Exclamatory sentence (an exclamation)
Assertive or Declarative Sentence:-
 A sentence in the form of a simple statement or fact.
 The subject normally precedes the predicate.
 A declarative sentence ends with a period.
 They state, assert, or declare something.
 Jan is a student. She lives in a big city.
 you said something.
 I’m going to make him an offer, he can’t refuse.
Interrogative Sentence: -
 A type of sentence that asks a question.
 In interrogative sentences, the subject is
sometimes located in the predicate half of the
sentence.
 An interrogative sentence ends with a question
mark.
 What is your name?
 Where do you live?
 What did you say?
Imperative Sentence: -
 A type of sentence that gives advice, instructions or
that expresses a request or command or express a
wish.
 An imperative sentence typically begins with the
base form of a verb, as in Go now! The implied
subject you is said to be "understood" or (You) go
now!
 Go to your room. (an order)
 Please lend me your book. (a request)
 Have a good time at the picnic. (a wish).
 Tell me what you said. (a request)
Exclamatory Sentence: -
 A type of sentence that expresses sudden and strong
feelings, such as surprise, wonder, pity, sympathy,
happiness, or gratitude by making an exclamation with
the appropriate intonation.
 Other sentence types (especially declarative sentences)
can be used to form exclamatives.
 An exclamatory sentence ends with an exclamation
point.
 What a shame!
 Boy, am I tired!
 Tell me now!
Assessment of Sentences
1: Harry, try the other door.
Interrogative Assertive or Declarative
Exclamatory Imperative
2: Stay in your seat.
Assertive or Declarative Exclamatory
Interrogative Imperative
3: Please pass the salt.
Assertive or Declarative Imperative
Exclamatory Interrogative
4: I am ten years old.
Exclamatory Interrogative
Imperative Assertive or Declarative
5: Why didn't you come to school today?
Assertive or Declarative Exclamatory
Imperative Interrogative
6: Wow! Those fireworks are beautiful!
Interrogative Exclamatory
Imperative Assertive or Declarative
7: I didn't have time to finish my homework last
night.
Interrogative Imperative
Exclamatory Assertive or Declarative
8: Do you want to play?
Exclamatory Assertive or Declarative
Interrogative Imperative
This is all from my side.
Thank you very much.
Have a nice day.

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Testing and Evaluation

  • 1. Testing and Evaluation of Grammar  How to teach and asses  Parts of Speech  (Articles, Prepositions and Pronouns)  How to teach and asses  Sentence Structure
  • 2.  Resource Person:  Mam Salma Khan  Presented by:  Maqsood Ahmad  ID# 090418002 (MSc Applied Linguistics)  University of Management and Technology Johar Town, Lahore.
  • 3. Article  An article is a kind of an adjective  Like adjectives, articles modify nouns.  Always used with and gives some information about a noun.  There are only two articles ‘a’ and ‘the’  They are used very often  Important for using English accurately
  • 4.  The word ‘a’ is called the indefinite article because the noun it goes with is indefinite or general.  The word ‘a’ becomes ‘an’ when the next word begins with a vowel (a, e, i, o, u)
  • 5.  The word ‘the’ is known as the definite article  Indicates a specific thing  Difference between the two sentences  I sat on ‘a’ chair  I sat on ‘the’ chair  Second sentence refers to a particular, specific chair, not just any chair.
  • 6.  Many nouns, especially singular forms of countable nouns must have an article.  In English, it is not possible to say I sat on chair without an article  A demonstrative or possessive adjective can be used instead of an article  As in the sentences  I sat on that chair  I sat on his chair.
  • 7.  Whenever there is an article  you will find a noun with it.  The noun may be the next word  The man  Or there may be adjectives and perhaps adverbs  between the article and the noun  The very angry, young man.
  • 8. (1) How many kinds of articles are there in English? 1 2 3 4 5 (2) An article always comes with a pronoun adjective noun verb preposition. (3) An article is a kind of pronoun conjunction noun adjective adverb. (4) Which is not correct? a ant the dog an elephant the monkey a cat (5) Which is not correct? a shirt an hat the necktie the pajamas a shoe
  • 9. (6) Which is not correct? a mile a kilometer a inch a foot a meter (7) Which is not correct? an article an object an adverb an adjective an noun (8) Which is not correct? I see a cat. I see her cat. I see cat. I see the cat. I see that cat. 9) How many articles are in the sentence? That was the best movie I have seen in a year. 0 1 2 3 4 10) How many articles are in the sentence? I saw a monkey and an elephant at the zoo. 0 1 2 3 4
  • 10.  Read the following description  and pick out definite and indefinite articles "A, An, The"  I am from Winchester Hampshire. Winchester is a city in the United Kingdom. I live in a town called Taunton which is on the River Tone. I live in a house in a quiet street in the countryside. The street is called "Hudson Street" and the house is old - more than 100 years old! I am an English lecturer at a college near the centre of the town. I like books, music and taking photographs. I usually have lunch at college. I usually go home by car. We have all kinds of food in England. I like Polish food very much. Sometimes, I go to a Polish restaurant in Bath. The restaurant is called "Magda's". Polish food is delicious!
  • 11. Prepositions A preposition describes a relationship between other words in a sentence.  A word like "in" or "after" is rather meaningless and hard to define in mere words.  When you do try to define a preposition like "in" or "between" or "on," you invariably use your hands to show how something is situated in relationship to something else.
  • 12.  Prepositions are nearly always combined with other words in structures called prepositional phrases  Prepositional phrases can be made up of a million different words, but they tend to be built the same  A preposition followed by a determiner and an adjective or two, followed by a pronoun or noun (called the object of the preposition)
  • 13.  Whole phrase, takes on a modifying role.  Acting as an adjective or an adverb.  Locating something in time and space.  Modifying a noun.  Telling when or where or under what conditions something happened.
  • 14.  Let's meet seven o'clock. (at, in, to, for)  He was born July. (in, to, at, for)  I went there 1998. (in, for, to, at)  She'll be at work Thursday. (on, in, for, at)  We met Christmas day. (on, for, at, in)  They drove to Barlinek September 15th. (on, at, for, in)  We arrived in this country September. (in, for, on, at)
  • 15.  I love to go shopping Christmas time. (at, in, to, for)  We get up early the morning. (in, to, for, at)  Do you dream night? (at, in, to, for)  What do you like doing weekends? (at, to, for, in)  He's working on his homework the moment. (at, for, in)  I lived in Holland the 1990s. (in, at, for, on)  I'll see you a few weeks. (in, at, to, for)  We like going to the cinema Fridays. (on, at, to, for)
  • 16. Pronouns  What is a Pronoun?  A Pronoun is a word used in place of a noun.  Usually pronouns refer to something that was already mentioned in previous sentence or understood by the listener or reader.  They are very useful words because when you use them, you do not need to repeat nouns all the time.  When a pronoun replaces a word (or a group of words), the word being replaced is called an antecedent.  I wrote a letter to the president, who responded quickly.  In the sentence above, president is antecedent of the pronoun who.
  • 17. Types of pronoun  Now we are going to learn types of pronouns: -  Demonstrative Pronouns: - point out specific persons, animals, places, things or ideas. For example: - this, those  Personal Pronouns: – stands for people, places, things and ideas. For example: - I/me, he/him  Indefinite Pronouns: – replace nouns without specifying which noun they replace. For example: - Someone, no one
  • 18. Continue: -  Intensive Pronouns: - A reflexive used to add emphasis to a noun is called an intensive pronoun. For example: - Marsha, herself, is an actor.  Interrogative Pronouns: - used to begin or introduce interrogative sentences. For example: - who, what  possessive pronoun: - substitutes for a noun phrase that begins with a possessive determiner (also known as a possessive adjective). For example: - mine, yours, his, hers, its, ours, theirs & whose
  • 19. Continue: -  Reciprocal Pronouns: - show a mutual relationship. For example: - one another, each other  Reflexive Pronouns: - point back to the subject of the sentence.  For example: - myself, themselves  Relative Pronouns: - begin a subordinate clause and connect it to another noun that precedes it. For example: - which, that
  • 20. Exercise to asses to pronouns:-  Choose the right answer from the given options: -  The noun, which the pronoun replaces, is called its antecedent. 1) Relative, 2) Intensive, 3) Indefinite  They themselves completed the exercise. 1) Demonstrative, 2)Intensive, 3) Relative  What do you know about pronouns? 1) Demonstrative, 2)Reflexive, 3)Interrogative  Everybody can learn English Grammar. 1) Relative, 2)Reciprocal, 3)Indefinite  This is a quiz for students of English as a Second Language. 1) Demonstrative, 2)Interrogative, 3)Reflexive,
  • 21. Continue: -  Ask yourself, what is a pronoun? 1)Reflexive, 2) personal, 3)Intensive  We did all the work ourselves. 1)Reflexive, 2)Indefinite, 3)personal  We are commanded to love one another. 1)Intensive, 2) personal, 3)Demonstrative  All my customers are asking for these. 1)Indefinite, 2) Reciprocal, 3)Demonstrative  I bought myself a new car. 1)Relative, 2)Reflexive 3)Reciprocal
  • 22. Continue: -  We are commanded to love one another. 1)Reflexive, 2)Reciprocal, 3)Demonstrative  His record speaks for itself. 1)Reflexive, 2)Relative, 3) Personal  Marsha, herself, is an actor. 1)Personal, 2)Intensive, 3)Demonstrative  The man whom you referred will do a good job. 1)Relative, 2)Personal, 3)Indefinite  On their wedding day they gave each other gold rings. 1)Intensive, 2)Indefinite, 3)Personal
  • 23. Continue: -  Does anybody know who she is? 1)Indefinite, 2) Demonstrative, 3)Personal  They want to know who did that! 1)Relative, 2)Personal, 3) Reflexive  What did they find there? 1)Demonstrative, 2)Personal, 3)Interrogative  She wants to exchange this for that and these for those. 1)Reflexive, 2)Reciprocal, 3)Demonstrative  I forgot whose book it was. 1)Indefinite, 2)Personal, 3)Reciprocal,
  • 24. Continue: -  You take these books and I'll take those. 1)Reflexive, 2)Relative, 3)Demonstrative  John built the boat himself. 1)Reciprocal, 2)Intensive, 3)Personal  I will consider renting or buying, whichever works out best. 1)Indefinite, 2)Intensive, 3)Relative  Put yourselves in our shoes. 1)Intensive, 2)Reflexive, 3)Personal  On their wedding day they gave each other gold rings. 1)Reciprocal, 2)Demonstrative, 3)Interrogative
  • 25. Continue: -  She wants to exchange this for that and these for those. 1)Personal, 2)Intensive, 3)Indefinite  I know that she came over last night to see him. 1) Indefinite, 2)Personal, 3)Relative  Instructor himself ordered this product. 1)Indefinite, 2)Relative, 3)Intensive  I asked myself why I had emailed that to everyone. 1)Demonstrative, 2)Indefinite, 3)Personal  It is a book that is difficult to ignore. 1)Personal, 2) Reflexive, 3)Relative
  • 26. Continue: -  I myself prefer apples. 1)Demonstrative, 2)Intensive, 3)Personal  What did you say? 1)Personal, 2)Indefinite, 3)Interrogative  Which is better? 1)Interrogative, 2)Demonstrative, 3)Personal  Many were invited by her but none showed up. 1)Demonstrative, 2)Indefinite, 3)Personal  I told myself this would not happen if I listened to you. 1)Personal, 2)Intensive, 3)Indefinite
  • 27. Continue: -  He wanted to kick himself for even making that comment. 1)Personal, 2)Intensive, 3)Indefinite  Each is responsible for his or her own books. 1)Indefinite, 2)Personal, 3)Intensive  Do you know who did that? 1)Reflexive, 2)Relative, 3)Interrogative
  • 28. Exercise # 2  "Is she writing to her ex-boyfriend?" "Yes, she is still in love with ___!" a. her b. him c. his  "Arek is making a lot of noise!" "I'll ask ___ to be quiet." a. him b. it c. its  "Please tell Mrs. Jones to come in." "Sorry, I don't know ___." a. her b. him c. she  "I can't find my glasses!" "You are wearing ___!" a. them b. there c. they
  • 29. Continue: -  "Do you like peaches?" "I love ___ !" a. hers b. its c. them  "Why is he always talking about Joanna?" "He obviously likes ___ !" a. her b. him c. she  "Where is my book? Oh, dear! I've lost ___!" a. him b. it c. its  "Is that Magda's new boyfriend?" "Don't ask me, ask ___!" a. her b. his c. it  "What is the title of that song?" "I'm afraid I can't remember ___." a. him b. it c. them
  • 30. Continue: -  "Why is Peter so happy?” His friends gave ___a guitar for his birthday!" a. him b. it c. them  "What are you going to do with those empty bottles?" "I'm going to recycle ___." a. their b. them c. they  "Let's see the latest Ken Loach film!" "I have seen ___ already!" a. him b. it c. there  "How are your parents? I haven't seen ___ for some time now!" a. them b. there c. they  "Have you met Kasia and Jacek?" "No, I have never met ___." a. its b. the c. them
  • 31. Sentence  A series of signs or symbols  Expressing a proposition in an artificial or logical language  The largest independent unit of grammar  It begins with a capital letter and ends with a period, question mark, or exclamation point.  A set of words that is complete in itself  Containing a subject and predicate  Conveying a statement, question, exclamation, or command  Consisting of a main clause and sometimes one or more subordinate clauses  The sentence is traditionally and inadequately defined as a word or group of words  Expresses a complete idea and that includes a subject and a verb.
  • 32. Sentence Patterns  There are 7 basic sentence patterns:  S-V Angry customers complain.  S-V-O The manager helped us gladly.  S-LV-N Her decision was a mistake.  S-LV-Adj My friend looked pale.  S-V-IO-O Her cousin showed visitors the capital.  S-V-O-OC They called the anonymous benefactor a saint.  S-V-O-Adj We painted the house green.
  • 33. Sentence Structures  There are four basic sentence structures: -  Simple sentence  Compound sentence  Complex sentence  Compound-complex sentence
  • 34. Simple sentence  A sentence consisting of only one clause, with a single subject and predicate.  A sentence structure that contains one independent clause and no dependent clauses.  Examples: -  The runner jumped.  One independent clause  Contains one subject runner, and one predicate jumped.  The singer bowed.  One independent clause  Contains one subject singer, and one predicate bowed.
  • 35. Continue: -  The baby cried.  One independent clause  Contains one subject baby, and one predicate cried.  The girl ran into her bedroom.  One independent clause  Contains one subject girl, and one predicate ran into her bedroom. This example is distinct from the previous three in that its verb phrase consists of more than one word.  In the backyard, the dog barked and howled at the cat.  This simple sentence has one independent clause which contains one subject dog, and one predicate barked and howled at the cat.  This predicate has two verbs, known as a compound predicate: barked and howled. This compound verb should not be confused with a compound sentence.  In the backyard and at the cat are prepositional phrases.
  • 36. Compound sentence  A compound sentence is composed of at least two independent clauses.  It does not require a dependent clause.  The clauses are joined by coordinating or correlative conjunctions (with or without comma) a semicolon that functions as a conjunction or a conjunctive adverb preceded by a semicolon.  A conjunction can be used to make a compound sentence.  The use of a comma to separate two independent clauses is called a comma splice and is generally considered an error (when used in the English language).  Examples  My friend invited me to a tea party, but my parents didn't let me go.  Do you want to stay here, or would you like to go shopping with me?  I have a lot of work to finish, so I will be up all night.
  • 37. Complex sentence  A complex sentence contains one independent clause and at least one dependent clause. Unlike a compound sentence, however, a complex sentence contains clauses which are not equal. Consider the following examples:  Simple  My friend invited me to a party. I do not want to go.  Compound  My friend invited me to a party but I do not want to go.  Complex  Although my friend invited me to a party, I do not want to go.
  • 38.  In the first example,  There are two separate simple sentences: "My friend invited me to a party" and "I do not want to go."  The second example,  Joins them together into a single sentence with the coordinating conjunction "but," but both parts could still stand as independent sentences -- they are entirely equal and the reader cannot tell which is most important.  In the third example,  However, the sentence has changed quite a bit: The first clause, "Although my friend invited me to a party," has become incomplete, or a dependent clause.
  • 39. Example of a Complex Sentence  A complex sentence from Henry David Thoreau,  “If a man does not keep pace with his companions, perhaps it is because he hears a different drummer.”
  • 40. Compound-complex sentence  A compound-complex sentence is made from two independent clauses and one or more dependent clauses.  Example 1: -  Although I like to go camping, I haven't had the time to go lately, and I haven't found anyone to go with.  Independent clause: "I haven't had the time to go lately"  Independent clause: "I haven't found anyone to go with"  Dependent clause: "Although I like to go camping... "
  • 41. Continue: -  Example 2:-  We decided that the movie was too violent, but our children, who like to watch scary movies, thought that we were wrong.  Independent clause: "We decided that the movie was too violent"  Independent clause: "(but) our children thought that we were wrong"  Dependent clause: who like to watch scary movies
  • 42. Functional types of a sentence  There are four functional types of a sentence: -  Assertive or Declarative sentence (a statement)  Interrogative sentence (a question)  Imperative sentence (a command)  Exclamatory sentence (an exclamation)
  • 43. Assertive or Declarative Sentence:-  A sentence in the form of a simple statement or fact.  The subject normally precedes the predicate.  A declarative sentence ends with a period.  They state, assert, or declare something.  Jan is a student. She lives in a big city.  you said something.  I’m going to make him an offer, he can’t refuse.
  • 44. Interrogative Sentence: -  A type of sentence that asks a question.  In interrogative sentences, the subject is sometimes located in the predicate half of the sentence.  An interrogative sentence ends with a question mark.  What is your name?  Where do you live?  What did you say?
  • 45. Imperative Sentence: -  A type of sentence that gives advice, instructions or that expresses a request or command or express a wish.  An imperative sentence typically begins with the base form of a verb, as in Go now! The implied subject you is said to be "understood" or (You) go now!  Go to your room. (an order)  Please lend me your book. (a request)  Have a good time at the picnic. (a wish).  Tell me what you said. (a request)
  • 46. Exclamatory Sentence: -  A type of sentence that expresses sudden and strong feelings, such as surprise, wonder, pity, sympathy, happiness, or gratitude by making an exclamation with the appropriate intonation.  Other sentence types (especially declarative sentences) can be used to form exclamatives.  An exclamatory sentence ends with an exclamation point.  What a shame!  Boy, am I tired!  Tell me now!
  • 47. Assessment of Sentences 1: Harry, try the other door. Interrogative Assertive or Declarative Exclamatory Imperative 2: Stay in your seat. Assertive or Declarative Exclamatory Interrogative Imperative
  • 48. 3: Please pass the salt. Assertive or Declarative Imperative Exclamatory Interrogative 4: I am ten years old. Exclamatory Interrogative Imperative Assertive or Declarative
  • 49. 5: Why didn't you come to school today? Assertive or Declarative Exclamatory Imperative Interrogative 6: Wow! Those fireworks are beautiful! Interrogative Exclamatory Imperative Assertive or Declarative
  • 50. 7: I didn't have time to finish my homework last night. Interrogative Imperative Exclamatory Assertive or Declarative 8: Do you want to play? Exclamatory Assertive or Declarative Interrogative Imperative
  • 51. This is all from my side. Thank you very much. Have a nice day.