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Chapter 13 everything

Chapter 13 everything






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  • Just map of Japan.
  • Mastered Confucian ways, worshipped at temples, and admired Buddhist arts
  • Idk, ask Heng
  • Taika reforms were aimed at creating a bureaucracy with an all-powerful emperor and a peasant conscript army, which aris. and monasteries didn’t accept
  • ONLY NOTES ON 1ST BULLET (picture of peasant conscript army to organize forces)
  • NOTES ON BOLD. Picture of tea ceremony
  • NOTES ON 1ST BULLET. Pictures of verses on scroll (?) and a fan
  • Red butterfly – Taira. Blue bamboo leaves – Minamoto NOTES ON MINAMOTO VS TAIRA
  • Pictures: (top)Minamoto is weaker than Taira (bottom) Taira is weaker than Minamoto
  • Pictures: (left to right) no centralization, no heavenly mandate, Tang political chaos
  • Picture: Emperor exists and politically above Minamoto, but real power lies in Minamoto
  • Mina =Minamoto. Fear of betrayal led to murder/exile of his relatives who were the main cause of Mina’s victory -> Kamakura weaken Picture: Emperor “ruled” Kyoto, Minamoto “ruled” Kamakuro, while real power lies with the Hojo
  • NOTES ON EVERYTHING. Vietnam traded pearls, ivory, peacock feathers, aromatic woods, and tortoise shells for China’s silk
  • NO NOTES. Picture of betel nuts and ai do :D
  • IMPORTANT DATE. Reason is Vietnam put up no resistance and cooperated
  • Picture of “no Chinese dominance” and geographic advantages (mountains and great distances)
  • Dragon = LY (not le) family dragon. Admin system = secretariats, 6 main ministries, and a bureau of censors to keep corruption in check.
  • Scholars’ power limited by educated Buddhist monks who were favored by the peasants
  • Picture of Mekong Delta
  • Picture of Hanoi and Hue

Chapter 13 everything Chapter 13 everything Presentation Transcript

  • Chapter 13: The Spread of Chinese Civilization: Japan, Korea, and Vietnam
    Vivian Lin
    Colin Lu
    Jasmine Nguyen
    Heng Li
    Bethany Luu
    Christine Nguyen
    Joey Thai
  • Japan
  • Japan: The Imperial Age
  • NOTESJapan: The Imperial Age
    Japan borrowed from China peaked in:
    Taika period (645-710)
    Nara period (710-784)
    Heian period (794-857)
    • TaikaReforms (646): or “The Great Reform”
    • Aimed at fixing administration along Chinese lines.
  • Japan: The Imperial Age
    Affected both aristocrats and peasants
    • Aristocrats:
    • Confucian ways (characters)
    • Chinese-style temples
    • Buddhist arts
    • Peasants
    • Turned to Buddhist monks for help
    • Combined Buddhist gods with kami
  • Japan: The Imperial Age
    The spread of Buddhism
  • Crisis at Nara and the Shift of Heian (Kyoto)
    Taika reforms were disrupted by aristocratic families and Buddhist monastic orders
  • Crisis at Nara and the Shift of Heian (Kyoto)
    • A cent. after introduction of Taika reforms: Buddhist monks grew powerful
    Aristocracy feared power
    760s: their influence threatened the throne
    • A Buddhist prelate got into empress Koken’s inner circle
    • schemed to marry her and become emperor before his plans were foiled
    Crisis at Nara and the Shift of Heian (Kyoto)
    • Emperor fled and established a new capital city at Heian (Kyoto)
    Buddhist monasteries were not allowed to be built inside city -> built around city -> reemerged as royal advisors
  • Crisisat Nara and the Shift of Heian (Kyoto)
    Emperor abandoned Taika reforms
    NO limited power on aristocrats -> restored aristocrat families, who took over gov. positions
    NO rank by birth -> little mobility
    NO peasant conscript army -> local leaders organize forces
  • NOTESUltracivilized: Court Life in the Heian Era
    Court culture – refined
    Cent. during Heian era – lived in a world of luxury and aesthetic* delights
    Social status = everything
    Affairs such as dating and marrying were a very important thing!
    *Aesthetic = the nature of beauty, art, and taste
  • Ultracivilized: Court Life in the Heian Era
    Imperial household and aristocratic lived in palaces with gardens
    Wood buildings
    Sliding panels
    Matted floors
  • Ultracivilized: Court Life in the Heian Era
    Chinese characters simplified -> outpouring of poetic and literary works
    Poetry was used to express feelings such as happiness, pleasure, love, etc.
    Verse poems – most valued art at court
  • Ultracivilized: Court Life in the Heian Era
    The Tale of Genji
    The Tale of Genji:written by Lady Mutasaki
    The first novel in any language
    According to the novel:
    Women were seen as equally dignified as men.
    Usually taught to play musical instruments and write poetry
    ALSO had power struggles like everywhere else.
  • The Decline of Imperial Power
  • Era of warrior dominance
  • NOTES: The Era of Warrior Dominance
    Power of provincial lords increase – power of imperial and court decline
    Powerful families…
    depend on alliances + take positions in bureaucracy + competing for power -> open feud
  • Era of Warrior Dominance
    At first:
    Around 1180s
    • Controlled emperor
    • Dominate court
    • Powerful network of alliances
    • Links to rural notables who sided with them
    • Power-grabbing efforts
  • The Declining Influence of China
    Power of imperial house weakened -> relied less on Chinese culture and custom
    No more political influence
    Buddhism changed into a Japanese religion
    Declining Tang dynasty -> no reliable model
    Tang Dynasty
  • NOTESThe Declining Influence of China
    Gempei Wars: raged in main island of Honshu
    1185: Manamoto established bakufu
    Bakufu: military government or “tent”
    Capital at Kamakura
  • The Breakdown of Bakufu Dominance and the Age of the Warlords
    Yorimoto, leader of Mina., weaken Kamakura
    Fear of betrayal in family
    Shoguns: military leaders of bakufu
    Yorimoto’s obsessive fear -> no heir-> Hojo dominated Kamakura regime
    Hojo: closely allied warrior family
  • The Breakdown of Bakufu Dominance and the Age of the Warlords
    Early 14th cent: Ashikaga Takuajiled revolt and overthrew Kamakura regime
    Established Ashikaga Shogunate(1336-1573)
    Emperor refused to acknowledge their power-> tried reviving imperial power -> exiled
  • Korea
  • Korea: Between China and Japan
  • Korea: Between China and Japan
    Influenced for the longest time
    Heavily influenced –able to make a “different” culture.
  • Korea: Between China and Japan
    Descended from hunting and herding people of the E Siberia and Manchuria.
    • 4th cent: acquired farming and metal working techniques from the Chinese
  • Korea: Between China and Japan
    109 BCE: Choson, earliest Korean kingdom, was conquered by Han emperor Wudi
    Parts of Korea were colonized by China and became a channel for Chinese influences to affect the Korean culture
  • Korea: Between China and Japan
    The tribal peoples of the peninsula – mainly the Koguryo in N – resisted Chinese rule
    Koguryo established a N independent state
    • At war with its S rivals – Silla and Paekche
  • Korea: Between China and Japan
    Sinification: the extensive adoption of Chinese culture
    Buddhism – key link between Korea and the N China- Han dynasty successors
    Korean rulers patronized Buddhist artist and financed the monasteries and pagodas
    Korea: Between China and Japan
    Adapted Chinese writing
    Korean language was not suited for characters
    Koguryo’s ruler forced a unified law code based after the Han’s
    Established universities
    Build a Chinese-style bureaucracy
    Followers (copiers)
  • Tang Alliances and the Conquest of Korea
    3 Korean kingdoms fought and weakened each other -> Korea vulnerable to outside attacks
  • NOTESTang Alliances and the Conquest of Korea
    The Tang dynasty attacked Koguryo however the Koguryo fought back
  • Tang Alliances and the Conquest of Korea
    The Tang conquerors fought the Silla over spoils
    Silla strong enough to resist
    Revolts in Paekche and Koguryo
    Tang makes deal with Silla
    Tribute payments
    Silla = vassal of Tang
    668 – Tang withdraws armies
    Silla became the independent rulers of united Korea
  • Sinification: The Tributary Link
    Under Silla rulers and Koryodynasty
    Chinese influences peaked
    Korean culture flourished
    Silla tried to become a miniature Tang empire
    They regularly sent the Tang embassies and tribute
  • Sinification: The Tributary Link
    Tribute System
    Neighboring places offered tribute to China
    Korea was most committed to the Tribute System
    Emissaries offered tribute in forms of splendid gifts and acknowledgement of the Son of Heaven
  • Sinification: The Tributary Link
    Effects of the tribute system
    Guaranteed peace with China
    Access to Chinese learning, art, and manufactured goods
    Merchants and trading depended on China
    Scholars studied at china and bought scrolls for Korea
    Intercultural exchange
  • Vietnam
  • Between China and Southeast Asia: The Making of Vietnam
    220 BCE: record of “southern barbarians”
    Kingdom called Nam Viet
    “People in the south”
  • NOTESBetween China and Southeast Asia: The Making of Vietnam
    Qin raids -> Vietnamese traded with China
  • NOTESBetween China and Southeast Asia: The Making of Vietnam
    Defeated feudal lords
    Took control of Red River valley
    • Blended with Mon-Kmer- and Tai-speaking peoples: crucial part of distinct ethnic group
    • Kmers = today’s Cambodians
  • Between China and Southeast Asia: The Making of Vietnam
    Viets had their own culture
    Own spoken language
    Strong village autonomy
    Nuclear family
    Women had more freedom and influence
  • Between China and Southeast Asia: The Making of Vietnam
    Viets had their own culture
    Different clothing style
    Chewed betel nut
  • Conquest and Sinification
    Han empire accepted and satisfied with Viet tributes
    111 BCE: Han conquers Nam Viet
    Viets saw they could learn from China
    No resistance
  • NOTESConquest and Sinification: Education
    Viets attended Chinese schools
    Studied Confucian classics
    Wrote Chinese
    Exams for administrative posts
  • NOTESConquest and Sinification: Agriculture
    Chinese introduced cropping techniques and irrigation tehcniques
    Better agriculture -> more food -> support bigger population
  • NOTESConquest and Sinification: Military
    Learned from Chinese military organization
    Advantage over Indianized* people (W and S)
    *Indianized people = people who adopted Indian way of kinship and warfare
  • Roots of Resistance
    Viets did not like Chinese rule
    Chinese looked down on Vietnamese customs
    Sporadic aristocratic revolts
    Writing showed self-doubt and resistance to Chinese dominance
  • Roots of Resistance
    Less rights and independence for women
    Confined to home
    Controlled by men
  • Roots of Resistance
    Women participated in revolts
    39 CE: famous uprising by Trung Sisters
    Daughters of deposed local leader
  • NOTES: Winning Independence and Continuing Chinese Influences
    939 CE: Nam Viet won political independence from China
    Geographic advantages
    Rebelled during fall of Tang
  • NOTESWinning Independence and Continuing Chinese Influences
    Le dynasty (980 - 1009 CE)
    First Vietnamese dynasty
    Copy of Chinese administrative system
    Civil service exams
    Learning Confucian classics in school
    Deference from lower people
  • Winning Independence and Continuing Chinese Influences
    Local leaders identify with peasants
    Local interests
    Leaders in peasant uprisings
  • The Vietnamese Drive to the South
    Viets did not want to settle near malarial highlands -> fought Chams and Kmers
    People living S of Nam Viet
  • NOTESThe Vietnamese Drive to the South
    11th – 18th cent: fought Chams and Kmers
    Drove Chams to highlands
    Defeated Kmerswho were moving into Mekong Delta Region
  • NOTES: Expansion and Division
    Move farther away from Hanoi (capital)
    Marry and adopt customs of Chams and Kmers
    Dynasties have less power over southern part -> Nguyen (Hue, S) vs. Trinh (Hanoi, N)
  • Global Connections: In the Orbit of China
    The East Asian Corner of the Globe
  • Japan
    Japan showed that women CAN accomplish things such as writing and poetry
    “The Tale of Genji”
    :D They grew the new crop soy beans!
    Zen Buddhism influenced the quality in “rough” things (According to the book)