Food Insecurity & Hunger in Philadelphia and U.S.

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Dr, Mariana Chilton's presentation at the Center for High Impact Philanthropy Donor Education Seminar.

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  • ** john
  • Panel explained that the FI measure created confusion (with terminology of with/without hunger). They recommended the USDA avoid the term hunger altogether.
    This new terminology will be explained in the upcoming USDA release of the 2005 food insecurity data. It will be released next week. Apparently, the new categories of food security, under the umbrella of food insecurity will not create confusion. Notice the disappearance of the term “HUNGER” altogether.
    On a positive note, now there is a recognition of “marginally food insecure.” This new category captures the people who had answered perhaps one or two of the questions affirmatively on the food insecurity scale., This is a positive change, because food insecurity researchers have found that there are significant associations at this “mild” level of food insecurity with poor health and other wellbeing indicators. This marginality was not recognized in the previous categories.
  • Food Insecurity & Hunger in Philadelphia and U.S.

    1. 1. Food Insecurity & Hunger in Philadelphia and U.S. Mariana Chilton, PhD, MPHMariana Chilton, PhD, MPH High Impact PhilanthropyHigh Impact Philanthropy Addressing the Needs of Vulnerable FamiliesAddressing the Needs of Vulnerable Families November 8, 2010November 8, 2010
    2. 2. OverviewOverview  Food Insecurity in USFood Insecurity in US  Hunger in PhiladelphiaHunger in Philadelphia  Policy Relevant SciencePolicy Relevant Science  Witnesses to HungerWitnesses to Hunger  Solutions to PovertySolutions to Poverty
    3. 3. Food Insecurity DefinitionFood Insecurity Definition  Lack of access to enough foodLack of access to enough food for an active and healthy lifefor an active and healthy life
    4. 4. Rates of Food InsecurityRates of Food Insecurity  General populationGeneral population  49 Million (14%)49 Million (14%)  Children (under age 18)Children (under age 18)  17 Million (21%)17 Million (21%)  Young Children (under 6)Young Children (under 6)  9 Million (24.9%)9 Million (24.9%)
    5. 5. Health & Social ImpactsHealth & Social Impacts of Food Insecurityof Food Insecurity  Food Insecure children suffer more psychosocial and behavioral problems  Aggression, hyperactivity, anxiety  Greater need for mental health services  Food Insecure children have more trouble with learning and academic performance  Food Insecure children suffer more health problems compared to food secure children  Poor development  Stomach aches, head aches, colds, ear infections  High hospitalization rates
    6. 6. 36.1 % 1st congressional district 2d-hungriest in U.S. 22.5 % National rate: Food Hardship 18 %
    7. 7. US Census: Living in PovertyUS Census: Living in Poverty 44,000 Children Under Age 644,000 Children Under Age 6
    8. 8. Household Food Insecurity forHousehold Food Insecurity for Young children in PhiladelphiaYoung children in Philadelphia 11.2 14.5 15.8 19.4 0 5 10 15 20 25 2006 2007 2008 2009 % Prevalence HH w/ Youung Children Philadelphia HH with Children < 3
    9. 9. Informing Evidence-Based Policy Decisions to Prevent Child Hunger State Costs of Growing Up Poor in the U.S. 42,000 children & families42,000 children & families (~4,500 in Philadelphia)(~4,500 in Philadelphia) Drexel University St. Christopher’s Hospital
    10. 10. Federal Assistance Programs--Federal Assistance Programs-- monitored bymonitored by  Food Stamps (SNAP)Food Stamps (SNAP)  Temporary Assistance for Needy Families (TANF)Temporary Assistance for Needy Families (TANF)  Women, Infants and Children (WIC)Women, Infants and Children (WIC)  MedicaidMedicaid  Federal Housing SubsidiesFederal Housing Subsidies  Energy AssistanceEnergy Assistance HealthHealth  Food InsecurityFood Insecurity  HospitalizationsHospitalizations  Child WellbeingChild Wellbeing  Maternal DepressionMaternal Depression  Child GrowthChild Growth  Child DevelopmentChild Development
    11. 11. Food Insecurity & Health OutcomesFood Insecurity & Health Outcomes Adjusted Odds Ratios*Adjusted Odds Ratios* 1 1 1 1 1.74 1.22 2.79 1.73 0 0.5 1 1.5 2 2.5 3 Fair/Poor Child Health Hospitalizations Maternal Depressive Symptoms Child Development Concerns AOR Food secure Food Insecure * All differences p value < .0001 Controlled for site, race, child age, caregiver age, marital status, education, birth weight, child breastfed 73% Increased risk for developmental concerns
    12. 12. Developmental effects of Food InsecurityDevelopmental effects of Food Insecurity happenhappen beforebefore schoolschool
    13. 13. EconomicEconomic HardshipHardship Food Insecurity Housing Insecurity Energy Insecurity
    14. 14. Hardship and Health forHardship and Health for Children < 3Children < 3April 12, 2010
    15. 15. Evidence for Policy Solutions  Food Stamps (SNAP)Food Stamps (SNAP)  improve child health and prevent foodimprove child health and prevent food insecurityinsecurity  WICWIC  protects against underweight, and promotesprotects against underweight, and promotes child health and developmentchild health and development  Energy AssistanceEnergy Assistance  protects against food insecurity and poor childprotects against food insecurity and poor child healthhealth  Housing subsidiesHousing subsidies  protect against underweight and promote childprotect against underweight and promote child health and developmenthealth and development
    16. 16. ““Expert” WitnessesExpert” Witnesses
    17. 17. ConceptualConceptual ConfusionConfusion
    18. 18. Categories of Food InsecurityCategories of Food Insecurity 1995-20051995-2005 2006-?2006-?  Food SecureFood Secure  Food InsecureFood Insecure  Without hungerWithout hunger  With hungerWith hunger  Food SecureFood Secure  Food InsecureFood Insecure  Low FoodLow Food SecuritySecurity  Very Low FoodVery Low Food SecuritySecurity
    19. 19. USDA tried to clarify the definition of “food insecurity” with this photo (found at http://www.ers.usda.gov/multimedia/FoodSecurity/)
    20. 20. DiggingDigging DeeperDeeper
    21. 21. Mothers Taking ActionMothers Taking Action to Change Health Policyto Change Health Policy www.witnessestohunger.org
    22. 22. “…Being in a situation like this, your kids can stay hungry.”
    23. 23. Informing The PressInforming The Press
    24. 24. Informing Policy MakersInforming Policy Makers
    25. 25. SHOW MOVIE
    26. 26. What to do?What to do?
    27. 27. SolutionsSolutions
    28. 28. OpportunityOpportunityEconomic SecurityEconomic Security Health & WellbeingHealth & Wellbeing Nutrition ++ Housing ++ Energy ++ Health Jobs & Skills ++ Financial Services Technology ++ Education
    29. 29. AccountabilityAccountability Government, Corporate & Non Profit Civic EngagementCivic Engagement Volunteerism, Communication w/ leaders Health & WellbeingHealth & Wellbeing Economic SecurityEconomic Security OpportunityOpportunity City-Wide CollaborationCity-Wide Collaboration --Comprehensive Plan----Comprehensive Plan-- Monitoring and sharing information 1. Health & Nutrition 2. Housing & Energy 3. Jobs & Skills Training 4. Banking & Financial Services 5. Internet & Cell Technology 6. Education & Child Development Systems ChangeSystems Change Six IndicatorsSix Indicators Report CardReport Card
    30. 30. ThankThank YouYou

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