Hunger is a term which has several meanings (ON SLIDE)
READ from SLIDEAccording to The Journal of Nutrition:THEN ADDRecent Feeding America Data indicated 48.8 million Americans—including 16.2 million children— live in THE 17.2 MILLION households that lack the means to get enough nutritious food on a regular basis. As a result, they struggle with hunger at some time during the year. 59% of food-insecure households reported that in the previous month they had participated in one or more of the three largest federal food and nutrition assistance programs: SNAP (formerly food stamps), School Lunch and WIC.
“It is impossible to talk about hunger and food security without talking about poverty. Hunger and food insecurity are primary consequences of poverty, and the three are inextricably linked.”Poverty is the principal cause of hunger, in America and beyond. Rates of food insecurity are substantially higher than the national average among households with incomes near or below the federal poverty line, among households with children headed by single parents (35.1% of female-headed households with children are food-insecure) and among Black and Hispanic households. Food insecurity is most common in large cities but still exists in rural areas, suburbs and other outlying areas around large cities− 25 % of households with children living in large cities are food-insecure.
Minimum wage income keeps workers above the federal poverty threshold, but is the federal poverty threshold a reasonable minimum standard of living?The minimum wage of $1.60 an hour in 1968 would be $10.56 today when adjusted for inflation.In 2010 and 2011, more than one in five children (22 percent) lived in families with incomes below the poverty line, the highest level since 1993; black and Hispanic children, children living in single-mother families, and children under five are even more likely to be poor.Of Buncombe County low-wage workers, one third, 34%, are employed in food preparation and serving related occupations. 22% are retail sales workers. 10% work transportation and material moving occupations. 9% are building cleaning workers, and 9% hold office and administrative occupations. These jobs pay between $8 and $10/hour, and typically don’t offer benefits of any kind.
Extreme poverty defined as living on under $1.25 per day, has fallen by 29 percent over the past 20 years, with progress in poverty reduction has been concentrated in Asia, and especially, East Asia, with the major improvement occurring in China. In Sub-Saharan Africa, the number of people in extreme poverty has increased. Heavily Indebted Poor Countries 33 of which are in Sub-Saharan AfricaLess than one per cent of what the world spends annually on weapons could put every child into schoolNearly a billion people entered the 21st century unable to read a book or sign their names.Less than one per cent of what the world spends every year on weapons would put every child into schoolOver 20,000 children die every day around the world.That is equivalent to:1 child dying every 4 seconds14 children dying every minute –nearly 300 during this presentationA 2011 Libya conflict-scale death toll every dayA 2010 Haiti earthquake occurring every 10 daysA 2004 Asian Tsunami occurring every 11 daysAn Iraq-scale death toll every 19–46 daysJust under 7.6 million children dying every yearSome 92 million children dying between 2000 and 2010
CHILDRENFood-insecure children are 90% more likely to have their overall health reported as “fair/poor” rather than “excellent/good” than kids from food-secure homes.Food insecurity is also linked to increased hospitalizations, developmental problems, headaches, stomach aches, iron deficiency anemia and even colds.developmental deficits such as inability to concentrate, resulting in poor academic performance.4 Food insecurity is associated with higher rates of behavioral problems in three-year-olds; in school-aged children, psychosocial deficits, as well as higher anxiety and depression; and, in adolescents, higher rates of depressive disorder and suicidal symptoms. Food-insecure children show smaller gains in math and reading achievement between kindergarten and third grade, and, among those ages six to 11, a higher likelihood of repeating a grade.5 Food insecurity, particularly when experienced in the earliest primary grades, also has a significant detrimental effect on non-cognitive classroom measures, such as interpersonal skills, self-control, and the group of competencies (including attentiveness, persistence, and flexibility) termed “approaches to learning.” 6Hunger in childhood has been linked to significant health problems in adulthood.Pregnant Women - - associated with a range of physical and mental complications.-receive fewer nutrients and experience long term physical health problems.[xiii]-at greater risk of major depression and other mental health problems. [xiv],[xv]In adults:Physical Health -hinder their ability to live a full and active life, associated with lower scores on physical and mental health exams, increased risk of developing diabetes, associated with a range of chronic illnesses such as hypertension, high cholesterol, and other cardiovascular risk factors.[ix] Mental Health - a demonstrated relationship with higher levels of aggression and anxiety and slower developing social skills. [xii]
870 million people in the world do not have enough to eat. This number has fallen by 130 million since 1990, but progress slowed after 2008. Most of the world’s hungry live in developing countries (98%) Three-quarters of all hungry people live in rural areas, mainly in the villages of Asia and Africa. Around 50 per cent of pregnant women in developing countries are iron deficient. Lack of iron means 315,000 women die annually from hemorrhage at childbirth. Women make up a little over half of the world's population, but they account for over 60 percent of the world’s hungry. Undernutrition contributes to 2.6 million deaths of children under five each year - one third of the global total. One out of six children -- roughly 100 million -- in developing countries is underweight. One in four of the world's children are stunted 80 percent of the world's stunted children live in just 20 countries. 66 million primary school-age children attend classes hungry across the developing world, with 23 million in Africa alone.Around 27-28 percent of all children in developing countries are estimated to be underweight or stunted. The two regions that account for the bulk of the deficit are South Asia and sub-Saharan Africa.
Questions which are used to measure Food Security are:1. “We worried whether our food would run out before we got money to buy more.” Was that often, sometimes, or never true for you in the last 12 months? 2. “The food that we bought just didn’t last and we didn’t have money to get more.” Was that often, sometimes, or never true for you in the last 12 months? A majority of US households (67 percent of households with children and 80 percent of those without children) reported no problems or concerns in meeting their food needs. Households that reported only one or two indications of food insecurity (12.7 percent of households with children and 7.7 percent of households without children) are also classified as food secure.
The percentage of households reporting low or very low food security has gone from an average of 11.1 percent in 1998-2001, to 13.7% for the 2006-2008 period to the current 17.1%The Food assistance system in North Carolina provides emergency food for an estimated 1,434,700 different people annually.29% of the members of client households in North Carolina are children under 18 years old (Table 5.3.2).33% of households include at least one employed adult (Table 5.7.1).Among client households with children, 80% are food insecure and 33% are food insecure with very low food security (Table 188.8.131.52).42% of clients in North Carolina report having to choose between paying for food and paying for utilities or heating fuel (Table 6.5.1).38% had to choose between paying for food and paying for medicine or medical care (Table 6.5.1).30% of client households in North Carolina report having at least one household member in poor health (Table 8.1.1)
A landmark 2010 study from Feeding America, the nation’s largest domestic hunger-relief organization, reported that 106,600 different Western North Carolinians (one in six) receive emergency food each year through MANNA FoodBank’s network of emergency food providers.106,600 different people in Western North Carolina seek food assistance in a single year from emergency food programs served by MANNA FoodBank.That’s 1 in 6 of our WNC neighbors33,000 are children9,600 are elderlyOf all the households served by MANNA’s partner agencies, 75% face hunger. Of those households with children, 84% face hunger.Only 45% of the client households served by MANNA FoodBank receive Food and Nutrition Services benefits (formerly known as food stamps). It is likely that many more are eligible.Western North Carolinians seeking emergency food assistance often face tough choices between paying for food or other essentials such as fuel, housing, and healthcare.36% of households seeking emergency food assistance do have at least one employed adult. Working people in Western North Carolina are struggling to make ends meet and while employed, many are underemployed, part time, or seasonal.
Sylva Rotary 11/15/2013
Cases, Causes and Cures
What do we mean by…
food security and insecurity?
Who is hungry, at home and abroad?
Income and food security simulation
Responses to hunger
―…strong desire, craving …or urgent need for
―…refer to a potential consequence of food
insecurity that, because of prolonged,
involuntary lack of food, results in discomfort,
illness, weakness, or pain that goes beyond
the usual uneasy sensation.‖ USDA
Food security & food insecurity
Food security - access by all members at all times
to enough food for an active, healthy life.
Food insecurity - Limited or uncertain availability
of nutritionally adequate and safe foods or limited
or uncertain ability to acquire acceptable foods in
socially acceptable ways.
Poverty – Federal Guidelines
Persons in Family
Gross Income (48 states and DC)
For each additional person, add
Source: 2012 HHS Poverty Guidelines
Poverty – The Living Wage
―…the minimum amount that a worker must earn to
afford his or her basic necessities, without public or
WNC living wage
single individual is $24,648/year without
benefits, or $21,528/year with benefits,
15% of 400 different occupations in Buncombe
County or the work for 35,820 (31%) workers, pays
Poverty - in our World
Almost half the world — over three billion people — live on less
than $2.50 a day and 80% live on less than $10 a day
The GDP of the 41 Heavily Indebted Poor Countries (567 million
people) is less than the wealth of the world’s 7 richest people
Nearly a billion people entered the 21st century unable to read a
book or sign their names.
1 billion children live in poverty (1 in 2 children in the world).
Consequences of hunger
Developmental, educational, & economic
Low birth weight and many illnesses
Worsens existing health problems
Who is hungry in our world?
One-third of the world is well-fed.
One-third is under-fed.
One-third is starving.
Who is hungry in America?
Food insecurity exists in every county in America
From 2.4% in Slope County, ND to 35.2% (37%) in Holmes
Ten states exhibited statistically significant higher
household food insecurity rates than the U.S. national
average of 14.7%
Who is hungry in America?
…and North Carolina
Who is hungry in NC?
North Carolinians with low or very low food security
3.7 million households
17% of all NC households
27.3% of NC’s children
NC and LA have the highest percentage (27.6%) of
children under 5 who are food insecure on a regular
Who is hungry in WNC?
In the 16 county MANNA service area –
106,600 people seek food assistance annually.
1 in 6 of our WNC neighbors
33,000 are children, 9,600 are elderly
36% of households served have at least one
Food insecurity ranges from 12.5% in Henderson
County to 18.7% in Graham County
Who is hungry in Jackson County in 2012-13?
Of our population of nearly 41,000…
16.1% (15.8%) are food insecure
26.1% (26.2%) of our children are food insecure
19.5% (20.4%) live below the Federal poverty level
Over 11.5 (10.5) million pounds of food distributed
through MANNA and 96 partner agencies. Over
476,000 million pounds in Jackson County, up
from 287,000 in 2011-12.
Rotarians Against Hunger 2013
Packaged 295,000+ meals
Engaged over 750 volunteers
Advanced education about hunger
Started innovative international development model
Rotarians Against Hunger 2014
Raise at least $50,000
Package 300,000 meals
Distribute vegetable seed internationally
Advance education about hunger
Promote Rotary and expand club partnerships
Saturday, March 22, 2014
Reuter YMCA, Biltmore Park
Three shifts packaging meals
Rotarians Against Hunger 2014
More information at:
Schedule an educational program!