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  • Some pesticides are characterized by being very persistent in the environment. They may represent long-term dangers as they biomagnify up the food-chain. Humans, and particularly breastfed babies, are at the top of the food-chain. • Most POPs (persistent organic pollutants) (these will soon be considered as persistent toxic substances or PTS) are organochlorine pesticides, namely, aldrin, endrin, clordane, DDT, heptachlor, mirex, toxaphene and hexachlorobenzene. • POPs and PTSs are typically lypophilic compounds, with low water solubility, that are resistant to environmental breakdown and accumulate in adipose tissue. • They bio-concentrate in fish, wildlife and human tissues. • The highest levels are found in marine mammals.

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  • 1. www.themegallery.com
  • 2. LOGOSHAGUFTA RANIKHANZADADEPARTMENT OF ENTOMOLOGYFACULTY OF CROP PROTECTIONSINDH AGRICULTURE UNIVERSITY, TANDO JAMPAKISTANEFFECT OF HOSTS ON THE BIOLOGY OF CONVERGENT LADYBIRDBEETLE, HIPPODAMIA CONVERGENS (COLEOPTERA COCCINELLIDAE) INLABORATORY CONDITIONS.
  • 3. INTRODUCTION The biological control is considered as one of the best componentsand vital part of the Integrated Pest Management (IPM). Biological control is also defined as the reduction of pest populationby natural enemies of insect pest,The biological control agents ;include predators, parasitoids and pathogens. Predators, such as lady bird beetles belonging to familyCoccinellidae order Coleoptera are mainly free living species thatconsume a large number of prey during their life time. The ladybird beetles have a complete metamorphosis with distinctegg, larval, pupal and adult stages.
  • 4. LIEE CYCLE OF CONVERGENT LADYBIRD BEETLE, HIPPODAMIACONVERGENS (COLEOPTERA COCCINELLIDAE
  • 5. MATERIALS AND METHODS The studies were carried out to determine the effect of host on the biology ofconvergens beetle,Hipodamiaconvergens(Coleoptera:Coccinellidae), in thelaboratory department of Entomology, Sindh Agriculture University, TandojamThe adults, Hippodamia convergens were collected from Integrated pestManagement and Agriculture Research Institute Tandojam fields, and rearedin the laboratory to maintain the culture for experimentation.The beetles collected from various fields were kept in a glass jar thatwas opened from both ends, a slight hole at base and a wide mouth at top.Bottom was closed by putting some cotton inside it while the face of jar wascovered with muslin cloth surrounded by a rubber band. The beetles were offered plenty of food (aphids) along with infested leaves.
  • 6.  The main objectives of studies were to record and compare the effect ofdifferent hosts on incubation, larval, pupal periods, percent emergence,adult (male and female) longevity, fecundity, and duration of life cycle, wereobserved under laboratory respectively. The newly hatched larvae (Grubs) were separated from the culture andreared in petrii dishes and provided different aphid hosts,. The hosts were.Mustard, (Brassica campestris L ) aphid, Lipaphis erysimi (Kalt.).Wheat, (Triticum aestivum L ) aphid, Diuraphis noxia (Linn.)Nerium,( Nerium indicum L ) aphid, Aphis nerii (Boyr).Akk,( Calotropis procera Ait.) aphid, Aphis nerii (Boyr.)Safflower,( Carthamus tinctorius L) aphid, Uroleucon compositae (Theobald).The data obtained were statistically analyzed by using ANOVA and DMRtest by computer programme
  • 7. RESULT
  • 8. Table-1 Effect of various hosts on larval development ofHippodamiaconvergens under laboratory conditions (Mean ± S.Edays). GTemp: 22.06 ± 1.15 Relative Humidity, 70.38%Treatment 1stInstar 2ndInstar 3rdInstar 4thInstarNerium Aphid 2.94+0.31c 3.89+0.31e 4.3+0.92d 3.73+ 0.83dAkk Aphid 3.78+0.75e 3.69+0.07d 5.12+0.76e 3.89+0.57eWheat Aphid 1.54+0.15a 2.84+0.47a 3.37+0.35b 2.39+0.36aSafflower Aphid 2.75+0.35d 2.97+0.11b 3.41+1.22c 2.68+0.61bMustard Aphid 2.34+0.56b 3.14+0.60c 2.83+0.35a 3.11+1.27cLSD 0.05 0.018 0.028 0.032 0.03Mean followed by the same latter in a coloumn are not significantly(P<0.05) different from each other by LSD test.
  • 9. Table-2 Effect of various hosts on duration of life cycle of Hippodamiaconvergens under laboratory cunditions (Mean ± S.E days).Host Incubation Larval period Pupal period AdultLongevityMaleFemale FemaleDuration oflife cycleNerium Aphid 2.4 14.70 + 0.34d 4.2+1.04d 14.1+3.2a 17.7+2.08a 39.0 aAkk aphid 2.4 17.22 + 1.07e 4.76+1.25e 18.7+7.3 b 21.4+2.51b 45.78 eWheat Aphid 2.4 11.27 + 0.92a 2.42+0.36a 22.9+4.6e 26.0+1.0d 42.09 bSafflowerAphid2.4 12.01 + 0.41c 3.07+0.69c 21.8+6.4c 25.7+3.51c 43.18 cMusturdAphid2.4 11.86 + 2.40b 2.98+0.24b 22.2+3.2 d 27.7+1.52e 44.94 dLSD 0.05 - 0.19 0.034 0.052 0.093 2.03Mean followed by the same latter in a coloumn are not significantly(P<0.05) different from each other by LSD test.
  • 10. Table –3 Percent mortality of H. convergens during differentstages of development under laboratory condition.Host Total eggs %mortality ofeggs1stinstar 2ndinstar 3rdinstar 4thinstar Pupae Total Total%NeriumAphid215 32 3 5 5 4 2 19 42.2Akk Aphid 199 43 6 5 5 4 - 20 44.4Wheat Aphid 335 61 - 3 4 - - 7 15.6SafflowerAphid314 69 1 7 2 2 3 15 33.4MusteredAphid345 54 - 1 2 2 4 9 20
  • 11. Table -4 Effect of various host on adult body wheight, fecundity andPercent fertility of eggs of Hippodamia convergens under laboratoryconditions (Mean ± S.E)Host Female weight Male weight Fecundity % FertilityNerium Aphid 8.3+0.11b 6.1+0.12a 215+15.0b 77.9+2.65aAkk Aphid 8.1+0.26a 6.2+0.33b 199+16.0a 79.4+6.5bWheat Aphid 10.6+0.09d 8.3+0.21d 335+14.0d 82.6+10.9cSafflower Aphid 9.8+0.34c 6.8+0.81c 314+12.5c 85.4+9.6dMusturardAphid10.7+0.19e 8.8+0.45e 345+15.0e 86.4+10.2eLSD 0.05 0.021 0.011 0.061 0.98Mean followed by the same latter in a coloumn are notsignificantly (P<0.05) different from each other by LSD test.
  • 12. CONCLUSION As Hippodamia convergens was reared on different host species thus, the longest life cycle wasrecorded on Mustard aphid, Lipaphis erysimi and shortest life cycle was recorded on Neriumaphid, Aphis nerii. The maximum fecundity and survival rate of H. convergens was observed on wheat aphid, D.noxia and minimum fecundity and survival rate was recorded when H. convergens fed akk aphid,Aphis nerii. This indicated that the D. noxia is the most and akk aphid, Aphis nerii is the least suitable hostfor the development of H convergens. Even, akk aphid, Aphis nerii was the juiciest host among other hosts but might be due topresence of certain alkaloids; those aphid obtained from thus host plant became reason of lessfavourable found for H. convergens.
  • 13. LOGO