South Africa under apartheid for lesson onePresentation Transcript
South Africa and the Apartheid System (1948 – 1994)
By the end of this PowerPoint you will be able to:
Outline the origins of Apartheid.
Describe life under Apartheid.
Explain the significance of two key events.
Summarise the international response to Apartheid.
Afrikaner – White South African of Dutch descent.
Afrikaans – The language spoken by the Afrikaner people.
Boer – Afrikaans word for ‘farmer’. Also a term used to describe the Dutch descendents.
Apartheid – Policy of racial segregation.
Sanction – Refusing to trade with a country
Bantu – Terms used for blacks during the Apartheid era
In 1652 the Dutch arrived in South Africa.
South Africa provided them a useful place to resupply their ships as they travelled to the Dutch East Indies (modern day Indonesia).
The islands around Indonesia provided spices like pepper. The Dutch made up to a 400% profit on the sale of spices. During the 1600s the spice trade made Holland one of Europe’s wealthiest nations.
Holland's major rivals were Britain and France.
Europeans arrive in South Africa
The Dutch world
Painting showing Jan van Riebeeck arriving in 1652. He was the first European to settle in South Africa.
Jan van Riebeeck established a port to ‘refresh’ ships that travelled to the East Indies.
The Dutch settlers believed in the racial superiority of Europeans and practiced slavery.
The tribes around Cape Town were too difficult to enslave so slaves were imported from Indonesia and India.
1652: A Dutch Port established at Cape Town
South Africa was already occupied by two major tribes:
Both spoke a language called ‘Bantu’.
Although they were advanced tribes (they used iron and practiced agriculture) their weapons were no match for those used by the Dutch.
Who was there first?
1806: The British Arrive
In 1806, Great Britain captured the colony from the Dutch.
The British abolished torture and slavery.
The Dutch (now calling themselves Boers – meaning ‘farmers’) fled inland to escape the British.
This occurred during the 1830s and 1840s.
This migration was called the Great Trek
The Great Trek and the Battle of Blood River
The Great Trek became part of Boer mythology.
12,000 Boers set out to settle on new lands where they could live outside of British control.
They established new provinces called Natal, the Transvaal and the Orange Free State.
In 1836 a few hundred Boers defeated an army of 10,000 Zulu at the Battle of Blood River.
The Zulu had spears – the Boer had modern rifles.
Boer/Afrikaner attitudes to race
Attitudes about race during the Apartheid era can be traced back to these influences:
A sense of persecution: After the British arrived in Cape Town the Boers saw themselves as refugees in their own country. They had the right to defend their values.
A sense of entitlement: After defeating the Zulu tribes at the 1836 “Battle of Blood River” the Boers felt they had ‘won’ South Africa.
A sense of ‘civilisation’: Boers felt that Africans ‘wasted’ the land and that only through farms, towns and cities was the country becoming civilised.
A sense of religious duty: Boers felt that Blacks had been cursed in the Bible and were ‘meant’ to be servants and slaves.
The Curse of Ham
The Boers felt that a reference to the descendents of Ham, one of Noah’s sons, being ‘cursed’ applied to all Africans.
In the Bible Ham sees his father naked and chooses to tell his other brothers rather than simply turn away and cover his father.
Although this interpretation was not widespread in Christianity it was used by the slave trade to justify slavery. The link made between Ham and Africans is not biblical in origin.
Colonial South Africa Divided
The arrival of the British and The Great Trek created two South Africas.
The British controlled the valuable Cape Colony.
The Boers lived in the states of Transvaal and the Orange Free State.
There was an uneasy peace from the 1840s until the 1890s.
Diamonds and Conflict
The British left the Boers alone until diamonds and gold were discovered in the land the Boers had settled.
This led to the Boer War (1899-1902).
New Zealand troops fought alongside British and Australian soldiers.
Britain won the war and took control of South Africa.
Racism in Power
Tensions remained between Boer and British after the Boer war. However, they agreed on one thing – the need to have laws to protect their dominant position over the much larger black population.
1948: Apartheid is introduced.
South Africa had fought on the side of the British during World War Two.
After World War Two former European colonies like Vietnam and India sought their own independence.
Black South Africans looked at their own country and started to protest against racism more assertively.
Thousands of black miners went on strike in 1946 for better pay and conditions.
In 1948 the racist Nationalist Party was elected to power after raising fears of the swart gevaar (the Black Danger).
The National Party promised to introduce a system which would completely separate the white and black populations – APARTHEID.
Complete the activity using the handout
Apartheid Laws – Separate and control
To make sure the white and black populations were kept apart blacks were forced to leave their homes in ‘white’ areas.
Between 1951 and 1986 at least four million people were moved from white areas to ‘Bantustans’ or black townships.
Black men had to leave the Homelands to find work in mines. They needed a pass to travel around the country. Denying a black a travel pass made life very difficult for their family.
Blacks provided cheap labour for the white towns and cities.
They worked as gardeners, cleaners, nannies, cooks and labourers.
Most commuted from nearby townships to work.
The 1960 Sharpeville Massacre
The 1976 Soweto Uprising
The 1977 Death of Steve Biko
The 1960 Sharpeville Massacre
On 21 March, 1960 5000 young people gathered outside the wire fence surrounding the Sharpeville Police Station.
They were there to peacefully protest South Africa's Pass Laws.
An argument broke out at the front of the protest and part of the fence was trampled. A policeman was knocked over.
The police opened fire, killing 69 people – many were shot in the back. Over 180 people were wounded.
The SOWETO Township
One of the most famous townships was Soweto.
Soweto was the SOuth WEst TOwnship near Johannesburg.
There was no electricity or running water inside the homes.
On June 16, 1976 an uprising in Soweto made headlines around the world – including New Zealand!
1976 – The SOWETO Uprising
The South African education system was designed to prepare blacks for low-skilled jobs.
Dishwashing and weeding were subjects taught.
In 1976 the Education Minister announced that half of all subjects needed to be taught in Afrikaans – the language of Afrikaaners.
On June 16, 1976 Soweto school students protested against this. Why?
1976 – The SOWETO Uprising
The students of Soweto staged a mass demonstration. 10,000 people were involved.
The South African Police opened fire on the demonstration.
12 year old Hector Pieterson was the first casuality. Another casualty was the white activist Dr Melville Edelstein. Edelstein was there to show support for the people of Soweto but was stoned to death by an angry mob.
From local to national to global
Boycotts, school burnings and attacks on the police and government buildings spread to other townships.
By the end of 1976 576 people had been killed and 2389 wounded.
The United Nations called an emergency meeting in June to condemn the ‘massive violence’ against black protestors.
The Death of Steve Biko
Steve Biko was a medical student who encouraged Black South Africans to take pride in their own culture.
He rejected the assistance of white liberals because it encouraged ‘dependence’.
In September 1977 he died in police custody.
The Police Minister claimed he had starved to death during a hunger strike.
Photographs smuggled out of South Africa showed that he had been badly beaten.
Timeline of International Condemnation
1961: South Africa resigns from the Commonwealth following criticism from African and Asian members.
1962: The United Nations condemns the policy of Apartheid.
1964: South Africa is banned from the Olympic Games in Tokyo.
1964: The United Nations calls for voluntary arms sanctions and establishes a Special Committee Against Apartheid to coordinate action against South Africa.
1974: A motion to eject South Africa from the United Nations was opposed by France, Britain and the United States (three major trading partners of South Africa).]
1977: Following the Soweto Uprising the United Nations bans arms sales to South Africa.