TIMELINE 1946: Black mine workers are paid twelve times less than whites. 1948: actual start of apartheid 1950: The Population Registration Act required citizens to be classified by race. 1951: The Group Areas Act designated races to different residential and business sections. 1951: The Bantu Homelands Act made inhabitants of the &quot;black homeland&quot; non citizens of South Africa. 1953: The Preservation of Separate Amenities Act enforced segregation of all public facilities. 1960: South African Police shot a crowd of black protesters in the Sharpeville Massacre 1962: The United Nations establishes the Special Committee Against Apartheid. 1963: Nelson Mandela is jailed for sabotage, treason, and violent conspiracy. 1976: The Soweto uprising, riots between black youths and South African police. Late 1980s: Countries around the world increasingly pressure South Africa to end its system of apartheid. 1991: South Africa President F.W. de Klerk repeals the rest of the apartheid laws.
WHY IT HAPPENED The first white settlers were the type of people who thought they were better than everyone else. they were funded by institutions and royalty meaning they had lots of money to explore and find new land and see what profit could be made off of resources. They were upper class in charge of expeditions. They honestly thought they were in the hands of god and that the land of Africa that they discovered was theirs that they could take. “if you are bigger and stronger, you take what&apos;s there” Is the quote whites went by The natives started realizing what was happening and that they were losing their rights and things. So, they started demanding their rights and started campaigns against white settlers. When this happened whites decided segregation was the answer. Segregation was to maintain white domination over others. Thus, they started the apartheid started.
EFFECTS TODAY Most people cant find work making it so that the children cant go to school because there parents have no work so they cant pay for the schooling. Because of this Many African citizens turned to crime for two reasons first for money to sustain themselves and there families and second as a method of &quot;punishing&quot; the whites because of the apartheid, as in rape, robbery or murder. Because most African&apos;s have very little money most are under nourished and have bad health. The Apartheid has also negatively affected the lives of all South African citizens but it specifically effected the black children because of the poverty, racism and violence a lot of the children had psychological disorders and are still recovering from that today.
TRC The truth and reconciliation commission was a court like restorative justice. Which is a group that tried to restore justice after the apartheid It was the first of 19 others like TRC held internationally that held public hearings Besides a few flaws the TRC was believed to be successful The TRC was based in cape town
ACTS AND LAWS Prohibition of Mixed Marriages Act, Act No 55 of 1949 Immorality Amendment Act, Act No 21 of 1950; amended in 1957 (Act 23) Population Registration Act, Act No 30 of 1950 Group Areas Act, Act No 41 of 1950 Suppression of Communism Act, Act No 44 of 1950 Bantu Building Workers Act, Act No 27 of 1951 Separate Representation of Voters Act, Act No 46 of 1951 Prevention of Illegal Squatting Act, Act No 52 of 1951 Bantu Authorities Act, Act No 68 of 1951 Natives Laws Amendment Act of 1952 Natives (Abolition of Passes and Co-ordination of Documents) Act, Act No 67 of 1952 Native Labour (Settlement of Disputes) Act of 1953 Bantu Education Act, Act No 47 of 1953 Reservation of Separate Amenities Act, Act No 49 of 1953 Natives Resettlement Act, Act No 19 of 1954Group Areas Development Act, Act No 69 of 1955Natives (Prohibition of Interdicts) Act, Act No 64 of 1956 Bantu Investment Corporation Act, Act No 34 of 1959 Extension of University Education Act, Act 45 of 1959 Promotion of Bantu Self-Government Act, Act No 46 of 1959 Coloured Persons Communal Reserves Act, Act No 3 of 1961 Preservation of Coloured Areas Act, Act No 31 of 1961 Urban Bantu Councils Act, Act No 79 of 1961Terrorism Act of 1967 Bantu Homelands Citizens Act of 1970 The Population Registration Act of 1950 The Immorality Act of 1950 and the Mixed Marriages Act of 1949, The Group act of 1950 The Bantu Authorities Act of 1951 The Pass Laws Act of 1952
ACTS In 1950, the Population Registration Act required that all South Africans be racially classified into one of three categories: white, black (African), or colored (of mixed decent). The coloured category included major subgroups of Indians and Asians. Classification into these categories was based on appearance, social acceptance, and descent. The Department of Home Affairs (a government bureau) was responsible for the classification of the citizenry Under the Immorality Act of 1950 and the Mixed Marriages Act of 1949, marrying a person of a different race was illegal. In addition, with the enactment of the Immorality Amendment Act of 1957, showing or even having intentions to have any type of relationship between members of a different race became a crime.
More acts Group act of 1950-Forced separation between races through the creation of residential areas designated for certain races. The Bantu Authorities Act of 1951 established a basis for ethnic government in African reserves, known as ``homelands.&apos;&apos; These homelands were independent states to which each African was assigned by the government according to the record of origin (which was frequently inaccurate). All political rights, including voting, held by an African were restricted to the designated homeland. The idea was that they would be citizens of the homeland, losing their citizenship in South Africa The Pass Laws Act of 1952 required black South Africans over the age of 16 to carry a pass book, known as a dompas, everywhere and at all times. The dompas was similar to a passport, but it contained more pages filled with more extensive information than a normal passport. Within the pages of an individual&apos;s dompas was their fingerprints, photograph, personal details of employment, permission from the government to be in a particular part of the country, qualifications to work or seek work in the area, and an employer&apos;s reports on worker performance and behavior.
Nelson Born- Nelson Mandela was born in Umtata, South Africa on July 18, 1918. Life- When Nelson was a boy his father died, and one of his relatives took custody of him. He went boarding school then returned to South Africa to go to Fort Hare Missionary College. He was then expelled from the school for striking against the white colonial rule at the institution. He later than went to the University of South Africa and graduated with a degree in Law. Nelson then persuaded the ANC into strikes and boycotts against the government, Nelson was then arrested for civil disobedience and was banned to go to gatherings. Occupation-Nelson Mandela was a Lawyer, political activist, and government official. He Joined African National Congress, in 1944 also became secretary and president of the Congress Youth League and president of the Youth League in 1951-52. became head of ANC paramilitary wing Uhmkhunto we Sizwe, 1961. Incarcerated in various penal institutions in South Africa, including Robben Island and Pollsmoor prison, 1962-90. Elected ANC president, in 1991 AND president of South Africa, 1994-99. Prison-Because of Mandela encouraging and persuading his people to strike against the laws and him leaving the country illegally without a “pass” he was sent to prison in 1962 at Robben Island, Mandela had few rations and privileges there, he was originally sentenced for life but actually spent 27 years for good behavior and was released on February 11, 1990. TELL DEFINITION OF “PASS”.
Presidency 1994- April 24, 1994 there are free elections where Blacks in South Africa are allowed to vote for the first time, therefore Mandela runs for president. The ANC (African National Congress) won 252 of 400 seats in National assembly. In May he is then inaugurated as the first Black president in South Africa. 1995-South Africa hosts the 1995 Rugby World Cup and South Africa wins, Mandela wears a Springbok shirt when he presents the trophy to the rugby captain Francois Pienaar. Nelson’s gesture was seen as a major step in the reconciliation of white and black South Africans. 1999- Mandela steps down from presidency after one term. He had stepped down because of his old age and knew South Africa needed a YOUNGER leader.
Vorster Born-Death- B.J. Vorster real name (Balthazar Johannes Vorster) was born on December 13, 1915 and died on September 10, 1983. President- B.J. was the 4th state president of South Africa and served from 1978-79 . Prime Minister-B.J. Vorster was prime minister for 12 years at Zuid Africa. Because of his intelligence he was made prime minister in 1961 and was given the portfolio of justice and social welfare and pensions.
LIFE DURING TIME Almost every aspect of their lives changed once the apartheid started. All the blacks and coloureds lost their right to vote in 1950 They were all required to be racialy classified like They were forced to separate into homelands so that the whites wouldn’t have to be with or near them
SOCIETY CHANGE There were lots of jobs that were white only making it hard for other races to get jobs. Also whites became the only ones that could vote. Giving them all the power in who is in charge. If you wanted to get married to someone they had to be the same race that you were classified as
Answer 1 When did the apartheid start/end? It started 1948 and ended in 1994
Answer 2 Who is Nelson Mandela, and why was he important He is an African president that helped end the apartheid and the segregation during it.
Answer 3 Why did the apartheid start? Because the first white settlers thought that segregation was the only way to keep power over the blacks and other africans.
Answer 4 Were there any disagreements There were a lot of disagreements between the people and the political people that were segregating everyone. It caused many, many riots and fights.
Answer 5 How were the peoples reaction The people’s reaction was a lot of protesting against it which actually helped cause the apartheid to end. eople’s reaction
By Jared Stark, Joshua Gibbs, Ellis Cook, and Nathan
1. When did the apartheid start/end?
2. Who is Nelson Mandela, and why
was he important?
3. Why did the apartheid start?
4. Were there any disagreements?
5. How were the people’s reaction?
A legal racially segregated system of
Enforced by the National Party government in
Ruled by whites, discrimination against blacks,
Indians, and coloreds
• First white settlers pretty mean
• Most funded by institutions or royalty
• Thought that they could take the land
• “If you are bigger and stronger, you take what's
• Natives started realizing what's up
• Whites decided segregation was answer
• Thus apartheid born
Hard to get work
Turned to crime
Bad living conditions
Court-like restorative justice
First of 19 others like TRC
Believed to be successful
Based in Cape Town
Prohibition of Mixed Marriages Act
African women, no rights
Sports under apartheid
Classified into three
White, black, and
A government bureau
Illegal to marry
Later became illegal
to have any
someone of another
race at all
Forced separation between racesForced separation between races
Gave the different racesGave the different races
Each homeland was independentEach homeland was independent
Lost there right to vote and lostLost there right to vote and lost
citizenship in south Africacitizenship in south Africa
Had to carry a dompas if the ageHad to carry a dompas if the age
of 16 and upof 16 and up
Required to take it wherever youRequired to take it wherever you
Similar to a passport but had moreSimilar to a passport but had more
“Education is the most powerful weapon which
you can use to change the world.”
“In my country we go to prison first and then
“Let freedom reign.The sun never set on so
glorious a human achievement.“
He is an African president that helped end
the apartheid and the segregation during
Because the first white settlers thought that
segregation was the only way to keep power
over the blacks and other Africans.
There were a lot of disagreements between
the people and the political people that were
segregating everyone. It caused many, many
riots and fights.
The people’s reaction was a lot of protesting
against it which actually helped cause the
apartheid to end.
Nelson Mandela: a life in photographs by: David Cohen and John D. Battersby
Mandela: A Critical Life by: Tom Lodge
The rise, fall, and legacy of apartheid by: P. Eric Louw