WHAT IS APARTHEID? System of racial segregation in South Africa. Lasted from 1948-1994 Created to keep economical and political power with people of English descent/heritage
APARTHEID CONT. In 1948, South Africa had a new government, the National Party Elected by a small majority in a whites-only election, its victory followed a steady increase in black migration to the countrys towns This migration had led to a fear of black domination among the minority whites - the Afrikaners, and the English-speaking community, mainly of British descent
THE BIRTH OF APARTHEID They created a system calledThe white-controlled APARTHEID, which was government of South Africa designed to separate South created laws to keep land African society into groups and wealth in the hands of based on race: whites, blacks, whites. Coloureds, and Asians.
GOVERNMENT ACTIONS TO ENFORCEAPARTHEID● Native Land Act of 1913 and 1936 required Blacks, Coloreds, and Asians live on a small percentage of the land● Prohibition of Mixed Marriages Act of 1949 made illegal marriage in between races● Population Registration Act of 1950 required that each citizen of South Africa be registered by their race● Pass Laws Act of 1952 required that all Blacks, Asians, and Coloreds carry a passbook at all times● Bantu Education Act of 1953 required that only concepts that would be used in allowed jobs would be taught● Separate Amenities Act of 1953 legalized racial segregation of public areas● Criminal Law Amendment Act of 1953 made harsher punishments legal for nonwhites (i.e. corporal punishment for shoplifting)● Native Labor Act of 1953 banned Africans from going on strike
THE IMPACT OF APARTHEIDIt forced blacks to move to poor rural areas called HOMELANDS.Blacks could not vote.Blacks were kept in low-paying jobs.Blacks were put in poor schools.Blacks had to carry identification.Separate schools, restaurants, and hospitals were created for whites and blacks.
IMPACTS OF APARTHEIDThe Bantu Homelands Citizenship Act of 1970 “Made every black South African a citizen of one of the homelands, effectively excluding blacks from South African politics” The land was not desirable and lacked resources A lot of people fought to stop the cruelty of apartheid – people who opposed apartheid were often met with brutality
THE IMPACT OF APARTHEID Prohibition of Mixed Marriages Act, Act No 55 of 1949 prohibited marriages between white people and people of other races. Population Registration Act, Act No 30 of 1950 led to the creation of a national register in which every persons race was recorded. Group Areas Act, Act No 41 of 1950 forced physical separation between races by creating different residential areas for different races Extension of University Education Act, Act 45 of 1959 put an end to black students attending white universities
IMPACTS OF APARTHEID1970s- 1980s Civil unrest, Black protesters are killed insanctions imposed on South an uprising in SowetoAfrica, forced resettlementprocess and Township revolts.More than 3 million peopleforcibly resettled in blackhomelands’
IMPACTS OFAPARTHEID With the enactment of apartheid laws in 1948, racial discrimination was institutionalized In 1950, the Population Registration Act required that all South Africans be racially classified into one of three categories: white, black (African), or colored (of mixed decent) The colored category included major subgroups of Indians and Asians Classification into these categories was based on appearance, social acceptance, and descent
IMPACTS OF APARTHEID For example, a white person was defined as “in appearance obviously a white person or generally accepted as a white person” A person could not be considered white if one of his or her parents were non-white The determination that a person was “obviously white” would take into account “his habits, education, and speech and deportment and demeanor„” A black person would be of or accepted as a member of an African tribe or race, and a colored person was one that was not black or white The Department of Home Affairs (a government bureau) was responsible for the classification of the citizenry
BELIEF OF APARTHEID The systems chief objective was to deny non-whites the fruits of supposedly white labors: commerce and industry Hendrick Verwoerd, South Africas president in the 1950s and 1960s, said: " ... the white man, therefore, not only has an undoubted stake in - and right to - the land which he developed into a modern industrial state from denuded grassland and empty valleys and mountains. But - according to all the principles of morality - it was his, is his, and must remain his" Of course, many individuals saw it differently They believed that it was indeed African labor that contributed to the rise of a modern industrial state
QUOTE FROM CHEGUEVARA"We speak out to put the world on guard against what is happening in South Africa. The brutal policy of apartheid is applied before the eyes of the nations of the world. The peoples of Africa are compelled to endure the fact that on the African continent the superiority of one race over another remains official policy, and that in the name of this racial superiority murder is committed with impunity. Can the United Nations do nothing to stop this?"
SIGNIFICANCE OF APARTHEID Apartheid sparked significant internal resistance and violence against South Africa. Since the 1950s, a series of popular protests were met with the banning of opposition and imprisoning of anti- apartheid leaders. As unrest became more violent, state. organisations responded with increasing repression and state- violence.
REINFORCEMENT OF APARTHEIDReforms to apartheid in the 1980s failed and in 1990 President Frederick Willem de Klerk began negotiations to end apartheid, culminating the multi-racial democratic elections in 1994, which were won by the African National Congress under Nelson Mandela. Poster that shows the inequality.Apartheid still exist in South African politics and society.
END OF APARTHEID● Became leader of ANC in 1961● Not 100% peaceful – he was in armed branch of ANC● Goes underground in 1961● Arrested in 1962● Released in 1990, made anti-apartheid speech on release date● Awarded Nobel Peace Prize in 1993● Becomes president of South Africa in 1994
END OF APARTHEID Apartheid caused violence and a trade embargo that hurt South Africa Protests, uprisings, and violence helped end apartheid In 1990, Frederick Willem de Klerk, President, began talks to end apartheid In 1994, Nelson Mandela became president of South Africa
END OF APARTHEID In 1994, free elections resulted in the ANC‟s victory and Mandela became the country‟s president But to fully appreciate the profound change that South Africa experienced with the end of the apartheid era and the beginning of an era of greater equality, it is important to delve more fully into the history of the region and the development of and then resistance to the apartheid system