Development Administration chapter 3 (UNPAS 2012)
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Development Administration chapter 3 (UNPAS 2012)

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Development Administration chapter 3 (UNPAS 2012) Development Administration chapter 3 (UNPAS 2012) Presentation Transcript

  • Prof. Ginandjar Kartasasmita Program Doktor Bidang Ilmu Sosial Universitas Pasundan Bandung 2012
  • PERIOD OF ORTHODOXY SCIENTIFIC MANAGEMENT BUREAUCRACY PARADIGM 1: POLITICS/ADMINISTRATION POSDCORB DICHOTOMY, 1900 – 1926 ADMINISTRATIVE RESPONSIBILITY PARADIGM 2: PUBLIC INTEREST THE PRINCIPLES OF ADMINISTRATION, 1926 – ADMINISTRATIVE BEHAVIOR 1937 POST WORLD WAR II PARADIGM 3: PUBLIC ADMINISTRATION AS A MODERN BUREAUCRACY STATE POLITICAL SCIENCE, 1950 – 1970 POLITICAL DIMENSION OFEVOLUTION OF ADMINISTATIVE STATE PARADIGMS PARADIGM 4: PUBLIC ADMINISTRATION AS PUBLIC MANAGEMENT MANAGEMENT, 1956 – 1970 ADMINISTRATIVE SCIENCE GENERIC MANAGEMENT PARADIGM 5: PUBLIC ADMINISTRATION AS PUBLIC ADMINISTRATION: 1970 TECHNO BUREAUCRATIC DIMENSION NEW PUBLIC ADMINISTRATION PARADIGM 6: FROM GOVERNMENT TO REINVENTING GOVERNMENT GOVERNANCE: 1990 - NEW PUBLIC MANAGEMENT THE FUTURE (?) NEW PUBLIC SERVICE DIGITAL (e) GOVERNANCE POST MODERNISMS3-Unpas_2012 www.ginandjar.com 2
  • THE BEGINNINGWOODROW WILSONS FAMOUS 1887 ESSAY THE STUDY OF ADMINISTRATION.THE PUBLICATION OF WILSON’S ESSAY IS GENERALLY REGARDED AS THE BEGINNING OF PUBLIC ADMINISTRATION AS ASPECIFIC FIELD OF STUDY.S3-Unpas_2012 www.ginandjar.com 3
  • PARADIGM 1:POLITICS/ADMINISTRATION DICHOTOMY, 1900-1926  AN EXAMINATION OF THE POLITICS-ADMINISTRATION DICHOTOMY WAS OFFERED BY FRANK J. GOODNOW IN HIS BOOK, POLITICS AND ADMINISTRATION (1900).  TO GOODNOW, MODERN ADMINISTRATION PRESENTED A NUMBER OF DILEMMAS INVOLVING POLITICAL AND ADMINISTRATIVE FUNCTIONS THAT HAD NOW SUPPLANTED THE TRADITIONAL CONCERN WITH THE SEPARATION OF POWERS AMONG THE VARIOUS BRANCHES OF GOVERNMENT. S3-Unpas_2012 www.ginandjar.com 4
  • PARADIGM 2:THE PRINCIPLES OF ADMINISTRATION,1926 – 1937  AFTER WORLD WAR I PUBLIC ADMINISTRATION CHANGED INEXORABLY.  THE UNITED STATES AND WESTERN EUROPE WERE CHANGING FROM A RURAL AGRICULTURAL SOCIETY TO AN URBAN INDUSTRIAL NATION.  THIS REQUIRED A CONSIDERABLE RESPONSE FROM PUBLIC ADMINISTRATION BECAUSE SO MANY NEW FUNCTIONS AND PROGRAMMES WOULD BE ESTABLISHED. S3-Unpas_2012 www.ginandjar.com 5
  • SCIENTIFIC MANAGEMENT AT ABOUT THE SAME TIME WOODROW WILSON WAS CALLING FOR A SCIENCE OF MANAGEMENT, FREDERICK W. TAYLOR WAS INDEPENDENTLY CONDUCTING SOME OF HIS FIRST EXPERIMENTS IN A PHILADELPHIA STEEL PLANT. TAYLOR, GENERALLY CONSIDERED THE FATHER OF SCIENTIFIC MANAGEMENT PIONEERED THE DEVELOPMENT OF TIME AND MOTION STUDIES. HE WROTE THE RESULTS OF HIS STUDIES IN 1911 IN THE PRINCIPLES OF SCIENTIFIC MANAGEMENT. S3-Unpas_2012 www.ginandjar.com 6
  •  UNDER THE INFLUENCE OF THE SCIENTIFIC MANAGEMENT MOVEMENT, PUBLIC ADMINISTRATION BECAME INCREASINGLY CONCERNED WITH UNDERSTANDING BUREAUCRATIC FORMS OF ORGANIZATION. THE DIVISION OF LABOR; SPAN OF CONTROL; ORGANIZATIONAL HIERARCHY AND CHAIN OF COMMAND; REPORTING SYSTEMS; DEPARTMENTALIZATION; AND THE DEVELOPMENT OF STANDARD OPERATING RULES, POLICIES, AND PROCEDURES BECAME CRITICAL CONCERNS TO SCHOLARS AND PRACTITIONERS IN THE FIELD.S3-Unpas_2012 www.ginandjar.com 7
  • POSDCORB  IN 1937, LUTHER GULICKS AND LYNDALL URWICK EDITED A COLLECTION: PAPERS ON THE SCIENCE OF ADMINISTRATION. OVERALL, THE PAPERS WERE A STATEMENT OF THE STATE OF THE ART OF ORGANIZATION THEORY.  IT WAS HERE THAT GULLICK INTRODUCED HIS FAMOUS MNEMONIC, POSDCORB WHICH STANDS FOR THE SEVEN MAJOR FUNCTIONS OF MANAGEMENT- PLANNING, ORGANIZING, STAFFING, DIRECTING, COORDINATING, REPORTING, AND BUDGETING.S3-Unpas_2012 www.ginandjar.com 8
  • WEBER’S IDEAL TYPE BUREAUCRACY (1922)1. BUREAUCRACY IS BASED UPON RULES WHICH ARE ACCEPTED (IN BOARD TERMS) BY THE MEMBERS OF THE ORGANIZATION.2. BUREAUCRACY IS RELATIVELY COUNTINUOUS IN ITS OPERATION.3. THE SPHERES OF COMPETENCE OF BUREAUCRATIC ADMINISTRATION ARE SPECIFIED.4. BUREAUCRACY IS BASED UPON THE IDEA OF HIERARCHY.5. THE OFFICIALS ARE TRAINED SO THAT THE STRUCTURES CAN FUNCTION IN THE WAYS INTENDED.S3-Unpas_2012 www.ginandjar.com 9
  • 6. OFFICIALS IN BUREAUCRACY ARE NOT THEMSELVES OWNERS OF THE MEANS OF PRODUCTIONS.7. OFFICIALS DO NOT ‘OWN’ THEIR JOBS, THAT IS, THE JOB ITSELF BELONGS TO THE ORGANIZATION, NOT TO THE INDIVIDUAL WHO HAPPENS TO BE OCCUPYING IT.8. THE SUCCESSFUL AND COUNTINUING OPERATION OF BUREAUCRACY DEPENDS TO A LARGE EXTENT UPON WRITTEN RECORD.S3-Unpas_2012 www.ginandjar.com 10
  • CHARACTERISTICS OF WEBERIAN BUREAUCRACY:  IMPERSONAL  FORMALISTIC  RULE-BOUND  HIGHLY DISCIPLINED (ROSENBLOOM & KRAVCHUCK, 2005)S3-Unpas_2012 www.ginandjar.com 11
  • ORGANIZATIONAL BEHAVIOR  ABRAHAM H. MASLOW (1908-1970), A PSYCHOLOGIST, TOOK THE BASIC HAWTHORNE FINDING THAT WORKERS ARE AS MUCH SOCIAL AS ECONOMIC CREATURES A STEP FURTHER WHEN HE FIRST PROPOSED HIS FAMOUS "NEEDS HIERARCHY" IN HIS 1943 PSYCHOLOGICAL REVIEW ARTICLE, “A THEORY OF HUMAN MOTIVATION. “S3-Unpas_2012 www.ginandjar.com 12
  • ADMINISTRATIVE RESPONSIBILITY DURING THIS FORMATIVE PERIOD OF PUBLIC ADMINISTRATION, MOST OF THE FOCUS WAS ON INTERNAL ISSUES: MANAGEMENT PRACTICES AND PROBLEMS; ORGANIZATIONAL BEHAVIOR AND STRUCTURES; AND BUDGETING AND PERSONNEL ISSUES. HOWEVER, THERE WAS ALSO ONGOING A PROFOUND DISCUSSION, OVER EXTERNAL ISSUES-SPECIFICALLY THE CONCEPT OF ADMINISTRATIVE RESPONSIBILITY. BASICALLY THE ISSUES INVOLVED WERE HOW CAN WE ENSURE THAT GOVERNMENTAL ADMINISTRATION, IN PURSUIT OF BEING RESPONSIVE TO INTEREST GROUPS, EXECUTIVE AND LEGISLATIVE FORCES, AND CONSTITUENCIES, WILL ACT LEGALLY AND RESPONSIBLY?S3-Unpas_2012 www.ginandjar.com 13
  • PUBLIC INTEREST BUT THE CLASSIC OVERVIEW OF THIS PROBLEM OF ADMINISTRATIVE RESPONSIBILITY AND ACCOUNTABILITY CAME FROM E. PENDLETON HERRINGS BOOK PUBIC ADMINISTRATION AND THE PUBLIC INTEREST (1937). HERRING EXAMINED THE PROBLEMS POSED BY THE DRAMATIC INCREASE IN THE SCOPE OF GOVERNMENT AND THE INFLUENCE OF ADMINISTRATIVE DISCRETION. HE ACCEPTED THAT LAWS PASSED BY LEGISLATURES, INSTITUTIONS DESIGNED FOR COMPROMISE, WERE NECESSARILY THE PRODUCTS OF LEGISLATIVE COMPROMISE AND THUS OFTEN SO VAGUE THAT THEY WERE IN NEED OF FURTHER DEFINITION. S3-Unpas_2012 www.ginandjar.com 14
  • ADMINISTRATIVE BEHAVIOR PERHAPS THE MOST SIGNIFICANT LANDMARK IN THE PUBLIC ADMINISTRATION WORLD OF THE 1940s WAS HERBERT SIMONS. HE URGED THAT A TRUE SCIENTIFIC METHOD BE USED IN THE STUDY OF ADMINISTRATIVE PHENOMENA, THAT THE PERSPECTIVE OF LOGICAL POSITIVISM BE USED IN DEALING WITH QUESTIONS OF POLICY MAKING, AND THAT DECISION MAKING IS THE TRUE HEART OF ADMINISTRATION. S3-Unpas_2012 www.ginandjar.com 15
  • PARADIGM 3:PUBLIC ADMINISTRATION AS A POLITICAL SCIENCE,1950-1970  BY THE END OF THE SECOND WORLD WAR, PUBLIC ADMINISTRATION IN THE U.S. AND OTHER WESTERN COUNTRIES HAD BEEN TRANSFORMED INTO A MODERN BUREAUCRATIC STATE.  BUT THE PRINCIPLES OF ADMINISTRATION AS ESPOUSED BY SCIENTIFIC MANAGEMENT PROVED TO BE INCREASINGLY INADEQUATE WHEN GAUGED AGAINST THE SIZE AND COMPLEXITY OF MODERN GOVERNMENTS.  IN THE POSTWAR PERIOD, NEW CHALLENGES TO THE TRADITIONAL THEMES OF ADMINISTRATION PREVAILED.  MOST PROMINENT WERE THE FAMILIAR ISSUES OF THE NATURE AND EFFECTS OF BUREAUCRATIC ORGANIZATIONS AND THE POLITICAL DIMENSIONS OF THE NEW ADMINISTRATIVE STATE. S3-Unpas_2012 www.ginandjar.com 16
  • PARADIGM 4:PUBLIC ADMINISTRATION AS MANAGEMENT,1956-1970  PARTLY BECAUSE OF THEIR SECOND-CLASS CITIZENSHIP STATUS IN A NUMBER OF POLITICAL SCIENCE DEPARTMENT OF UNIVERSITIES, SOME PUBLIC ADMINISTRATIONISTS BEGAN SEARCHING FOR AN ALTERNATIVE.  THE MANAGEMENT OPTION —WHICH SOMETIMES IS CALLED "ADMINISTRATIVE SCIENCE" OR "GENERIC MANAGEMENT“— WAS A VIABLE ALTERNATIVE FOR A SIGNIFICANT NUMBER OF SCHOLARS IN PUBLIC ADMINISTRATION. S3-Unpas_2012 www.ginandjar.com 17
  • PARADIGM 5:PUBLIC ADMINISTRATION AS PUBLICADMINISTRATION: 1970 – IMPORTANT INTELLECTUAL DEVELOPMENTS OCCURRED IN THE STUDY OF PUBLIC ADMINISTRATION HAD THE EFFECT OF ENCOURAGING PUBLIC ADMINISTRATION SCHOLARS TO RE­CONSIDER THEIR LINKAGES WITH POLITICAL SCIENCE. THE FIRST, WAS THE EMERGENCE OF SCIENCE, TECHNOLOGY AND PUBLIC POLICY. THESE PROGRAM WERE THE INTELLECTUAL FORERUNNERS OF A LATER AND DEEPER SCHOLARLY INTEREST IN THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN KNOWLEDGE AND POWER, BUREAUCRACY AND DEMOCRACY, TECHNOLOGY AND MANAGEMENT, AND RELATED TECHNOBUREAUCRATIC DIMENSIONS. S3-Unpas_2012 www.ginandjar.com 18
  • SECOND, THE RETURN OF PUBLIC ADMINISTRATION AS AN INDEPENDENT FIELD OF STUDY HAS BEEN STRENGTHENED BY THE DEVELOPMENT OF NEW THINKING IN THE FIELD, GIVING NEW MEANING, DIRECTION AND PURPOSE IN THE STUDY OF PUBLIC ADMINISTRATION AS WELL AS IN ITS PRACTICAL APLICATION, SUCH AS: NEW PUBLIC ADMINISTRATION, REINVENTING GOVERNMENT, NEW PUBLIC MANAGEMENT, NEW PUBLIC SERVICE.S3-Unpas_2012 www.ginandjar.com 19
  • PARADIGM 6:FROM GOVERNMENT TO GOVERNANCE  ETYMOLOGICALLY, GOVERNANCE CAN BE TRACED BACK TO THE GREEK VERB KUBERNÂN (TO PILOT OR STEER) AND WAS USED BY PLATO WITH REGARD TO HOW TO DESIGN A SYSTEM OF RULE. THE GREEK TERM GAVE RISE TO THE MEDIEVAL LATIN GUBEMARC, WHICH HAS THE SAME CONNOTATION OF PILOTING RULE-MAKING OR STEERING. S3-Unpas_2012 www.ginandjar.com 20
  •  WHY GOVERNANCE, AND NOT MERELY GOVERNMENT? GOVERNANCE IS A BROADER AND MORE FUNDAMENTAL CONCEPT THAN THAT OF GOVERNMENT ALONE. THE CONCERN IS WITH THE LINKS BETWEEN PARTS OF THE POLITICAL SYSTEM AS WITH THE INSTITUTIONS THEMSELVES. PROBLEM OF MODERN GOVERNANCE IS NOT SO MUCH AN INSUFFICIENCY OF INSTRUMENTS RELATIVE TO THE CHANGING ON OBJECTIVES, BUT RATHER THE DEGREE OF INCOMPATIBILITY BETWEEN OBJECTIVES .S3-Unpas_2012 www.ginandjar.com 21