UNCCD 2nd Scientific Conference, 9-12 April 2013, Bonn, GermanyTowards improved decision-makingin degraded drylands of sou...
INTRODUCTION                        UNCCD 2nd Scientific Conference 2013       STUDY SITEThe Kalahari case studyin the Mie...
Kalahari rangelands              Unpredictable climate,            little farm infrastructure,                 inadequate ...
INTRODUCTION                                                         UNCCD 2nd Scientific Conference 2013      STUDY AIMSt...
INTRODUCTION                                   UNCCD 2nd Scientific Conference 2013     THE FRAMEWORKThe PRACTICE approach...
IAPro Step 1                                            UNCCD 2nd Scientific Conference 2013THE STAKEHOLDERS       IAPro S...
IAPro Step 1                                                         UNCCD 2nd Scientific Conference 2013     THE STAKEHOL...
IAPro Step 1                                                         UNCCD 2nd Scientific Conference 2013     THE STAKEHOL...
IAPro Step 2                                             UNCCD 2nd Scientific Conference 2013ACTIONS & INDICATORS      IAP...
IAPro Step 2                                                      UNCCD 2nd Scientific Conference 2013ACTIONS & INDICATORS...
IAPro Step 2                                                              UNCCD 2nd Scientific Conference 2013   ACTIONS &...
IAPro Step 3                               UNCCD 2nd Scientific Conference 2013INDICATOR WEIGHTING       IAPro Step 3:    ...
IAPro Step 3                                             UNCCD 2nd Scientific Conference 2013INDICATOR WEIGHTING          ...
IAPro Step 3                                                            UNCCD 2nd Scientific Conference 2013       INDICAT...
IAPro Step 4                                  UNCCD 2nd Scientific Conference 2013INDICATOR QUANTIFICATION       IAPro Ste...
IAPro Step 4                                                                                                UNCCD 2nd Scie...
IAPro Step 5                                                  UNCCD 2nd Scientific Conference 2013MCDA       IAPro Step 5:...
IAPro Step 5                                                          UNCCD 2nd Scientific Conference 2013       MCDAMulti...
IAPro Step 6                                         UNCCD 2nd Scientific Conference 2013FINAL RE-EVALUATION       IAPro S...
IAPro Step 6                                                                        UNCCD 2nd Scientific Conference 2013  ...
IAPro Step 1-6                                                           UNCCD 2nd Scientific Conference 2013      CONCLUS...
IAPro Step 1-6                                                           UNCCD 2nd Scientific Conference 2013      CONCLUS...
IAPro Step 1-6                                                          UNCCD 2nd Scientific Conference 2013      CONCLUSI...
IAPro Step 1-6                                                          UNCCD 2nd Scientific Conference 2013      CONCLUSI...
UNCCD 2nd Scientific Conference 2013Thank you
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Niels DREBER "Towards improved decision-making in degraded drylands of southern Africa: an indicator based assessment for integrated evaluation of restoration and management actions in the Kalahari rangelands"

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Niels DREBER "Towards improved decision-making in degraded drylands of southern Africa: an indicator based assessment for integrated evaluation of restoration and management actions in the Kalahari rangelands"

  1. 1. UNCCD 2nd Scientific Conference, 9-12 April 2013, Bonn, GermanyTowards improved decision-makingin degraded drylands of southern Africa:an indicator based assessment for integrated evaluationof restoration and management actions in the Kalahari rangelandsN. Dreber, T.M. Kong, K. Kellner, A. van Eeden, A. Ocampo-Melgar
  2. 2. INTRODUCTION UNCCD 2nd Scientific Conference 2013 STUDY SITEThe Kalahari case studyin the Mier area • arid, SW-Kalahari basin • livestock farming & game ranching • small-holding to semi-commercial systems
  3. 3. Kalahari rangelands Unpredictable climate, little farm infrastructure, inadequate water availability, inflexibility in employing SLM resulted in widespread degradation of south-western Kalahari rangelands Degradation severely affected biodiversity and provisioning of essential ecosystem servicesLocal attempts to mitigate degradation shouldactively involve land-user at all levels of project planning, decision-making and execution Van Rooyen 1998, J Arid Env
  4. 4. INTRODUCTION UNCCD 2nd Scientific Conference 2013 STUDY AIMStudy aims:Towards improved decision-making for combating desertification(1) Identifying restoration and management actions applied by affected land-users(2) Evaluating the performance and acceptance of actions in an integrative way(3) Sharing results with a multi-stakeholder platform(4) Fostering the implementation of best practices in a locally contextualized manner
  5. 5. INTRODUCTION UNCCD 2nd Scientific Conference 2013 THE FRAMEWORKThe PRACTICE approach: • Filling the gap of systematic evaluation of LD & SLM actions • Linking science to society • Combining local (traditional) knowledge with scientific ex- pertise The 7 steps of the PRACTICE Integrated Assessment Protocol adapted from Bautista & Orr (2010) IAPro
  6. 6. IAPro Step 1 UNCCD 2nd Scientific Conference 2013THE STAKEHOLDERS IAPro Step 1: Identification of a multi-stakeholder platform
  7. 7. IAPro Step 1 UNCCD 2nd Scientific Conference 2013 THE STAKEHOLDERSStakeholder identificationthrough a local consultation process and chain referrals based on semi-structured interviewsChain referral scheme:
  8. 8. IAPro Step 1 UNCCD 2nd Scientific Conference 2013 THE STAKEHOLDERSStakeholder identificationthrough a local consultation process and chain referrals based on semi-structured interviews Multi-stakeholder platform formed by 28 stakeholders
  9. 9. IAPro Step 2 UNCCD 2nd Scientific Conference 2013ACTIONS & INDICATORS IAPro Step 2: Baseline evaluation of locally applied actions & site-specific indicator selection
  10. 10. IAPro Step 2 UNCCD 2nd Scientific Conference 2013ACTIONS & INDICATORS Action 1: Good management (rotational grazing & herding) Action 2: Shrub control (application of chemicals) Action 3: Dune stabilization (brush packing)
  11. 11. IAPro Step 2 UNCCD 2nd Scientific Conference 2013 ACTIONS & INDICATORSIndicator selection: Short-listing of indicator set Site-specific indicators Common science-based indicators relevant to farmers’ objectives & representing overall functioning of personal situation dryland ecosystems 30 ecological & socio-economic • provisioning services indicators • regulatory services • supporting services • cultural services Final set of 11 indicators short-listing criteria: • soil condition • animal condition • redundancy • shrub abundance • water availability • popularity • grass abundance • economic costs • uniqueness • grass diversity • personal well-being • data availability • biomass production • governmental help • data collectability • grazing capacity
  12. 12. IAPro Step 3 UNCCD 2nd Scientific Conference 2013INDICATOR WEIGHTING IAPro Step 3: Indicator ranking by stakeholders
  13. 13. IAPro Step 3 UNCCD 2nd Scientific Conference 2013INDICATOR WEIGHTING Relative importance of indicators iteration process with social learning effect Pack-of-Cards Method: 1. Ranking indicators as independent thinkers 2. Computation of collective weights 3. Re-ranking following group discussions and comparison with calculated collective weights
  14. 14. IAPro Step 3 UNCCD 2nd Scientific Conference 2013 INDICATOR WEIGHTINGIndicator weighting: how important for the evaluation of actions? Rank-shift: Indicator 1st 2nd Biodiversity: 11 5 Water availability 1 1 Grazing capacity: 8 3 Animal condition 4 2 Grass abundance: 3 8 Grazing capacity 8 3 Personal well-being 2 4 Biodiversity 11 5 Soil condition 5 6 Biomass production 6 7 Abundance grasses 3 8 Economic costs 7 9 Change in perception/ social learning effect Abundance woodies 10 10 Governmental help 9 11
  15. 15. IAPro Step 4 UNCCD 2nd Scientific Conference 2013INDICATOR QUANTIFICATION IAPro Step 4: Biophysical assessment of indicators
  16. 16. IAPro Step 4 UNCCD 2nd Scientific Conference 2013 INDICATOR QUANTIFICATION Categories Criteria Indicator Unit GM SC (proxy) good management shrub control Supporting services Soil fertility Soil condition % organic carbon 0.1 ± 0.02 0.2 ± 0.08 Regulating services Resource Grass abundance plants m-2 14.0 ± 3.9 25.7 ± 11.9 regeneration Ecosystem integrity Woody abundance rank* 1 ± 0.4 2 ± 0.7 Provisioning Grass phytomass Biomass production kg ha-1 2755.7 ± 374.1 2238.4 ± 343.5 services Forage production Grazing capacity** ha LSU-1 4.7 ± 1.4 4.4 ± 1.2 Meat production Animal condition rank* 1.2 ± 0.4 2.4 ± 1.0 Economy Water availability Water availability rank* 1.1 ± 0.25 2.1 ± 0.8 Labor & material Economic costs rank* 1.1 ± 0.3 2.3 ± 0.9 costs Sustainability Personal well-being rank* 1.1 ± 0.3 2.5 ± 1.0 Subsidies Governmental help rank* 1.9 ± 1.0 1.9 ± 1.4 Biodiversity Species diversity Grass diversity H 1.04 ± 0.2 0.9 ± 0.6*effect on action on the indicator as assessed by stakeholders (1 = affecting the most to 6 = no effect)**overestimated for Kalahari ecosystems; applied method needs to be adapted (relations remain the same)
  17. 17. IAPro Step 5 UNCCD 2nd Scientific Conference 2013MCDA IAPro Step 5: Integrating indicator weightings with biophysical assessments
  18. 18. IAPro Step 5 UNCCD 2nd Scientific Conference 2013 MCDAMulti-Criteria Decision Analysis: comparing alternative restoration and management actionsResults of outranking relationships based on:(1) relevancy (indicator relative importance representing SH perspectives)(2) performance (indicator quantification) Good Management vs. Shrub Control Indifferent: Weak preference for GM: Biodiversity Animal condition Economic costs Woody abundance Governmental help Water availability Personal wellbeing Strict preference for GM: Strict preference for SC: Grazing capacity Grass abundance Biomass production Soil condition
  19. 19. IAPro Step 6 UNCCD 2nd Scientific Conference 2013FINAL RE-EVALUATION IAPro Step 6: Collective integrated assessment of actions
  20. 20. IAPro Step 6 UNCCD 2nd Scientific Conference 2013 FINAL RE-EVALUATIONFinal re-evaluation based on indicator weighting, MCDA & group discussionsLeft: stakeholder rating of actions using a likert scale, right: responses to question if one would apply the action.
  21. 21. IAPro Step 1-6 UNCCD 2nd Scientific Conference 2013 CONCLUSIONS IAPro Step 1-6: Conclusions & lessons learnedGenerals:(1) IAPro is a promising framework for evaluating restoration and management actions(2) IAPro offers insights into the wealth of site-specific indicators(3) IAPro allows for a locally-contextualized assessment and evaluation process Indicators refer to local-scale needs, represent key ecosystem services and address both ecological and socio-economic issuesSocial learning & acceptance:(1) The participatory environment furthers a more diversified understanding(2) The exchange among stakeholders creates opportunities for co-operative actions for the benefit of the local farming community Being better informed allow to adapt more effectively, being part of the evaluation process increases acceptance of results
  22. 22. IAPro Step 1-6 UNCCD 2nd Scientific Conference 2013 CONCLUSIONS IAPro Step 1-6: Conclusions & lessons learnedChallenges:(1) Location: huge distances may result in low participation rates at critical participatory steps(2) Temporal environmental heterogeneity: remote location + distances + time- & budget- constraints hampers timing and frequency of data collection(3) Spatial environmental heterogeneity: preferential sampling approach used for indicator quantification may hamper the identification of suitable replicate sites Project implementation and proper application depend on e.g. a stronger collaboration between Universities, local institutions and government (compromises might not be sufficient/ fall too short)
  23. 23. IAPro Step 1-6 UNCCD 2nd Scientific Conference 2013 CONCLUSIONS IAPro Step 1-6: Conclusions & lessons learnedChallenges:(1) Environmental awareness and implications differ depending on the socio-economic setting and farming objectives (e.g. commercial vs. communal ranching, farming with grazer vs. browser)(2) Applicability: lack of regulating local-level institutions, inappropriate governance structures and legal policy frameworks influence and constraint restoration actions and land management strategies Need for a land-use / -tenure stratification for improved local contextualization
  24. 24. IAPro Step 1-6 UNCCD 2nd Scientific Conference 2013 CONCLUSIONS IAPro Step 1-6: Conclusions & lessons learnedWay forward:(1) Testing the approach’s flexibility in coping with different social, economic and environmental contexts of the Kalahari(2) Coupling the assessment approach with local-level institutional mechanisms and structures adapted to the different land-tenure forms(3) Assure implementation, monitoring and long-term guidance backed by governmental help Please refer to the extended abstract for detailed descriptions of methods applied and outcomes, as well as further critical notes and policy recommendations.
  25. 25. UNCCD 2nd Scientific Conference 2013Thank you

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